OB - Motivation

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Partially based on the Kreitner/Kinicki (2009, McGraw Hill/Irwin) textbook with updated data from a variety of cited sources.

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  • Motivation as it is defined here involves arousal or awareness of some goal that is desirable to achieve. Let’s consider two common questions about motivation:Do you think high motivation means better job performance? [Pause.]The answer is no. Motivation and job performance are not synonymous because motivation is only one of several possible determinants of job performance. Just because individuals perform a task well does not mean that they are highly motivated. They actually may be very skilled but not be putting forth much effort at all.What is your opinion about money . . . is it the only motivator? [Pause.]The answer is no. Surveys show that most Americans would continue to work even if they did not need the money.Today’s workers are motivated by the prospects of performing interesting and challenging—not just well-paying—jobs. They also seek jobs that actively involve them in the success of the business and that reward them for this success.
  • On this slide you see content and process theories explained along with the key motivational theories associated with each. Content theories focus on identifying internal factors such as instincts, needs, satisfaction, and job characteristics that energize employee motivation. Content theories do not address how motivation is influenced by the dynamic interaction between an individual and the environment.Process theories, on the other hand, try to explain how internal factors and cognitions influence employee motivation.There is no “one-best" motivation theory. Managers need to use a contingency framework to select the motivational technique ideally suited to the characteristics of the people and the situation involved. Let’s look at each of these theories in greater detail.
  • The theory suggests that there are five human needs and that these are arranged in such a way that lower, more basic needs must be satisfied before higher-level needs become activated. The lowest need that is not well gratified will tend to dominate behavior.Physiological needsrefer to satisfying fundamental biological drives (e.g., the need for food, air, water, and shelter). Organizations must provide employees with a salary that affords them adequate living conditions. Similarly, sufficient opportunities to rest (e.g., coffee breaks) and to engage in physical activity (e.g., fitness and exercise facilities) also are important for people to meet these needs. Safety needs refer to the need for a secure environment that is free from threats of physical or psychological harm. Organizations can provide employees with safety equipment, life and health insurance, and security forces. Similarly, jobs that provide tenure and no-layoff agreements provide a psychological security blanket that helps to satisfy safety needs. Social needs are the needs to have friends and to be loved and accepted by other people. Organizations, for example, may encourage participation in social events.Esteem needsare a person’s need to develop self-respect and to gain the approval of others—examples include the desire to achieve success, have prestige, and be recognized by others.Companies may have award banquets to recognize distinguished achievements. Giving monetary bonuses--even small ones--in recognition of employees’ suggestions for improvement also helps to promote their esteem. Nonmonetary awards (e.g., trophies and plaques) provide reminders of an employee’s important contributions as well and continuously fulfill esteem needs.Self-actualization is the need to become all that one can be, to develop one’s fullest potential. Individuals who have self-actualized are working at their peak, and they represent the most effective use of an organization’s human resources.Although research does not clearly support this theory of motivation, there is one key managerial implication worth noting.A satisfied need may lose its motivational potential. Therefore, managers are encouraged to motivate employees by devising programs or practices aimed at satisfying emerging or unmet needs.
  • So a team of psychologists, including two from Arizona State University, recast the pyramid. In doing so, they have taken on one of psychology's iconic symbols and have generated some controversy along the way. The revamp of Maslow's pyramid reflects new findings and theory from fields like neuroscience, developmental psychology and evolutionary psychology, said Douglas Kenrick, an ASU professor of psychology and lead author of the paper, "Renovating the pyramid of needs: Contemporary extensions built upon ancient foundations." The paper was published in the March issue of Perspectives on Psychological Sciences. http://esciencenews.com/articles/2010/08/19/maslows.pyramid.gets.a.much.needed.renovation
  • Alderfer proposed that motivation is a function of three basic needs listed here from lowest to highest.ERG theory does not assume needs are related to each other in a stair step hierarchy. Instead, more than one need may be activated at a time. It also adds a frustration-regression component, meaning that frustration of higher-order needs can influence the desire for lower-order needs. So, for example, if you work really hard to get a promotion at work which would satisfy your growth needs and you don’t get it, you may regress to social needs and seek support and consolation from your coworkers. You may also demand more in the way of existence needs to compensate, such as higher salary or a flexible working arrangement.Research generates mixed support for the ERG theory. There are, however, two key managerial implications associated with ERG.First, managers should be mindful that employees may be motivated to pursue lower-level needs because they are frustrated with a higher-order need. Additionally, people are motivated by different needs at different times in their lives. Therefore, managers should customize their reward and recognition programs to meet employees’ varying needs.
