OB - Leadership

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Based in part on the Organizational Behavior text by Krietner & Kinicki (2009).

Published in: Education, Business

OB - Leadership

  1. 1. Leadership BUSA 220 Professor WallaceKrietner/Kinicki, 2009
  2. 2. Definitions “Leadership is the inspiration and mobilization of others to undertake collective action in pursuit of the common good.” Crosby & Bryson, 2005 “Leaders’ influence will turn on their own qualities of character, expertise, prestige, intelligence, charm and credibility, but these will have little impact unless they engage the relevant needs and motivations of the persons being influenced. James McGregor Burns, 1978Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  3. 3. Studying Leadership • Trait approaches • Behavioral approaches • Contingency approaches • Transformational Approaches • Emerging ApproachesKrietner/Kinicki, 2009
  4. 4. Not the Same Thing! Leadership Management • Influencing and • Stewardship and changing behavior. accountability • Inspiring a vision • Executing plans • Manage people • Managing resources • Understanding power & • Planning, controlling influence • Putting customers first • Putting people first! • Acting responsibly • Acting decisivelyKrietner/Kinicki, 2009
  5. 5. Leadership vs. ManagementKrietner/Kinicki, 2009
  6. 6. Intersection of High Performance Leaders Managers • Inspire & Motivate • Are Accountable • Manage People • Execute • Are Decisive • Manage Resources • Create a Vision • Plan, organize, direct, control Leaders who also manage, or Managers who also leadKrietner/Kinicki, 2009
  7. 7. Leadership Traits • “Great Man” approach – Attempt to identify relatively stable, enduring dispositional attributes that leaders possess • Implicit Leadership Theory – Beliefs about how leaders should behave and should do for their followers • Emotional Intelligence – Ability to manage oneself and one’s relationships in mature and constructive ways.Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  8. 8. Key Positive Leadership Traits • Intelligence • Self-confidence • Determination • Honesty/Integrity • Sociability • Extroversion • Conscientiousness • Problem solving skillsKrietner/Kinicki, 2009
  9. 9. Traits That Aren’t Leadership • Incompetent • Rigid • Intemperate • Callous • Corrupt • Insular • Evil • Self CenteredKrietner/Kinicki, 2009
  10. 10. Trait Practical Implications • Personal – Predispositions: Personality tests and other trait assessments will reveal predispositions (Remember your Big 5?) – Development Plans: However, targeted plans aimed at adapting and learning new behaviors can be effective ways to develop leadership talent • Organizational – Use valid measures of job-related traits to select employees – Create management development programsKrietner/Kinicki, 2009
  11. 11. Ohio State Behavioral Studies Low Consideration High Consideration Behavior Behavior Low Initiating High Initiating Structure Behavior Structure BehaviorKrietner/Kinicki, 2009
  12. 12. Ohio State – 4 Leadership Styles Showing Consideration High Emphasizes reaching the Seeks input from goal while welcoming others before taking suggestions and action; gets consensus encouraging consensus Passive, Takes charge, noncommittal, low structures employees impact on followers tasks Low Low High Initiating StructureKrietner/Kinicki, 2009
  13. 13. What Do You Think? Natalia tends to ensure her team is on board with any decision she makes. The productivity of her team is below the level of other teams in her business unit. Based on the Ohio State leadership studies Natalia is probably: a. High on consideration, high on initiating structure b. High on consideration, low on initiating structure c. Low on consideration, low on initiating structure d. Low on consideration, high on initiating structureKrietner/Kinicki, 2009
  14. 14. Peter F. Drucker (1909-2005) • The only thing we know about the future is that it will be different. • One cannot manage change. One can only be ahead of it. • Management by objective works if you know the objectives. Ninety percent of the time you dont. • The purpose of an organization is to enable common men to do uncommon things.Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  15. 15. Peter Drucker’s Leadership List 1. Determine what needs to be done. 2. Determine the right thing to do for the welfare of the entire enterprise 3. Develop action plans 4. Take responsibility for decisions. 5. Take responsibility for communicating action plans 6. Focus on opportunities rather than problems. 7. Run productive meetings 8. Think and say “we” rather than “I”. 9. Listen first, speak last.Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  16. 16. Behavioral Theory Key Points • Challenged assumption that leaders are born, not made • Defined “leadership” in actual behaviors • There is no one best style of leadership – depends on the situation • An “effective” leader behavior can be misused and have negative consequences for employeesKrietner/Kinicki, 2009
  17. 17. Fiedler’s Contingency Theory • Effective traits and behaviors depend on the situation. – Premise: There must be a match between the leader’s style and the demands of the situation for the leader to be effective. – Assumption: Leadership style does not change. If a mismatch occurs between style and the situation, change the situation. Graphic Source: WordpressKrietner/Kinicki, 2009
  18. 18. Fiedler’s 3 Variables 1. Leader-Member Relationship 2. Task Structure 3. Position PowerKrietner/Kinicki, 2009
  19. 19. What’s Your Experience? Have you been in a situation where, as a leader, one of these situational factors were not in your favor? • If Yes, was it more practical to _________ in response to the situation a. change the situation b. change your behaviors • Do you agree that leaders have one dominant style?Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  20. 20. Fiedler’s Contingency Model Low Situational Moderate Control High Control Situations Control Control Situations Situations Leader- member Good Good Good Good Poor Poor Poor Poor relations Task High High Low Low High High Low Low Structure Position Strong Weak Strong Weak Strong Weak Strong Weak Power Situation I II III IV V VI VII VIII Optimal Task-motivated Relationship- Task- Leadership Leadership Motivated Motivated Style Leadership LeadershipKrietner/Kinicki, 2009
