Corrosion prevention


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  • 22-06-12 Uw partner in Procestechniek
  • 22-06-12 Uw partner in Procestechniek Rijkers: Technology provider and System integrator
  • 22-06-12 Uw partner in Procestechniek Primary activities/core business: Service provider
  • 22-06-12 Uw partner in Procestechniek Dedicated solutions / concepts for typical applications
  • 22-06-12 Uw partner in Procestechniek
  • 22-06-12 Uw partner in Procestechniek Suspensions are usual non-Newtonian. Polymer suspensions decrease in viscosity curve rapidly, but until a continuous level. Downlimit limited by polymer chain length and ability of polymer chanins to lay up parallel. In milk of lime the viscosity is of the electrochemical type, and not limited on a lower limit because the faster the particles are moving, the lesser the interaction.
  • 22-06-12 Uw partner in Procestechniek Crevice corrosion at tube end
  • 22-06-12 Uw partner in Procestechniek The solution provider in mixing powders and liquids
  • Corrosion prevention

    1. 1. AL-KHODARI INDUSTRIAL TRADING & SERVICESDealing with corrosion
    2. 2. Company headlines Know-how in processes and installations for powders and liquids, Consulting and implementing installations with optimal R.O.I., Reliable process solutions with minimal complexity, Innovative and active supporting in process issues.
    3. 3. Services Process engineering Engineering • Mechanical • Electrical Production Process control Mechanical installation Electrical installation Maintenance & service
    4. 4. Experience & know-how Milk of lime • Storage & dosing of (quick) lime • Mixing, storage & dosing of milk of lime Slurry handling • Coal, sand, sulfur, magnesium oxide, etc. Paint & compounding Storage, dosing and handling of hard-to-handle materials Glue preparation • Preparing, cooking & dosing of PVA or starch based glue Liquid handling • Dosing skids Storage & handling corrosive materials
    5. 5. References Akzo Nobel Akzo Salt Chemistry Carmeuse Chemetall Degussa Interbrew Nederland Koninklijke Marine – Royal Dutch Navy Nestlé Nederland PPG - SigmaKalon Coatings Rockwool Lapinus B.V. Sabic Melaf SHELL Ned. Chemie Smurfit Kappa Packaging Fokker Nederland – Parts for JSF and Apache 9 helicopter Waterschap Zuiveringschap Limburg – waste water treatment Waterschap Zuiveringschap Brabant – waste water treatment
    6. 6. Designing & engineering onmaterial behavior Corrosion Erosion Viscosity Chemistry Hazard
    7. 7. Corrosion General Corrosion Pitting Corrosion Crevice Corrosion Stress Corrosion Cracking Galvanic Corrosion Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion Sulphide Stress Corrosion Cracking Intergranular Corrosion
    8. 8. Pitting corrosionDefect in passive Corrosionlayer allows metal productsto dissolve Concentrated iron chloride Cathodic solutionPassiveoxidelayer Anodic Electrochemical process
    9. 9. Pitting corrosionInhibitors: Chloride (catalyst) High temperatures Acidic conditions, low pH, such as CO2, H2S Damaged oxide layer (chemically inhibited)
    10. 10. Pitting corrosion
    11. 11. Crevice corrosionSimilar to pitting corrosionOccurring: Under gaskets, Sharp re-entrant corners Incomplete weld penetration Overlapping surfaces
    12. 12. Pipe weldings crevice crevice crevice Welding Sufficient Sufficient Insufficient Sufficient pre- weld weld weld weldtreatment penetration penetration penetration penetration
    13. 13. Crevice corrosion
    14. 14. Pitting & crevice resistance High grades of chromium, molybdenum and nitrogen Pitting Resistance Equivalent number (PRE): PRE = %Cr + 3.3 x %Mo + 16 x %N
    15. 15. Pitting & Crevice resistance 316L 316L
    16. 16. Chloride content water
    17. 17. Chloride content water Temperature 88-100 °F 31-38 °C Flow rate 75% recovery Chloride [ppm] [GPM]Feed Flow 1667 1400Brine Flow 417 5595Permeate Flow 1250 0,5 Flow rate 68% recovery Chloride [ppm] [GPM]Feed Flow 1838 1400Brine Flow 588 4375Permeate Flow 1250 0,5
    18. 18. Chloride content water FEED 68% 75% 316L 316L
    19. 19. Stress Corrosion CrackingInhibitors: Stress and corrosive environment Stainless steel Elevated temperature Only applicable to austenitic steel (201, 301, 303, 304, 305, 316, 321, 347, 631)
    20. 20. Stress Corrosion Cracking
    21. 21. Galvanic corrosion Contact of dissimilar metals in electrically conductive liquid Welds, containing ferrites and due to different structure Contact metal with corrosion products  Contact corrosion Contact corrosion accelerates pitting & crevice corrosion
    22. 22. Galvanic corrosion
    23. 23. Microbiologically InfluencedCorrosion (MIC)
    24. 24. Microbiologically InfluencedCorrosion (MIC)Inhibitors: Stagnant areas of flow Micro-organisms Bio-films of (other) micro-organisms Surface roughness Nutrients Oxygen!
    25. 25. Microbiologically InfluencedCorrosion (MIC)Types of organisms: Algae (Probable in saltwater with O2) Fungi (Improbable) Bacteria (Aerobic & Anaerobic)
    26. 26. Microbiologically InfluencedCorrosion (MIC) Tubercles formation facilitating pitting/crevice Bio-film creating corrosionisolated environment Corrosion underneath biofilm
    27. 27. Microbiologically InfluencedCorrosion (MIC)Prevention / resistance: Maintaining cleanliness Monitoring quality of water Smooth surfaces Avoiding stagnant areas Stainless steels with molybdenum > 6% are virtually resistant to MIC
    28. 28. PRE = %Cr + 3.3 x %Mo + 16 x %N
    29. 29. Sequence of corrosion Crevice corrosion at gaskets, crevice / galvanic corrosion at welds. Contact corrosion due to corrosion products. Algae settle on corrosion induced roughness Bacteria settling at algae/roughness Formation bio-films and degrading agents Acceleration of corrosion processes up to 1000 times of ‘normal’ process
    30. 30. Unusual and excessive degree ofcorrosion can occur unpredictably, due to specific local conditions
    31. 31. Chloride content water FEED 68% 75% 316L 316L
    32. 32. Pictures RO skid Penetrated weld Contact/galvanic corrosion Crevice corrosion
    33. 33. Pictures RO skid Pitting corrosion Facilitated by stagnant water
    34. 34. Pictures RO skid Contact corrosion Corrosion by polluted welding material
    35. 35. Pictures RO skid Contact corrosion by polluted welds
    36. 36. Pictures RO skid Contact corrosion Consequential MIT on rough surface Density MIT related to lines Corrosion processes related to stagnant water
    37. 37. ConclusionsBasic types corrosion: pitting & crevice corrosionPrimary corrosion propagated by contactcorrosion and Microbiological InfluencedCorrosionStagnant areas over a longer period of time arefacilitating & accelerating corrosion enormouslyStainless steel 316L in RO skid will corrodeWorst case circumstances were availableSerious risk is unpredictability of corrosionreaction velocity; several cases of suddenunusual degree of corrosion are known
    38. 38. AL-KHODARI INDUSTRIAL TRADING & SERVICESSpecialized in process installations for handling dry and liquid materials
    39. 39. Proposed actions Survey of similar installations at Aramco: • Compare differences in materials / set-up • Examine water compositions • Compare biological analyses • Evaluate state of corrosion to age Conclude either whether risk level incurred in common practice is acceptable or common practice is to be re-defined