  • There are, however, exceptions to frustration-regression.  According to Brian Redmond, from the Pennsylvania State University, there are two exceptions to frustration-regression. The first exception is "failure to fulfill existence needs leads to greater existence." (Redmond, 2010)  An example of the first exception is if one needs to sleep and is unable, s/he will develop a larger, more powerful need for sleep. The second exception to frustration-regression is "fulfillment of growth needs leads to greater growth needs." (Redmond, 2010)  An example of this would be winning the lottery; if one wins the lottery, one will then need to pursue increased wealth.Maslow did realize that not everyone followed his pyramid of needs. While there are many types of people and personalities, introversion and extroversion are common distinctions.  Huitt (2004), created the following chart to represent the collaboration of both Maslow's and Alderfer's theories, with levels of introversion and extroversion.
  • McClelland identified three needs that individuals have at differing levels. He argued that each of us have these needs but at varying degrees. Those who have a high need for achievement share three common characteristics: a preference for tasks of moderate difficulty, situations in which their performance is due to their own efforts, and a desire for more performance feedback on their successes and failures.Those with a high need for affiliation have a strong desire for approval and reassurance from others, a tendency to conform to the wishes of others when pressured by people whose friendships they value, and a sincere interest in the feelings of others.Finally, those with a high need for power seek to influence and direct others, exercise control over others, and maintain leader-follower relations.
  • McClelland identified three needs that individuals have at differing levels. He argued that each of us have these needs but at varying degrees. Those who have a high need for achievement share three common characteristics: a preference for tasks of moderate difficulty, situations in which their performance is due to their own efforts, and a desire for more performance feedback on their successes and failures.Those with a high need for affiliation have a strong desire for approval and reassurance from others, a tendency to conform to the wishes of others when pressured by people whose friendships they value, and a sincere interest in the feelings of others.Finally, those with a high need for power seek to influence and direct others, exercise control over others, and maintain leader-follower relations.
  • The need for power has a positive and a negative side. The negative side is characterized by an "if I win, you lose" mentality. The positive side focuses on accomplishing group goals and helping employees gain a feeling of competenceThe need for power needed to be socialized power which is associated with stability personality trait and sensitivity to others. Social power – individuals are concerned with the problems of the organization and what can be done to facilitate goal attainment.A study with Harvard graduates over 20 years showed that 58% of those rated high in nPow either had high blood pressure or died of heart failure.What is the most important need for leaders?AchievementAffiliationPowerWhat is the least important?AchievementAffiliationPowerMcClelland’s research found that the Leader motive Profile included a high need for powerthen need for achievement and then need for affiliation. McClelland believes that individuals with high achievement motivation are not best suited for top management positions, rather top managers should have a high need for power coupled with a low need for affiliation. Individuals high in need for affiliation are not the most effective managers because they have a difficult time making decisions without worrying about being disliked.
  • Herzberg’s motivator-hygiene model that there are two separate and distinct clusters of factors associated with job satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Hygiene factors are associated with job dissatisfaction and are affiliated with the work context. Motivators are associated with job satisfaction and are affiliated with the content of the task being performed.You can see the parallels between the hygiene factors and the lower levels of Maslow’s model (physiological, safety, and social/love) and Alderfer’s existence and relatedness needs.Likewise, Maslow’s growth and self-actualization needs and Alderfer’s growth needs are most closely aligned with Herzberg’s motivators.
  • A key premise of the model, then, is that managers must first focus on the hygiene factors in order to achieve “no dissatisfaction” before they can move employees toward satisfaction on the second continuum.The implications of Herzberg's theory have received research support. However, the two-factor aspect of the theory has not been adequately tested. However, from this model, managers are encouraged to pay attention to both hygiene and motivator factors because they relate to job satisfaction.Herzberg’s theory was a significant contributor to the development of the idea that jobs should be enriched, a topic discussed later in this chapter, in order to cause job satisfaction. From this we also learn that it is important to recognize good performance that is linked to the organization’s goals but this recognition should be earned, not a given.
