INTODUCE SELF1ST CONFERENCEBASED ON PAPER RECENTLY COMPLETED UNFORTUNATELY DUE TO TIME CONSTRAINTS I AM UNABLE TO DELIVER AN INDEPTH REPORT, BUT I HAVE TRIED TO INCLUDE THE MOST IMPORTANT DETAILSIF ANYONE AS ANY QUESTIONS PLEASE FEEL FREE TO ASK THEM AT THE ENDDefinitions of domestic violence are operational, in other words they are employed in the development of policies, services and legislation. As well as informing research and public perceptions
Domestic violence is a global phenomenon affecting entire societies whether directly or indirectly. yet after over 40 years of empirical research no one definition describes this phenomenon satisfactorily with current official and unofficial definitions having a tendency to intersect with other types of violence, obscuring understanding and creating ambiguity. DEFINITIONS ARE IMPORTANT BECAUSE THEY ARE OPERATIONAL EMPLOYED IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF POLICIES, LEGISLATION AND SERVICES INFORM RESEARCH AND PUBLIC OPINIONEmpirical research shows domestic violence to exist within all manner of relationships whether heterosexual or same-sex, perpetrated by both men and women worldwide whether in western or developing countries across race, ethnicity, religion and socioeconomic status. From such research it can be established that domestic violence is not a gendered problem but a social problem.However, domestic violence is still recognised by the majority as a gendered phenomenon occurring in heterosexual relationships, with service providers and legislations neglecting to incorporate adequate provisions for unacknowledged victims such as heterosexual men and lesbian gay bisexual and transgender individualsthe aim of this presentation is to examine characteristics of domestic violence by deconstructing contemporary definitions in order to establish a framework for an integrated definition that is unambiguous and applicable universally.
Not every country has a legal definition of DV, the majority of countries (westernised and developing) identify with the United Nations (UN) gendered definition Due to the gender bias implications of the UN definition and having already established that DV is not a gendered problem, but a social problem, this paper focuses on the UK and the US definitions. However, the issues to be discussed are evident within the UN definition. Therefore, this paper is not dismissing definitions within other countries, rather concentrating on broader definitions in order to determine a framework that can be applicable to all and implemented globally.
the UK suggest ‘any’ incident while the US proposes a ‘pattern’ of behaviour. While it has been shown that victims endure an average of 35 incidences before they leave or seek help. There is always an initial incident and although domestic violence has shown to occur in a cyclical pattern victims might not recognise the pattern if it does not occur periodically. AGE - The UK definition identifies with ‘adults’, adult is defined by the home office as any person 18 or over, though empirical research shows that domestic violence is much more prevalent in younger relationships, for example barter et al, 2007 found the age most at risk of victimisation to be 15-24 in women and 16-24 in menMETHODS OF ABUSE - Both the UK and US definitions refer to physical and non-physical violence. However, neither identify with verbal abuse, though often associated with emotional and psychological abuse, continual subjection to degrading oral exchanges that over time result in the victims acceptance that they are stupid, ugly, useless or worthless is a major factor of domestic violence and should be recognised singularly.
They identify family members as parents, grandparents siblings, children and so on. Conventionally recognised by the majority of people as abusive behaviours within a current or pre-existing intimate partner relationships, the addition of ‘family members’ within the UK definition creates ambiguity and overlaps with family violence. It also adds “This includes issues of concern to black and minority ethnic (BME) communities such as so called 'honour based violence', female genital mutilation (FGM) and forced marriage” to their definition. While unacceptable practices within western society, such violence fall outside the remit of traditional perceptions of DV. As such, these practices should be recognised in their own right rather than as an appendage of DV.
STALKING - Identified by Violence against women online resources stalking is suggested to be the most prevalent method of domestic violence coleman et al, 2007 found 28% women and 17% of men reported being stalked by a previous partner in 2005/2006DISABILITY – COLEMAN ET AL also found heightened risk of domestic violence if one of both partners was disabled, CHILDREN - We also need to recognise the detrimental affects suffered by children as a result of exposure to domestic violence. VICARIOUS VICTIMISATION - OFTEN SUFFERING SIMILAR PATHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS TO THE PRIMARY VICTIM
Even The term domestic violence is obscure, domestic refers to the home and family, while violence signifies physically aggressive acts thereby neglecting the many other elements identified within the life course of abuse. To alleviate the definitional dilemma, numerous researchers have used alternative terms synonymous to DV, such as However, a search of the World Wide Web for any of the terms used synonymously with DV continually directs browsers to ‘domestic violence’. Therefore, in order to prevent future confusion it is proposed that the term ‘Intimate Partner Abuse’ (IPA) is adopted for the new integrated definition. ‘Intimate Partner’ clearly identifies a relationship between victim and aggressor, while ‘Abuse’ is indicative of threatening behaviours and violence.