  21. 21. Fiedler: Key Points • Leadership effectiveness is comprised of: – Traits, – Behaviors, and – Situational factors • Organization implications – Give some consideration to the situational context when placing people in leadership roles – Poor leadership in one context may not mean poor leadership in a different situation – Organization’s should provide training/mentoring to increase leaders’ adaptabilityKrietner/Kinicki, 2009
  22. 22. House’s Revised Path-Goal Theory Employee Leader Behaviors Characteristics Leader Behaviors Leadership  Path-goal  Locus of control Effectiveness clarifying  Task ability  Employee  Achievement  Need for motivation oriented achievement  Employee  Work facilitation  Experience satisfaction  Supportive  Need for clarity  Employee  Interaction performance facilitation  Leader acceptance  Group oriented-  Work-unit decision making performance  Representation and Environmental Factors networking  Value based  Task structure  Work group dynamicsKrietner/Kinicki, 2009
  23. 23. The Full Range of Leadership Transformational/Servant Transactional (Contingent Reward) Management By Exception (Passive/ Laissez Aggressive) Faire (Avolio 1999; Bass & Riggio, 2006)Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  24. 24. The Full Range of LeadershipKrietner/Kinicki, 2009
  25. 25. Leader’s Self Knowledge Directly impacts followers: • Job satisfaction • Engagement • Autonomy • Adaptability • Cohesiveness • CollaborationKrietner/Kinicki, 2009
  26. 26. Transactional vs. Transformational • Transactional • Transformational Leadership focuses on Leadership transforms clarifying employees’ employees to pursue roles and providing organizational goals rewards contingent on over self-interest performance • Appeals to followers’ • Appeals to what values, beliefs, self- followers want concept (rewards)Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  27. 27. Transformational Leadership Ind. & Org. Leader Effects on Outcomes Characteristics behavior followers and work groups  Personal Traits  Inspirational commitment to motivation  Increased Life leader and vision  Idealized identification with Experiences the leader  Self-sacrificial Attributes behavior Organizational  Increased intrinsic Culture  Idealized motivation, achie  Organizational Behavior vement commitment  Individualized orientation, and consideration goal pursuit  Intellectual  Increased stimulation cohesion among workgroup membersKrietner/Kinicki, 2009 (Avolio 1999; Bass & Riggio, 2006)
  28. 28. Idealized Influence • Admiration, trust & respect • “Modeling the way” • Joint risk & empowerment • Vision, passion & integrity • Moral standards (Bass & Riggio, 2006; Kouzes & Posner, 2007; Avolio, 1999; Bennis, 2009; Northouse, 2007; Senge, et al., 1994).Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  29. 29. Inspirational Motivation • Emotional Symbolism • Sharing Vision • Engagement • Charismatic • Followers feel valued (Bass & Riggio, 2006; Kouzes & Posner, 2007; Avolio, 1999; Barbuto, 2005; Goleman, 1995, 2002; Northouse, 2007; Senge, et al., 1994).Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  30. 30. Individualized Consideration Transformational leadership practices build psychological capital with followers which enhances their internal motivation and organizational learning culture. (Gooty, Gavin, Johnson, Frazier and Snow, 2009)Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  31. 31. Intellectual Stimulation • Organizational learning culture • Commitment to increased complexity • Increased individual skill mastery • Increased OCB (Joo & Lim, 2009; Gerhardt & Lulzadis, 2009; Gerhardt, Ashenbaum & Newman, 2009).Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  32. 32. Organizational Citizenship Behavior • Rules • Collaboration • Governance • Good Sports • Altruistic • Group and the Organization over self- interestsKrietner/Kinicki, 2009 (VanYperen, Vandenberg, & Willering, 1999; Krishnan & Arora, 2008).
  33. 33. Organization Citizenship Behavior • TL + OCB = higher follower performance • Healthy debate (adaptive conflict) is required • Leaders behavior is key • Leaders’ OCB and followers’ OCB are not always equal or directly related. (Boerner, Eisenbeiss & Gresser, 2007; Heifetz, 1994; Krishnan & Arora, 2008)Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  34. 34. LMX: Leader-Member Exchange Assumption: Leaders do not treat all employees in the same way – it is based on their one-on-one relationship. – In-group exchange: a partnership characterized by mutual trust, respect and liking – Out-group exchange: a partnership characterized by a lack of mutual trust, respect and likingKrietner/Kinicki, 2009
  35. 35. Shared Leadership … a dynamic interactive influence process among individuals in groups for which the objective is to lead one another to the achievement of group or organizational goals or both.Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
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  37. 37. Robert Greenleaf: Servant Leadership “The servant-leader is servant first… It begins with the natural feeling that one wants to serve, to serve first. Then conscious choice brings one to aspire to lead. That person is sharply different from one who is leader first, perhaps because of the need to assuage an unusual power drive or to acquire material possessions…The leader-first and the servant-first are two extreme types. Between them there are shadings and blends that are part of the infinite variety of human nature."Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  38. 38. Robert Greenleaf: Servant Leadership "The difference manifests itself in the care taken by the servant-first to make sure that other people’s highest priority needs are being served. The best test, and difficult to administer, is: Do those served grow as persons? Do they, while being served, become healthier, wiser, freer, more autonomous, more likely themselves to become servants? And, what is the effect on the least privileged in society? Will they benefit or at least not be further deprived?"Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  39. 39. What Do You Think Which of the following is true? a. A leader is responsible for the quality of the relationships with his/her subordinates. b. Followers who protect their leaders from bad news are appreciated. c. Followers should focus on doing a good job and not try to learn about their manager’s style, strengths or weaknesses. d. Followers should build on mutual strengths and adjust to accommodate the leader’s style, goals, expectations and weaknesses.Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
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