  • Herzberg, F. 2003. One more time: How do you motivate employees? Harvard Business Review (January): 87-96. (This paper was originally published in the HBR in 1968). As taken from Management and Accounting Web (www.maaw.info).The key to Herzberg's motivator-hygiene theory is that dissatisfaction and satisfaction are not opposite ends of a single continuum. Rather, there is a zero midpoint between dissatisfaction and satisfaction. The zero midpoint is labeled “No Satisfaction” on the first continuum and “No dissatisfaction” on the second.
  • Examples of inputs employees bring to their jobs are effort, skills, experience, and education. Examples of outputs, or what the organization provides, are praise, recognition, pay, benefits, promotions, and increased status.Relevant others are co-workers or others inside or outside the organization in comparable circumstances.The equity theory purports that people are most motivated when their perceived inputs equal outputs and is equitable to that of relevant others. Let’s look at three equity relationships on the next several slides.
  • Examples of inputs employees bring to their jobs are effort, skills, experience, and education. Examples of outputs, or what the organization provides, are praise, recognition, pay, benefits, promotions, and increased status.Relevant others are co-workers or others inside or outside the organization in comparable circumstances.The equity theory purports that people are most motivated when their perceived inputs equal outputs and is equitable to that of relevant others. Let’s look at three equity relationships on the next several slides.
  • Answer – C, followed closely by D. In the current global economy, A is also unlikely but B is almost certain.
  • Research suggests that equity theory differentially applies to people based on their individual characteristics. Research has categorized three types of people with regard to equity sensitivity. These are Benevolents who say, “I put in more than I get out, which is fine with me”; Sensitives who say, “I typically strive for equity and fairness in terms of my inputs and outcomes (even if I feel positive inequity)”; and Entitleds who say, “I try to put in as little effort as possible to attain desired rewards.”
  • Research suggests that equity theory differentially applies to people based on their individual characteristics. Research has categorized three types of people with regard to equity sensitivity. These are Benevolents who say, “I put in more than I get out, which is fine with me”; Sensitives who say, “I typically strive for equity and fairness in terms of my inputs and outcomes (even if I feel positive inequity)”; and Entitleds who say, “I try to put in as little effort as possible to attain desired rewards.”
  • Distributive justice has to do with the outcomes of the process. For example, it is possible to feel that the performance management process was fair but that you didn’t get the outcomes that matched your perceived inputs. Alternatively, you could feel that the process wasn’t fair in that you received special treatment because of your friendship with your boss, but still be happy with the outcome.Procedural justice has to do with perceptions of the process. For example, studies have shown that applicants who are rejected from organizations will maintain a positive impression of that company if they feel that the process was fair and they were treated well. Interactional justice relates to whether people feel they are treated fairly when decisions are implemented.Your book provides a good example of this when it described how a company who laid off people without communicating with them directly and instead sent security guards to escort people out. An employee of 30 years sabotaged the company’s computer systems causing $20 million in damage.
  • There are four work-related variables that you could have cited in response to the first question: First, job performance and counterproductive work behaviors are positively associated with distributive and procedural justice. Second, all three forms of justice were positively correlated with job satisfaction, organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behaviors, and employee trust. Third, all three likewise were negatively associated with employees’ withdrawal cognitions and turnover. And, finally, distributive and procedural injustice were related to negative emotions.Let’s answer the second question in two parts.First, the managerial implications of equity are to avoid under- and over-payment, give people a voice in decisions affecting them, and explain outcomes thoroughly using a socially sensitive manner. A key point here that it’s all about perception so if you are transparent about the process there will be more perception of fairness.Second, the managerial justice implications are to give people a say in how decisions are made. For example, allow input into the performance management process through such means as self-appraisals. Provide an opportunity for errors to be corrected by allowing for an appeals process. Also, don’t play favorites or give that impression; and, finally, make decisions in an unbiased manner.
