Photography by Ranjan RaghuvirJoshi and its Photoshop interpretation !
Colour Study Part 2
COLOUR APPEARANCESFAITHFUL OR FALSE REPRODUCTION OF COLOURSAND CHALLENGE FOR COLOUR MANAGEMENTBYRANJAN RAGHUVIR JOSHI
Continuous and curious probingthrough the angles of Art andScience, the subject COLOURremains a psycho-physiologicalphenomenal experience.
Phenomena because certain things such ascolour appearance could not be rationalisedas a perfect science ofCOLOUR MANAGEMENT till today.Sir Issac Newton showed that…WHITE SUN RAYS BEAM when passedthrough the solid glass prism theRAINBOW or SPECTRUM can beexperienced by anybody the waySir Newton did it in 1666 A. D.
This treatise is an attempt to lookthrough the angle ofAesthetics, Science and Technology.This colour phenomena perhaps could berevealed to us through the said effort.
Here is an attempt to see the colourappearance through the world of VanGogh. Very few great painters- perhapsonly Leonardo-da-Vinci– have taken amore scientific approach to art. Theartist Seurat, his work of Pointillism iswell known. The law of Simultaneouscontrast of colours by the French manMichel-Eugene Chevreul is well known.
Notice the following visual detailsin the painting the dot formation ofcolours which creates an illusion ofcolour mixing.The work of Pointillism by Artist Seuratwere based on optical mixture such asto produce green it is not necessary toblend yellow and blue pigments on apalette. The same effect, or nearer it,can be obtained by stippling by manytiny, separated spots of yellow andblue on a canvas and permitting theeye to make its own mixture.
Vincent probablylearned Seurat’stheories not fromthe artist himselfbut from Signac,who was Seurat’sfriend and theman mostresponsible forarticulating histheories.
Vincent Van Gogh could be the bestcase study in order to understand thecolour appearancesand the colour management.
Famous Indian Artist Shri N.S, Bendre who practiced pointillism
ART- for absorption of the light rays by the object beingperceived by our eye- for reflection or refraction of the same light rays, and- for transmission of light rays in context to object beingperceived.
In short this word ‘ART’ is nothingbut a science of colour.Physics, chemistry, physiology, psychophysicsand psychology all in one.Psychology because it is our brainthat interprets the light signals and givesthe experience of colour reality.
Perception and realityis all connected with the game ofthe optical illusion.
1. Colour change by JuxtapositionThis is placing two colours side by sideto produce the effect of a desired colour.A single colour seen independently mayshow a particular hue or tonal value, butthe same colour if seen in relation withanother colour may appear different.This is called the apparent change ofcolour by JUXTAPOSITION. Even aneutral grey will appear to be tinged withthe complementary of the backgroundcolour. The hue of a colour is changedthis way.
A particular tone ofa colour will bechanged apparentlywhen seen againsta dark background.The colour appearslighter against adark backgroundand dark against alighter background.A grey will appeardarker against whitebackground andlighter against blackbackground.
2. Colour change by Spreading EffectThis is exactly opposite of colour seenagainst contrasting backgrounds. Acolour seen against black backgroundappears brighter than the original colour.The black appears to be added visuallyin order to give appearance of moreintense colour. The same colour whenseen against white background appearsless saturated as if white has beenadded visually to make it lighter tone.
Striped, oil with sand on canvas, 1934.Fined-grained painted sand adds texture to the painting.Here geometric shapes gives way to freer forms glowingcolours. Rectangular zones contrast with the overlyingcurving biomorphic forms of surrealism.Artist: WISSILY KANDINSKY .The Soloman R. Guggenheim Museum, New York.Ref: Typographic Communications Todayby: Edward M. GottschallFirst MIT PRESS EDITION _ 1989ISBN O – 262 – 07114 - 2
3. Colour change due toSimultaneous ContrastWhen two or more colours areseen simultaneously, i.e. at thesame time, appearance of colouris changed which is calledSIMULTANEOUSCONTRAST.It is governed by two types ofchanges - change of hue as wellas tone.
4. Colour change due toSuccessive ContrastAn artist paints a picture byselecting certain sequence ofcolours. He does it with asubconscious mind. With hisintuition and experience he makeshis colour selection. When this pattern is seen byanybody, the most attractive partis observed first and then his gazeis transferred to another part ofthe design.
5. Colour change due to ViewingDistanceTwo or more colours, if seen froma distance of 10 feet or more willlook different as compared to viewfrom a shorter distance.
