13 primary source pack isaiah 53 & tradition history


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13 primary source pack isaiah 53 & tradition history

  1. 1. Four Servant Songs in ESV (1) Isaiah 42:1–4 (ESV from MT) 1 Behold my servant, whom I uphold, my chosen, in whom my soul delights; I have put my Spirit upon him; he will bring forth justice to the nations. 2 He will not cry aloud or lift up his voice, or make it heard in the street; 3 a bruised reed he will not break, and a faintly burning wick he will not quench; he will faithfully bring forth justice. 4 He will not grow faint or be discouraged till he has established justice in the earth; and the coastlands wait for his law. (2) Isaiah 49:1–6 (ESV from MT) 1 Listen to me, O coastlands, and give attention, you peoples from afar. The Lord called me from the womb, from the body of my mother he named my name. 2 He made my mouth like a sharp sword; in the shadow of his hand he hid me; he made me a polished arrow; in his quiver he hid me away. 3 And he said to me, “You are my servant, Israel, in whom I will be glorified.” 4 But I said, “I have labored in vain; I have spent my strength for nothing and vanity; yet surely my right is with the Lord, and my recompense with my God.” 5 And now the Lord says, he who formed me from the womb to be his servant, to bring Jacob back to him; and that Israel might be gathered to him— for I am honored in the eyes of the Lord, and my God has become my strength— 6 he says: “It is too light a thing that you should be my servant to raise up the tribes of Jacob and to bring back the preserved of Israel; I will make you as a light for the nations, that my salvation may reach to the end of the earth.” (3) Isaiah 50:4–9 (ESV from MT) 4 The Lord God has given me the tongue of those who are taught, that I may know how to sustain with a word him who is weary. Morning by morning he awakens; he awakens my ear to hear as those who are taught. 5 The Lord God has opened my ear, and I was not rebellious; I turned not backward. 6 I gave my back to those who strike, and my cheeks to those who pull out the beard; I hid not my face from disgrace and spitting. 7 But the Lord God helps me; therefore I have not been disgraced; therefore I have set my face like a flint, and I know that I shall not be put to shame. 8 He who vindicates me is near. Who will contend with me? Let us stand up together. Who is my adversary? Let him come near to me. 9 Behold, the Lord God helps me; who will declare me guilty? Behold, all of them will wear out like a garment; the moth will eat them up. Primary Source Pack: Isaiah 53 and the Servant of YHWH 1
  2. 2. (4) Isaiah 52:13–53:12 (ESV... based on MT) 13 Behold, my servant shall act wisely; he shall be high and lifted up, and shall be exalted. 14 As many were astonished at you— his appearance was so marred, beyond human semblance, and his form beyond that of the children of mankind— 15 so shall he sprinkle many nations; kings shall shut their mouths because of him; for that which has not been told them they see, and that which they have not heard they understand. 1 Who has believed what he has heard from us? And to whom has the arm of the Lord been revealed? 2 For he grew up before him like a young plant, and like a root out of dry ground; he had no form or majesty that we should look at him, and no beauty that we should desire him. 3 He was despised and rejected by men; a man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief; and as one from whom men hide their faces he was despised, and we esteemed him not. 4 Surely he has borne our griefs and carried our sorrows; yet we esteemed him stricken, smitten by God, and afflicted. 5 But he was pierced for our transgressions; he was crushed for our iniquities; upon him was the chastisement that brought us peace, and with his wounds we are healed. 6 All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned—every one—to his own way; and the Lord has laid on him the iniquity of us all. 7 He was oppressed, and he was afflicted, yet he opened not his mouth; like a lamb that is led to the slaughter, and like a sheep that before its shearers is silent, so he opened not his mouth. 8 By oppression and judgment he was taken away; and as for his generation, who considered that he was cut off out of the land of the living, stricken for the transgression of my people? 