  • There are four work-related variables that you could have cited in response to the first question: First, job performance and counterproductive work behaviors are positively associated with distributive and procedural justice. Second, all three forms of justice were positively correlated with job satisfaction, organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behaviors, and employee trust. Third, all three likewise were negatively associated with employees’ withdrawal cognitions and turnover. And, finally, distributive and procedural injustice were related to negative emotions.Let’s answer the second question in two parts.First, the managerial implications of equity are to avoid under- and over-payment, give people a voice in decisions affecting them, and explain outcomes thoroughly using a socially sensitive manner. A key point here that it’s all about perception so if you are transparent about the process there will be more perception of fairness.Second, the managerial justice implications are to give people a say in how decisions are made. For example, allow input into the performance management process through such means as self-appraisals. Provide an opportunity for errors to be corrected by allowing for an appeals process. Also, don’t play favorites or give that impression; and, finally, make decisions in an unbiased manner.
  • There are four work-related variables that you could have cited in response to the first question: First, job performance and counterproductive work behaviors are positively associated with distributive and procedural justice. Second, all three forms of justice were positively correlated with job satisfaction, organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behaviors, and employee trust. Third, all three likewise were negatively associated with employees’ withdrawal cognitions and turnover. And, finally, distributive and procedural injustice were related to negative emotions.Let’s answer the second question in two parts.First, the managerial implications of equity are to avoid under- and over-payment, give people a voice in decisions affecting them, and explain outcomes thoroughly using a socially sensitive manner. A key point here that it’s all about perception so if you are transparent about the process there will be more perception of fairness.Second, the managerial justice implications are to give people a say in how decisions are made. For example, allow input into the performance management process through such means as self-appraisals. Provide an opportunity for errors to be corrected by allowing for an appeals process. Also, don’t play favorites or give that impression; and, finally, make decisions in an unbiased manner.
  • The second process theory we will learn about is Vroom’s Expectancy Theory. A foundation of terms definitions will be helpful.Expectancy is the belief that one’s efforts will positively influence one’s performance.Instrumentality is an individual’s beliefs regarding the likelihood of being rewarded in accord with his or her own level of performance.Valence is the value a person places on the rewards he or she expects to receive from an organization.Other Determinants are the skills and abilities, role perceptions, and opportunities to performYou can see that the effort to performance link is dependent on expectancy which is the extent someone thinks their effort will relate to performance.Then, assuming they do reach the performance level they want, they have to believe that that performance will result in outcomes. But then they also have to care about those outcomes. So if someone works really hard and earns a lot of money that may be great. But if what they really want is more flexible hours, they may be willing to forgo the big raises to achieve work/life balance.All of these factors predict whether individuals will be motivated. It is important to note, though, that their actual job performance is also dependent on their skills and abilities, as well as external factors such as the opportunities and circumstances that exist within their company.
  • Examples for Expectancy include:If I spend most of tonight studying will it improve my grade on tomorrow's math exam? If I work harder than everyone else in the plant will I produce more? If I practice my foul shot more will my foul shooting improve in the game? If I make more sales calls will I make any more sales?Examples for Instrumentality include:If I get a better grade on tomorrow's math test will I get an "A" in math? If I produce more than anyone else in the plant, will I get a bigger raise? A faster promotion? If my foul shooting improves will I have a shot a team MVP?If I make more sales will I get a bonus? A greater commission?If I make more sales will I believe that I am the best sales person or be recognized by others as the best sales person? Examples for Valence include:How much I really want an "A" in math? Do I want a bigger raise? Is it worth the extra effort? Do I want a promotion? How important to me is it to be team MVP? Do I need a sales bonus? Is the extra time I spend making extra sales calls worth the extra commission? Is it important to me that I am the best salesperson?
  • Show direct link between performance and raises. - BSet clear goals, establish positive expectations - ABase rewards on what the employee values. - CEstablish a pay for performance plan. - BProvide adequate resources and training. - AEffort to performance Set clear goals; have positive expectations (Pygmalion effect); Provide adequate resources and trainingPerformance to Outcomes Show direct link between raises, recognition and associated performance Follow through on outcomes associated with goals established initially (for example exceeding sales quota ensures a 5% bonus) Establish pay for performance plans so that performance ratings are related to greater percentage increasesValence Know what your employees value (e.g., vacation days, money, day care credits, etc. Some companies have started cafeteria style benefits plans so that employees get a certain number of points that they can spend on whatever benefits they want and need.