Overlaps with other types of violence – family violence & issues of concern for black and minority communities – should not be an appendage of DV Shown some inconsistencies across multiple definitions relating to prevalence, age, methods of abuse.As well as identifying missing elements such as stalking, disability and children Furthermore, Numerous terminologies used synonymous to DV though none have their own definition so I propose that the term intimate partner abuse is adopted ObviouslyI am unable to deliver the full extent of this paper in the time allotted today, however, after in depth analysis of several definitions and the numerous terminologies afforded domestic violence it is proposed that intimate partner abuse receive recognition and be defined as
It should also be noted that
Research: Needs of victims – men, lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender individuals, people with disabilities, members of ethnic minorities, religious individuals, young peopleBatterer treatment programmes – diversity Methods of abuse – male/female – heterosexual/same-sex Impact on children – in relation to sex, sexuality of aggressor/victim Research methods – need to develop more reliable and valid scales that reflect the various relationship types to ensure that a holistic and all encompassing population is empirically explored, rather than assuming that victims are homogeneous.Policy Heavily influenced by feminist ideologies government and public policies are tailored to prevent ‘violence against women’ by men. As such much of the public’s money is donated to resources for battered women, which in turn sees hidden victims not being acknowledged adequately by service providers. Therefore, it is imperative that government and public policies adopt a bias free approach so that resources and services available to female victims of IPA are made available to all victims. PracticeAwareness campaigns – expose the extent of the problem and enable victims to identify abusive situations Gendered terminologies – violence against women & male violence maintain perceptions of gendered violence Enhanced training – to enable service providers to address the specific needs of all victims without bias or ridicule
Interpretations of domestic violence: defining intimate partner abuse
JULIA K WALKER & HELEN GAVIN
DOMESTIC VIOLENCEAIM• DECONSTRUCT CONTEMPORARYDEFINITIONS IN ORDER TO ESTABLISHFRAMEWORK FOR AN INTEGRATEDDEFINITION
PREVALENCE (Croydon, 2011)AGE (Barter et al, 2007)• Women 15-24• Men 16-24METHODS OF ABUSE• VERBAL ABUSE (EOPSS, 2010; Gavin, 2011)
“adults who are or have been intimate partnersor family members” (Home Office, 2010)“This includes issues of concern to black andminority ethnic (BME) communities such as socalled honour based violence, femalegenital mutilation (FGM) and forcedmarriage” (Home Office, 2010)
STALKING28% WOMEN; 17% MEN(Coleman et al, 2007; Vawor, 2010; WHO, 2005)DISABILITYCHILDREN (Herrenkohl et al, 2008)
“Any incident of coercive or controlling behaviours andstrategies used by any individual to gain power andcontrol over their current or pre-existing intimatepartner, whether of a heterosexual or same-sex nature.Incidents may include physical, psychological, emotional,verbal, sexual, financial or economic threat, abuse orviolence including social isolation and stalking. Intimatepartner abuse occurs across age, ability, culture,ethnicity, race, religion, and socioeconomic statuswhether married, cohabiting or dating”
“Children become secondary victims whendirectly or indirectly exposed to suchincidences and are liable to suffer the samedetrimental effects as the primary victim”
Barter, C, McCarry, M, Berridge, D & Evans, K (2009) Partner Exploitation and Violencein Teenage Intimate relationships. NSPCC.Botts, S, Morrison, A & Ellsberg, M (2004) Preventing and Responding to Gender-BasedViolence in Middle and Low Income Countries: A Multi-Sectoral Literature Review andAnalysis. Researching Violence Against Women: A practical Guide for Researchers andAdvocates. World Health Organisation. Washington DC.Coleman, K, Jansson, K, Kazia, P & Reed, E (2007) homicides, firearm offences andintimate violence 2005/2006: home office statistical bulletin. National statistics.Croydon (2011) Family Justice Centre. [Accessed]http://www.croydon.gov.uk/community/dviolence/fjcentreEOPSS (2010) Definition of Domestic Violence. The Executive Office of Public Safetyand Security [Accessed]http://www.mass.gov/?pageID=eopsterminal&L=5&L0=Home&L1=Crime+Prevention+%26+Personal+Safety&L2=Personal+Safety&L3=Sexual+and+Domestic+Violence&L4=Overview+of+Sexual+%26+Domestic+Violence&sid=Eeops&b=terminalcontent&f=programs_fjj_DefinitionDomViol&csid=EeopsGavin, H. (2011, in press) Sticks and stones may break my bones: an examination ofthe effects of emotional abuse. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma July
Herrenkohl, T.I, Sousa, C, Tajima, E.A, Herrenkohl, R.C & Moylan, C.A (2008)Intersection of Child Abuse and Children’s Exposure to Domestic Violence. Trauma,Violence & Abuse. Vol 9(2): 84-99Home Office (2010) Domestic Violence: Research Development Statistics. [Accessed]http://rds.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/violencewomen.htmlUSDOJ (2011) About Domestic Violence. United States Department of Justice[Accessed] http://www.ovw.usdoj.gov/domviolence.htmVawor (2010) The Facts About Domestic Violence. Violence Against Women OnlineResources. [Accessed]http://www.vaw.umn.edu/documents/inbriefs/domesticviolence/domesticviolence.htmlWatkins, P (2005) Police Perspective: Discovering Hidden Truths in Domestic ViolenceIntervention. Journal of Family Violence. Vol 20 (1): 47-54Woman’s Aid (2007) What is Domestic Violence? Woman’s Aid. [Accessed]http://www.womensaid.org.uk/domestic-violence-articles.asp?section=00010001002200410001&itemid=1272WHO (2005) WHO Multi-country Study on Womens Health and Domestic Violenceagainst Women. World Health Organization