Gender and social justice in development in kenya; mgd 170 - Njoroge Kamau


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Gender and social justice in development in kenya; mgd 170 - Njoroge Kamau

  1. 1. Gender and Social Justice in Development in Kenya Final Project: MGD 170 Njoroge Kamau Dec.10.11
  2. 2. Content <ul><li>Kenya at a glance </li></ul><ul><li>Women and the Economy </li></ul><ul><li>Women, Children and Violence </li></ul><ul><li>Women, Children and the Family </li></ul><ul><li>Women, Children and Health </li></ul><ul><li>Women, Children and the Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Women and Decision-Making </li></ul>
  3. 3. Kenya at glance <ul><li>Kenya is a developing country in eastern African region </li></ul><ul><li>It has a population of 38,610,097 with an a annual population growth rate of 2.462% ( Kenya National Census 2009 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Sex ration at birth is 1:1.02 male/female (ibid) </li></ul><ul><li>GDP - per capita (PPP): $1,600 ( CIA world fact book ) </li></ul><ul><li>Labor force: 17.9 million (ibid) </li></ul><ul><li>Population below poverty line: 46% ( Kenya Ministry of Planning 2008 ) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Kenya at glance… <ul><li>Infant mortality rate: 52/1,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Child mortality rate: 77/1,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Maternal mortality rate 488/100,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Malnutrition rate among children < 5yrs: 28% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Source: Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 2008/09 </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Women and the Economy <ul><li>Male Labor participation rate for Kenya is 88% in 2009 while that for female is 76% ( ) </li></ul><ul><li>Kenya Youth Female Literacy Level for female for 2009 is 94% while the level for male is 92% (ibid) </li></ul><ul><li>Unemployment rate in Kenya in 9.8% </li></ul>
  6. 6. Women, Children and Violence <ul><li>Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is practiced in more than three quarters of ethnic communities in Kenya </li></ul><ul><li>Although the prevalence of the practice varies widely from one ethnic group to another. </li></ul><ul><li>For a long time FGM has been nearly universal among Somali (97%), Kisii (96%), Kuria (96%) and Maasai (93%) women ( ) </li></ul>
  7. 7. FGM <ul><li>Currently, 27% of Kenyan women have experienced different forms of FGM ( Kenya DHS 2008/09 ) </li></ul><ul><li>This is a drop from 32% prevalence in 2003 and 38% in 1998 (ibid) </li></ul><ul><li>Two percent of Kenyan women have WHO class IV FGM – cutting of clitoris, labia minora, labia majora and sewing of the orifice (ibid) </li></ul><ul><li>There is a strong relationship between education level and circumcision status. </li></ul><ul><li>Fifty-four percent of women with no education report that they are circumcised compared with only 19% of those with at least some secondary education (ibid). </li></ul>
  8. 8. FGM… <ul><li>More than 4 in 5 women believe that female circumcision should be stopped (82%) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>only 9% feel it should continue, and 4 percent are unsure ( Kenya DHS 2008/09 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There have been changes in attitudes, beliefs and practices in several ethnic communities that traditionally practice FGM with increased community awareness and women education (ibid) </li></ul><ul><li>The following table shows prevalence of the practice in the last 10 years among some ethnic communities in Kenya </li></ul>
  9. 9. FGM progression among Kenyan ethnic communities <ul><ul><li>Source: Kenya DHS 1998; 2003; 2008/09 </li></ul></ul>98 97 98 Somali 96 96 97 Kisii 73 94 96 Maasai 40 42 53 Meru 32 62 71 Taita/Taveta 23 27 33 Kamba 21 34 43 Kikuyu 40 48 62 Kalenjin 2008 2003 1998 % FGM prevalence (yr) Ethnic Community
  10. 10. Physical violence <ul><li>More than 1 in 3 Kenyan women (39%) have experienced physical violence in the last 1 year </li></ul><ul><li>One in three (33%) Kenyan women has experienced physical violence by their current or most recent husband in the last 1 year </li></ul><ul><li>Only 3% of ever-married women have initiated physical violence against their current or most recent husband </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Source (Kenya DHS 2008/09) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Sexual violence <ul><li>One in five Kenyan women and girls aged 15-49 years has experienced sexual violence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>22.2% of girls <15 years old had their first sexual intercourse forced against their will; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For those 15-19 years old the figure stands at 12.5% while 20-24 years old stand at 6.4% ( Kenya DHS 2008/09 ) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Changing Gender Roles in Kenya <ul><li>Men in Kenya remain the breadwinners for their family </li></ul><ul><li>Women are increasingly becoming engaged in income generating activities whether formally employed or self employed </li></ul><ul><li>Rise in female headed families has seen increased engagement of women beyond their homes </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of employable skills for majority of women means that more men are in formal employment than women </li></ul><ul><li>Women engage in small businesses in addition to farming </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of access to credit facilities means that women’s businesses remain small with little prospect for growth. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Maternal health in Kenya <ul><li>Maternal mortality ratio in Kenya stands at 488 deaths per 100,000 live births ( Kenya DHS 2008/09 ) </li></ul><ul><li>In other words, 1 in every 200 pregnant women will die in child birth or within 2 months of child birth as a result of a problem related to pregnancy or child birth </li></ul>