  • Show direct link between performance and raises. - BSet clear goals, establish positive expectations - ABase rewards on what the employee values. - CEstablish a pay for performance plan. - BProvide adequate resources and training. - AEffort to performance Set clear goals; have positive expectations (Pygmalion effect); Provide adequate resources and trainingPerformance to Outcomes Show direct link between raises, recognition and associated performance Follow through on outcomes associated with goals established initially (for example exceeding sales quota ensures a 5% bonus) Establish pay for performance plans so that performance ratings are related to greater percentage increasesValence Know what your employees value (e.g., vacation days, money, day care credits, etc. Some companies have started cafeteria style benefits plans so that employees get a certain number of points that they can spend on whatever benefits they want and need.
  • Setting goals is an effective way of directing one’s attention and energy in a purposeful, focused way and tends to result in higher performance and achievement.Research has shown that goals which are too difficult or too easy negatively effect motivation.
  • We learn from Locke’s model that goal setting has four motivational mechanisms:directing attention,regulating effort,increasing persistence, andfostering strategies and plans.A Key term in this model is Persistence. Persistence represents the effort expended on a task over an extended period of time.
  • Originally Kenneth Blanchard and Spencer Johnson first developed the SMART goal system when branching the concept of goal theory beyond academia into the area of management and leadership (Blanchard, Zigarmi, & Zigarmi, 1985). The meanings for the of Blanchard and Spencer's SMART goals have evolved over time and the modern definitions are represented in the figure below:Some additional ideas related to this discussion are that people will perform at higher levels when asked to meet a specific high-performance goal than when they are simply asked to “do their best,” or when no goal at all is assigned. The “A” in this model can also stand for accepted by the employee, who must buy-in to the goal before expending energy to achieve it. “A” can also stand for aligned—to be most effective, individual goals should be aligned with organizational goals.
  • The most common strategies for changing the content or process of a specific job in order to increase job satisfaction and performance are listed here.Job rotationinvolves moving employees from one specialized job to another. The purpose of job rotation is to give employees greater variety in their work. Workers are able to perform two or more separate jobs on a rotating basis. GE and Verizon have a program like this for the MBA level new hires. They move them around the country so they can get exposed to various aspects of the business. Advantages include greater worker flexibility and easier scheduling. Job enlargementinvolves putting more variety into a workers’ job by combining specialized tasks of comparable difficulty. Job enlargement is also called horizontal loading. By itself, job enlargement does not have a significant and lasting positive impact on job performance.Job enrichment is the practical application of Herzberg's motivator-hygiene theory of job satisfaction and involves modifying a job such that an employee has the opportunity to experience achievement, recognition, stimulating work, responsibility, and advancement. Job enrichment is also called vertical loading.
  • The Job Characteristics Model, or JCM, assumes that jobs can be designed to help people get enjoyment from them, to care about the work they do, and to feel they are doing meaningful and valuable work. This model seeks to improve one’s intrinsic motivationcharacterized by one being driven by positive feelings associated with doing well on a task or job.In short, the JCM specifies that enriching the core job characteristics of jobs will alter people’s psychological states in a manner that enhance their job performance, or outcomes. The five critical job dimensions in this model are Skill variety—the extent to which a job requires a number of different activities using several of the employee’s skills and talents. Task identity—the extent to which a job requires completing an entire piece of work from beginning to end.Task significance—the degree of impact the job is believed to have on others. Autonomy—the extent to which employees have the freedom and discretion to plan, schedule, and perform their jobs as desired. And, lastly…Feedback—the extent to which a job allows people to have information about the effectiveness of their performance. The JCM specifies that these core job characteristics have important effects on various critical psychological states. For example, skill variety, task identity, and task significance jointly contribute to a task’s experienced meaningfulness; jobs that provide a great deal of autonomy are said to make people feel personally responsible and accountable for their work; and effective feedback gives employees knowledge of the results of their work.The JCM specifies that the three critical psychological states affect various personal and work outcomes, such as people’s feelings of motivation, the quality of work performed, satisfaction with work, absenteeism, and turnover. The higher the experienced meaningfulness of the work, the responsibility for the work performed, and the knowledge of results, the more positive the personal and work benefits will be.This original model didn’t include Moderators are included in the updated model on the next slide to represent the fact that not everyone wants a job containing high amounts of the five core job characteristics. The model is especially effective in describing the behavior of individuals who are high in growth need strength, people with a high need for personal growth and development. http://www.emeraldinsight.com/content_images/fig/0410100204001.png