9 And they made his grave with the wicked and with a rich man in his death, although he had done no violence, and there was no deceit in his mouth. 10 Yet it was the will of the Lord to crush him; he has put him to grief; when his soul makes an offering for guilt, he shall see his offspring; he shall prolong his days; the will of the Lord shall prosper in his hand. 11 Out of the anguish of his soul he shall see and be satisfied; by his knowledge shall the righteous one, my servant, make many to be accounted righteous, and he shall bear their iniquities. 12 Therefore I will divide him a portion with the many, and he shall divide the spoil with the strong, because he poured out his soul to death and was numbered with the transgressors; yet he bore the sin of many, and makes intercession for the transgressors. Primary Source Pack: Isaiah 53 and the Servant of YHWH 2
  3. 3. Targum Isaiah 42:1-4 1 Behold, my servant, the Messiah, whom I bring, my chosen in whom one delights : as for my Word, I will put my Holy Spirit upon Him ; He shall reveal my judgment unto the nations. 2 He shall not cry aloud, nor raise a clamour, and He shall not lift up His voice in the street.* 3 The meek who are like a bruised reed He shall not break,^ and the poor who are as a glimmering* wick with Him, He will not quench : He shall bring forth judgment unto truth. Targum Isaiah 53 13 Behold, my servant the Messiah shall prosper. He shall be exalted and extolled, and He shall be very strong. 14 As the house of Israel anxiously hoped^ for Him many days, (which was poor* among the nations ; their appearance and their brightness being worse than that of the sons of men 15 Thus shall He scatter''^ many nations; before Him kings shall keep silence : they shall put their hands upon their mouths, for that which had not been told them shall they see: and that which they had not heard shall they consider. [Ch 53]1 Who hath believed this our report? and to whom is now^ the power of the arm of the Lord revealed? 2 The righteous shall be great before Him, behold, like branches that bud; and like a tree which sends forth its roots by the streams of water, thus shall the generation of the just multiply in the land, which hath need of Him.^ 3 His visage shall not be the visage of a common person, neither His fear the fear of a plebeian but a holy brightness shall be His brightness, that every one who seeth Him shall contemplate Him.* 4 Although He shall be in contempt ; yet He shall cut off the glory of all the wicked,^ they shall be weak and wretched. Lo, we are in contempt and not esteemed, as a man of pain and appointed to sickness, and as if He had removed the face of His Shekinah from us. 6 Therefore He shall pray for our sins, and our iniquities for His sake shall be forgiven us; for we are considered crushed, smitten of the Lord, and afflicted. 6 He shall build the house of the sanctuary,* which has been profaned on account of our sins ; He was delivered over on account of our iniquities, and through His doctrine peace shall be multiplied upon us, and through the teaching of His words our sins shall be forgiven us. 7 All we like sheep have been scattered, every one of us has turned to his own way ; it pleased the Lord to forgive the sins of all of us for His sake. 8 He shall pray and He shall be answered, yea, before He shall open His mouth. He shall be heard ; He shall deliver over the mighty of the nations as a lamb to the slaughter, and like a sheep before her shearers is dumb, none shall in His presence open his mouth, or speak a word. 9 He shall gather our captives^ from affliction and pain, and who shall be able to narrate the wonderful works which shall be done for us in His days? He shall remove the rule of the nations from the land of Israel, the sins which my people have committed have come upon them. 10 And He shall deliver the wicked into hell, and the riches of treasures which they got by- violence unto the death of Abaddon, that they who commit sin shall not remain, and that they should not speak folly with their mouth. 11 And it was the pleasure of the Lord to refine and to purify the remnant of His people, in order to cleanse their souls from sin, that they might see the kingdom of their Messiah, that their sons and daughters might multiply, and prolong their days, and those that keep^^ the law of the Lord shall prosper through His pleasure. 12 He shall deliver their souls from the servitude of the nations, they shall see the vengeance Primary Source Pack: Isaiah 53 and the Servant of YHWH 3 ESV based on MT Isa. 52.14 As many were astonished at you— his appearance was so marred, beyond human semblance, and his form beyond that of the children of mankind ET of IQIsa. 52.14 Just as many were astonished at you, so I have anointed his appearance beyond that of any (other) man, and his form beyond that of