“True to Life” was a guiding principle of the 19thcentury painters who studied nature carefully soas to render it realistically, yet romantically andoften dramatically, as in Salisbury Cathedralfrom the Bishop’s Garden by the Artist: JOHNCONSTABLE.Constable painted his landscapes on the site,not by synthesizing idealised bits and imaginedscenes in a studio as some predecessors haddone.From the Metropolitan Museum of Art, BequestStillman Harkness (50.145.8)
Extreme Right TWO PANITINGS:Impression of Colour add new dimension torepresentational paintings by Monet, Renoir, Pissaro andothers. Monet painted 26 versions, for example, of theRouen Cathedral at different times of day and conditions ofsunlight, adding to each his personal vision on the light andcolour. He painted more than 100 versions of the Lily pondin his garden. HERE ARE TWO VARIATIONS OF THESAME SCENE BY CLAUDE MONET. The Manneport,Etretat, I and The Manneport, Etretat II. Both are from theMetropolitan Museum of Art. No.1 is from the Bequest ofWilliam Church Osborn, 1951(51.30.5) and No.2 is fromthe Bequest of Lillie P. Bliss, 1931(31.67.11). For theRouen Cathedral Monet sometimes worked simultaneouslyon 6 to 14 canvases to catch the CHANGING LIGHT.
6. Colour change due to Size FactorWhen a picture is reduced or enlarged a change in theappearance of colours takes place. Proportion and size ofcolours are very important.A small patch of bright colour would look very attractive but ifthe same were enlarged, it would look over powering and killother colours too.
Astronomers observing stars using a theodolite,able to measure both vertical and horizontal distances,and consulting the Sanskrit texts on astronomy andtrigonometry know as the SIDDHANTAS.Artist unknown: ( INDIAN PAINTING)Ref: THEATARCHIVE – ARYBHATTATHE STORY OF MATHEMATICSBY RICHARD MANKIEWICS.A book gift to Ranjan R. Joshifrom: Mrs. Jamila Q. Varawalla.CASSELL & co. ISBN: 0 – 304 – 35473 - -2.
7. Colour change due to TextureThe appearance of colour will dependon the type of surface to which it isapplied. The surface could be smooth,glossy, matt, or rough. In each case,the same colour will look different.Rough texture when seen in normallight will show two tones, lighter toneof the raised surface and darker toneof the sunken surface. The samesurface when painted with somecolour will show the sunken areas aretinged with the complementary coloursand thus produce a rich colour in thewhole. Modern artists use differentmethods in applying colours to canvasor paper, to create a variety oftextures of the ground.
This is an attempt to understand thesubject with the art student’s workcarried out with the help of differentsurfaces, tools and medium.The outcome of these if analyzed onecan come close to the present subjectconcern.
Substrate colour affects image contrastand colours in the image
Original image on White background4 colourOriginal image on White backgroundSingle colour
Original image on Red background4 colourOriginal image on Red backgroundSingle colour
Original image on Yellow background4 colourOriginal image on Yellow backgroundSingle colour
Original image on Blue background4 colourOriginal image on Blue backgroundSingle colour
Original image on Orange background4 colourOriginal image on Orange backgroundSingle colour
Original image on Green background4 colourOriginal image on Green backgroundSingle colour
Original image on Purple background4 colourOriginal image on Purple backgroundSingle colour
Original image on Russet background4 colourOriginal image on Russet backgroundSingle colour
Original image on Citron background4 colourOriginal image on Citron backgroundSingle colour
Original image on Olive background4 colourOriginal image on Olive backgroundSingle colour
Original image on Buff background4 colourOriginal image on Buff backgroundSingle colour
Original image on Sage background4 colourOriginal image on Sage backgroundSingle colour
Original image on Plum background4 colourOriginal image on Plum backgroundSingle colour
Following frames are from the presentationby Deepak Ghare on perspectives in paintings.These frames are taken here to understandhow different artists depicted the source of light fallingon the surfaces thereby creating division ofshade and light as shadow patterns. No shadow isblack, because it is just absence of light. White Lightconsists all the colours but when they are seen in theshadow the colour variation takes place.This allows a lot of scope to study the colourmodulation in context to the colour management.
When I look atPrabhakar Kolte’s paintingsit make me relates to this actualexperience of morning sun rayswhich is unique.Reality and Abstractionsthat what I understand!Photographyby Ranjan RaghuvirJoshiand its Photoshop interpretation !
To understand colour the source of light,the object and the eyes of beholder areimportant. The source of light normallyconsidered from the sun, the object canbe anything from natural to manmade.This slide illustrates the basic division oflight in context to three factors mentionedabove. The colour management mustconsider the basic illustrated points givenherewith.
Notice the following visual details in the paintingHighlight The brightest light, where light from thesource fails most directly on the object.Cast Shadow The darkest shadow, caused by theobject’s blocking of light from the source.Reflected light A dim light, bounced back onto theobject by light falling on surfaces around the object.Crest Shadow A shadow that lies on the crest of a roundedform, between the highlight and the reflected light.Water colourpainting byan artist and colouristProf.R. P.Joshi.(12thMarch 1911-19thMay1987)
These are the paintings by young Indian artistDevdatta Padekar, taken here to discussAnd understand how an artist depicts the sourceOf light that has illuminated the landscapethereby allowing us to probe colour managementfrom the aesthetic angle.We will see in the next slide close-ups of certain portions.
The portions of thepaintings depicts the lightmodulation rendered byan artist subconsciouslytaking care of reflection,refraction, absorption andtransmission of the sunrays that are falling on thevarious surfaces.This allows one toobserve the artist’s colourpalette in context tocolour management.