  • The Job Characteristics Model, or JCM, assumes that jobs can be designed to help people get enjoyment from them, to care about the work they do, and to feel they are doing meaningful and valuable work. This model seeks to improve one’s intrinsic motivationcharacterized by one being driven by positive feelings associated with doing well on a task or job.In short, the JCM specifies that enriching the core job characteristics of jobs will alter people’s psychological states in a manner that enhance their job performance, or outcomes. The five critical job dimensions in this model are Skill variety—the extent to which a job requires a number of different activities using several of the employee’s skills and talents. Task identity—the extent to which a job requires completing an entire piece of work from beginning to end.Task significance—the degree of impact the job is believed to have on others. Autonomy—the extent to which employees have the freedom and discretion to plan, schedule, and perform their jobs as desired. And, lastly…Feedback—the extent to which a job allows people to have information about the effectiveness of their performance. The JCM specifies that these core job characteristics have important effects on various critical psychological states. For example, skill variety, task identity, and task significance jointly contribute to a task’s experienced meaningfulness; jobs that provide a great deal of autonomy are said to make people feel personally responsible and accountable for their work; and effective feedback gives employees knowledge of the results of their work.The JCM specifies that the three critical psychological states affect various personal and work outcomes, such as people’s feelings of motivation, the quality of work performed, satisfaction with work, absenteeism, and turnover. The higher the experienced meaningfulness of the work, the responsibility for the work performed, and the knowledge of results, the more positive the personal and work benefits will be.Moderators are included in this model to represent the fact that not everyone wants a job containing high amounts of the five core job characteristics. The model is especially effective in describing the behavior of individuals who are high in growth need strength, people with a high need for personal growth and development. http://www.dssincorporated.com/Images/JobDesignFigure1.gif
  • http://www.ritholtz.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2010/01/bagley0106.jpg
  • http://www.magna.in/hr_employee_support.aspx
  • http://www.davidzinger.com/wp-content/uploads/Employee-Engagement-Model-Zinger-2011.jpg
  • OB - Motivation

    1. 1. Chapter 7 – Foundations of Motivation BUSA 220 Professor Wallace, Winter 2012
    2. 2. Daniel PinkTed Talks: Daniel Pink
    3. 3. Motivation• Psychological processes that arouse and direct goal-directed behavior• Does high motivation mean better job performance? – A=Yes, B=No• Is money the only motivator?
    4. 4. Motivational Theories• Content Theories • Process Theories – Identify internal factors – Identify the process by influencing motivation which internal factors and cognitions influence motivation Source: Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
    5. 5. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Source: Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
    6. 6. Employee Needs Vary Source: Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
    7. 7. Maslow Revised Source: Penn State Psych 484
    8. 8. Alderfers ERG Theory• Existence: Desire for physiological and materialistic well-being• Relatedness: Desire to have meaningful relationships with significant others• Growth: Desire to grow and use one’s abilities to their fullest potential Source: Penn State Psych 484
    9. 9. Source: Penn State Psych 484
    10. 10. McClellands Need Theory• The Need for Achievement – Desire to accomplish something difficult• The Need for Affiliation – Desire to spend time in social relationships and activities• The Need for Power – Desire to influence, coach, teach, or encourage others to achieve Source: Penn State Psych 484
    11. 11. McClellands Need Theory Source: Penn State Psych 484
    12. 12. What Do You Think?Is high need for power good or bad?  A= Good, B=Bad, C= It depends1. What is the most important need for leaders? – Achievement – Affiliation – Power2. What is the least important? – Achievement – Affiliation – Power
    13. 13. Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene ModelHygiene Factors - jobcharacteristics associated withjob dissatisfaction – Salary – Supervisory relations Dissatisfaction Satisfaction – Working conditionsMotivators - jobcharacteristics associated withjob satisfaction – Achievement – Recognition – Responsibility
    14. 14. Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Model Source: Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
    15. 15. Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Model Source: MAAW from HBR 1968, 2003
    16. 16. Theory Comparison McClelland’s Motivator-Needs Hierarchy ERG Learned Needs -Hygiene Self- Need for Actualization Achievement Growth Motivators Need for Esteem Power Need for Belongingness Relatedness Affiliation Safety Hygienes Existence Physiological
    17. 17. Equity Theory• People strive for fairness and justice in social exchanges• People will be motivated to the extent their perceived inputs to outputs is in balance A. Compare personal outcomes to inputs. B. Compare your outcomes to relevant others: 1. Comparisons to teammates or coworkers 2. Comparisons to another group (e.g. department/unit) 3. Comparisons to others in your field or occupational.