  4. 4. upon their enemies; they shall be satisfied with the spoil of their kings. By His wisdom He shall justify the righteous, in order to make many to keep the law, and He shall pray for their sins. 13 Therefore I will divide to Him the spoil of many people, and the treasures of strong fortifi- cations; He shall divide the spoil; because He has delivered His life unto death, and He shall make the rebellious to keep^^ the law; He shall pray for the sins of many, and as for the transgressors, each shall be pardoned for His sake. 4Q491c 4QSelf-Glorification Hymnb (= 4Q491 fragments 11 and 12) Frag. 1 (Baillet 4Q491 frag. 11 col. i 8-24; cf. 1QHa xxvi top; 4Q427 7 i + 9; 4Q471b 1-3) 1 […] has done awesome things marvellously […] 2 [… in the streng]th of his power the just exult, and the holy ones rejoice in […] in justice 3 […] he established [I]srael from eternity; his truth and the mysteries of his wisdom in al[l generations …] might 4 […] … […] … and the council of the poor for an eternal congregation. […] the perfect ones of 5 [… et]ernal; a mighty throne in the congregation of the gods above which none of the kings of the East shall sit, and their nobles no[t …] silence (?) 6 […] my glory is in{comparable} and besides me no-one is exalted, nor comes to me, for I reside in […], in the heavens, and there is no 7 […] … I am counted among the gods and my dwelling is in the holy congregation; [my] des[ire] is not according to the flesh, [but] all that is precious to me is in (the) glory (of) 8 […] the holy [dwel]ling. [W]ho has been considered despicable on my account? And who is comparable to me in my glory? Who, like the sailors, will come back and tell? 9 […] Who bea[rs all] sorrows like me? And who [suffe]rs evil like me? There is no-one. I have been instructed, and there is no teaching comparable 10 [to my teaching …] And who will attack me when [I] op[en my mouth]? And who can endure the flow of my lips? And who will confront me and retain comparison with my judgment? 11 [… friend of the king, companion of the holy ones … incomparable, f]or among the gods is [my] posi[tion, and] my glory is with the sons of the king. To me (belongs) [pure] gold, and to me, the gold of Ophir 12 […] Blank […] Blank […] 13 [… exult,] just ones, in the God of […] in the holy dwelling, sing for h[im …] 14 [… p]roclaim during the meditation jubilation […] in eternal happiness; and there is no … […] 15 […] to establish the horn of [his] Mess[iah …] 16 […] to make known his power with strength […] 17 […] … […]1 Rabbinic ‘Messianic’ Readings The Babylonian Talmud Tract Sanhedrin 98a For such men as the Messiah. But what is his name? The disciples of R. Shilah said: Shilah is his name, as it reads [Gen. 49:10]: “Until Shilah will come.” The disciples of R. Janai said Jinun is his name, as it reads [Ps. 72:17]: “In the presence of the sun, Jinun is his name.” And the disciples of R. Hanina said: Hanina is his name, as [Jer. 16:13]: “So that I will not grant you Hanina.” (Favor.) According to others, Menachem b. Hiskia is his name as in [Lam. 1:16]: “For from me in Menachem (comforter) that should refresh my soul.” And the rabbis said: The sufferer of the house of Rabbi is his name, as [Is. 53:4]: “But only our diseases did he bear himself, and our pains he carried: while we indeed esteemed him stricken, smitten of God and afflicted.”2 See http://www.hopeinmessiah.org/Isaiah%2053.htm#_ftn3 for more examples from Rabbinic sources concerning the Messianic identity of the servant. Primary Source Pack: Isaiah 53 and the Servant of YHWH 4 1 Florentino Garcı́a Martı́nez and Eibert J. C. Tigchelaar, vol. 2, The Dead Sea Scrolls Study Edition (Translations) (Leiden; New York: Brill, 1997-1998), 979-81. 2 , vol. 16, The Babylonian Talmud, Volumes 1-10: Original Text, Edited, Corrected, Formulated, and Translated into English ( trans. Michael L. Rodkinson;Boston, MA: The Talmud Society, 1918), 310.