The headlightsof an oncomingautomobile arenearly blindingat night, butbarelynoticeableduring the day.The change ofappearance ofoncomingheadlights can belargely explainedby the processesof light adaptationand described byWeber’s law.
As light growsdim, colours fadefrom view whileobjects remainreadily apparent.The fading ofcolour in dim lightwhile objectsremain clearlyvisible is explainedby the transitionfromTRICHROMATICcone vision tomonochromatic rodvision.
TRICHROMATIC cone vision: They recognised that theremust be three types of receptors, approximately sensitive toRED, GREEN and BLUE regions of the spectrum,respectively.TRICHROMATIC theory simply assumed that three imagesof the world were formed by these three sets of receptorsand then transmitted to the brain where ratios of the signalsin each of these images were compared in order to sort outcolour appearances.The TRICHROMATIC(three receptors) nature of colourvision was not in doubt, but the idea of these three imagesbeing transmitted to the brain is both inefficient and fails toexplain several visually observed phenomena: -- Maxwell,young & Helmholtz.
Stars disappearfrom sight duringthe daytime.The incrementalillumination of star on theday time, sky is not largeenough to be detected,while the same physicalincrement on the darkernight time sky is easilyperceived, because thevisual threshold toluminance incrementshas changed betweenthe two viewingconditions.
The walls of afreshly paintedroom appearsignificantlydifferent from thecolour of thesample that wasused to select thepaint in a hardwarestores.The paint chip doesn’tmatch the wall due tochanges in the size,surround and illuminationof the stimulus.
Artwork displayedin different colourmat board takeson a significantlydifferentappearance.Changes in the colour ofa surround orbackground profoundlyinfluence the appearanceof stimuli. This can beparticularly striking forphotographs and otherartworks.
Printouts ofimages do notmatch the originalsdisplayed on acomputer monitor.Assuming the computermonitor and printer areaccurately calibrated andcharacterised,differences in media,white point, luminancelevel, and surround canstill force the printedimage to looksignificantly differentfrom the original.
Scenes appearmore colourful andof lighter contraston a sunny day.The Hunt effect andStevens effect describethe apparent increasein colourfulness andcontrast of scenes withincrease in illuminationlevel.
Blue and givenobjects (e.g. gamepieces) becomeindistinguishableunder dimincandescentillumination.Low levels of incandescentillumination do not providethe energy required by theshort-wave length sensitivemechanisms of the humanvisual system (the leastsensitive of the colourmechanisms) to distinguishgreen objects from blueobjects.
It is nearlyimpossible to selectappropriate socks(e. g. black, brownor blue) in the earlymorning light.In the earlymorning light,the ability todistinguish darkcolours isdiminished.
There is nosuch thing asa gray, orbrown, lightbulb.The perceptions ofgray and brownonly occur asrelated colours,thus they cannot beobserved as lightsources that arethe brightestelement of a scene.
There are nocoloursdescribed asreddish-green,or yellowish-blue.The hueperceptions redand green (oryellow and blue)are encoded in abipolar fashion byour visual systemand thus cannotexist together.
Are BLACK and WHITE colours?We find that mixing all the three primary colours of thePIGMENT THEORY the result is black or dull grey. The primarycolours are bright, the secondary colours are equally bright. Butthe Tertiary and Quaternary colours become gradually duller.Psychologically, however, black and white are colours becausethey produce sensation. They have symbolic meaning’s anddefinite effects on visibility.They give tonality to hues, and have strong effects on othercolours in two ways, by mixture and by juxtaposition.When mixed black converts a vibrant RED into a deep brown,white converts a vibrant RED into a soft peach or pink.By juxtaposition, black makes adjacent colours look richer, andmore intense and white reflects light into adjacent coloursmaking them lighter.To a physicist black and white are no colours. To him white lightconsists of all colours, where as black is the absence of colours.
LIGHTING FOR PHOTOGRAPHYMEANS AND METHODSWALTER NURNBERGTHE FOCAL PRESSLONDON and NEW YORK
I am grateful with the sense of gratitude to my late fatheran artist and colourist Prof.R. P.Joshi who inspired me toventure into the world of colours, Dr. Mrs. ShaliniPatwardhan known Indian Colour Scientist, who put me tothe world colour map with constant encouragement, Mr.Kiran Prayagi whose thirst for knowledge with touch ofprofessional quality and sense of aesthetic with true desireto bring Art & Science together and finally my Art GuruShantaram Pawar with his earthy colour palette paintingsgave an insight about Oriental Indian Art forms and colours,all of them are equally the contributors to this colourjourney. I have to thanks my friend art and literature criticDeepak Ghare for allowing me to use some part of hisresearch presentation on PERSPECTIVE IN PAINTINGand play of shade and light.
References:Federation of Art Institution (FAI)Art – No2, Colour Theory & PracticeBy. R.P. JoshiThe World of Van Gogh 1853 – 1890By Robert Wallace and the Editors of Time-LifeBooks-Courtesy: Shri Shantaram RautStudents:Nadia ShaikPriyanka Mestry