    18. 18. Equity Theory Source: BusinessBalls
    19. 19. What Do You Think?Deena works 60 hours per week and does not feel thatshe is being adequately recognized or rewarded.According to equity theory, Deena is least likely to: a. Ask for a raise or bonus b. Reduce her efforts by decreasing her hours c. Increase her efforts by working longer hours d. Frame the situation as a learning experience and beneficial for her future career.
    20. 20. Equity SensitivityAn individual’s tolerance fornegative and positive equity – Benevolents have a higher tolerance for negative inequity – Sensitives adhere to strict norm of reciprocity – Entitleds have no tolerance for negative inequity
    21. 21. Equity Sensitivity Source: Penn State Psych 484
    22. 22. Organizational Justice• Distributive Justice - Perceived fairness of how resources and rewards are distributed• Procedural Justice - perceived fairness of the process and procedure for allocation decisions• Interactional Justice - feel fairly treated when procedures are implemented
    23. 23. What Do You Think • What important work- related variables are perceptions of equity related to? • What are the managerial implications of equity theory and organizational justice research?
    24. 24. Equity Theory & Justice Job Performance & Counterproductive Behaviors Distributive &Procedural Justice
    25. 25. Equity Theory & Justice TrustSatisfaction Justice Commitment Citizenship
    26. 26. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory
    27. 27. Vroom’s Expectancy TheoryExpectancy (E P) Instrumentality Valence V(R) Motivational Force Perceived (P R) The value of (MF) likelihood that X Perceived X expected rewards = Force directing EFFORT will likelihood that to the individual specific behavior lead to Performance leads alternatives performance to desired rewards Self Efficacy Trust Needs Goal Difficulty Control Values Perceived Control Policies Goals Preferences
    28. 28. What Do You Think?For each of the following actions, indicate which part ofthe expectancy model, specifically, would be improvedfor an unmotivated employee? A. Effort to Performance (Expectancy) B. Performance to Outcome (Instrumentality) C. Value of rewards (Valence)1. Show direct link between performance and raises.2. Set clear goals, establish positive expectations3. Base rewards on what the employee values.4. Establish a pay for performance plan.5. Provide adequate resources and training.
    29. 29. Expectancy Theory Implications Source: Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
    30. 30. Goal Difficulty Source: Penn State Psych 484
    31. 31. Locke’s Goal Setting Theory Directing one’s attention Regulating one’s effort Goalsmotivate the Task individual performance by... Increasing one’s persistence Encouraging the development of goal- attainment strategies or action plans
    32. 32. Blanchard & Johnson Source: Penn State Psych 484
    33. 33. Motivation by Job DesignChanging the content or process of a specific job toincrease job satisfaction and performance • Job Rotation moving employees from one specialized job to another • Job Enlargement putting more variety into a job • Job Enrichment building achievement, recognition, responsibility, and advancement into the work
    34. 34. Motivation by Job Design Source: Emerald Insight
    35. 35. Motivation by Job Design Source: DSS Incorporated
    36. 36. Motivation by Job Design Source: Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
    37. 37. Job Satisfaction?
    38. 38. Job Satisfaction? Source: www.ritholtz.com
    39. 39. Retention Management http://www.magna.in/hr_employee_support.aspx
    40. 40. The Zinger Modelhttp://www.davidzinger.com/wp-content/uploads/Employee-Engagement-Model-Zinger-2011.jpg
    41. 41. Conclusion? • Experts in many fields are still trying to figure it out and making a good living doing so. • YOU have to figure out what MOTIVATES you, and then feed it! • Read Pink or Gardner

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