  14. 14. Maternal health; ANC <ul><li>The main reason for maternal deaths in Kenya is inadequate access to antenatal care (ANC) ( Kenya HMIS Report 2010 ) </li></ul><ul><li>ANC coverage in Kenya is 92%, higher than the East Africa’s average of 74% ( WHO [2011] World Health Statistics ) </li></ul><ul><li>However, the mandatory 4 ANC visits during a pregnancy is low at 43% ( Kenya DHS 2008/09 ) </li></ul><ul><li>The 4 ANC visits are critical to assess likelihood of complications during delivery. </li></ul><ul><li>Many women (37%) begin ANC clinic as late as 6th month. At this point, many risk factors that could have been arrested much earlier may have aggravated </li></ul>
  15. 15. Maternal health; skilled birth delivery <ul><li>Inadequate access to skilled delivery is a major cause of maternal mortality ( WHO [2009]. Women in Health - Today's Evidence, Tomorrow's Agenda ). </li></ul><ul><li>Skilled birth delivery in Kenya is at 43% while 56% is done at home under the care of unskilled birth attendant ( Kenya DHS 2008/09 ). </li></ul><ul><li>A woman requires skilled attendant at this critical moment and failure to access one leads to myriad complications which end up with conditions like obstetric fistula or death. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Effect of maternal deaths on children <ul><li>Kenya is home to 2.4 million orphans in a country of 40 million people ( National AIDS Control Council 2008 ). </li></ul><ul><li>Half of these orphans are orphaned by AIDS with 100,000 orphans living with the virus (ibid). </li></ul><ul><li>Orphans are more likely to be malnourished, out of school or sexually, physically or financially exploited than their peers with parents ( Republic of Kenya 2007 ) </li></ul><ul><li>The government of Kenya has recently established a cash transfer fund for orphans and vulnerable children (OVCs) to cushion them from such effects </li></ul>
  17. 17. Women, Children and environment: Open Defecation <ul><li>One in four Kenyans (16.5 million people) do not have access to improved sanitation facility ( Kenya HMIS 2010 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Six (6) million Kenyan defecate out in the open. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of this human waste will find its way to open water bodies which is the major source of drinking water. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, diarrhea, cholera, typhoid and dysentery contribute to >10% of the disease burden in the country (ibid) </li></ul><ul><li>Kenya looses more than 27,000 children under 5 years every yea due to diarrhea alone ( UNICEF and WHO 2009: Diarrhea why children are dying ) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Open Defecation… <ul><li>Many of the affected children who survive live a live of disability with low cognitive capacity due to anemia as a result of intestinal and other worms. </li></ul><ul><li>Women suffer lack of privacy in answering a call of nature and many are sexually violated as they relieve themselves in the open in the dark especially in slums ( FIDA-Kenya 2010 ). </li></ul>
  19. 19. Deforestation <ul><li>At independence in 1963, Kenya had 14% forest cover but this has been reduced to less than 3% ( Kenya Ministry of Natural Resources Report 2009 ). </li></ul><ul><li>The effect of this in addition to reduced rainfall is lack of vegetation cover which allows soil erosion and the end result is loss of fertility. </li></ul><ul><li>With reduced crop yield means less food and in turn malnutrition for women and children. </li></ul><ul><li>In Kenya, stunting for children 5 years stands: 29.6%; wasting at 5.8%; and underweight at 20.3% ( Kenya DHS 2008/09 ). </li></ul>
  20. 20. Women and Decision-Making <ul><li>Kenyan women are excluded from taking decision-making positions in the public domain ( Republic of Kenya (1999). Kenya Human Development Report ) </li></ul><ul><li>This is corroborated by International Parliamentary Union who rank Kenya at # 104 worldwide on women representatives in national parliament. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kenya has 22 female members of parliament out of the total 222 seats (10%) in the last general election in 2007 ( ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This performance is dismally low even by East African regional standards. The East African Community comprise a female membership of at least 30%, with Rwanda (with 48.8%) making it world’s most advanced country in this respect ( Nyokabi Kamau ed (2008). perspectives on gender discourse: Enhancing Women’s Political Participation. Heinrich Böll Stiftung. Nairobi ) </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Women in Kenya Parliament Source: 10 222 22 6 16 2007 9.7 222 17 8 9 2002 4.1 222 9 5 4 1997 3.2 188 6 0 6 1992 1.1 188 2 0 2 1988 1.3 158 2 0 2 1983 3.2 153 5 0 5 1979 2.5 4 4 0 4 1974 0.6 158 1 0 1 1969 0 124 0 0 0 1963 % women representation Total Parliamentary seats Total # women in parliament # of women nominated to parliament # of women elected to parliament Election Year
  22. 22. Women in leadership in Kenya… <ul><li>Number of women in local government shows that women’s participation in elective posts at the county, town, city, and urban and municipal councils remains generally insignificant increasing ranging from 2.1 % in 1986 to 2.7% in 1992 (United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW) Expert Group Meeting on “Empowerment of women throughout the life cycle as a transformative strategy for poverty eradication” 26 – 29 November 2001 New Delhi, India) </li></ul><ul><li>Socio-cultural attitude towards women maintain the status quo compared to other African countries like Rwanda that have achieved much higher women representation (ibid). </li></ul>
  23. 23. Conclusion <ul><li>Women in Kenya continue to struggle against socio-cultural hurdles put on their way towards liberty. </li></ul><ul><li>Community awareness and increased educational opportunities are needed to accelerate their speed towards women empowerment in the country. </li></ul>