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OB - Empowerment & Engagement


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Based in part on the Organizational Behavior text by Krietner & Kinicki (2009).

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OB - Empowerment & Engagement

  1. 1. Chapter 15 – Influence,Empowerment and Politics BUSA 220 Spring 2012 - Wallace Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  2. 2. Self Interest vs. Mutual InterestClimate of Destructive Climate of Openness, Competition and Cooperation, and Trust Suspicion Influence tactics Empowerment Organizational Mutuality of Interest Self- Political contributors Motivation (organizational Interest tactics • Individuals effectiveness) Team building • Groups Communication Leadership Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  3. 3. Soft Influence Tactics• Rational persuasion: Using logical arguments and facts to persuade another that a desired result will occur.• Inspirational Appeal: Arousing enthusiasm by appealing to one’s values and beliefs• Consultation: Asking for participation in decision making or planning a change• Ingratiation: Getting someone to do what you want by putting that person in a good mood or getting him or her to like you.• Personal appeal: Appealing to feelings of loyalty and friendship before making a request Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  4. 4. Hard Influence Tactics• Exchange: Promising some benefits in exchange for complying with a request.• Coalition Building: Persuading by seeking the assistance of others or by noting the support of others.• Legitimating: Pointing out one’s authority to make a request or verifying that it is consistent with prevailing organizational policies and practices.• Pressure: Seeking compliance by using demands, threats, or intimidation. Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  5. 5. Influence Outcomes • Commitment - a strong positive response • Compliance – completion of request • Resistance - a strong negative response Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  6. 6. What Do You Think? Style Response1. Consultation A. Commitment2. Rational Persuasion B. Compliance3. Inspirational appeals C. Resistance4. Ingratiation5. Pressure6. Coalition Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  7. 7. Principles of Influence Liking: The more we like the other person, the more likely we’ll comply with their requests Reciprocity: The belief that both good and bad deeds should be repaid in kind. Social Proof: Role models and peer pressure are powerful forcesSource: R. B. Cialdini, "Harnessing the Science of Persuasion," Harvard Business Review, October 2001, pp. 72-79. Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  8. 8. Principles of Influence • Consistency: Once individuals have stated a commitment they tend to act in accordance with that commitment. • Authority: People tend to defer to and respect credible experts. • Scarcity: Requests that emphasize scarcity or the fact that some object, opportunity, or outcome will soon no longer be available, are difficult to resist.Source: R. B. Cialdini, "Harnessing the Science of Persuasion," Harvard Business Review, October 2001, pp. 72-79. Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  9. 9. Power Concepts • Social Power: The ability to get things done with human, informational, and material resources – Power is not power OVER others – Power is the ability to GET THINGS DONE – Influence Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  10. 10. What Do You Think?• Which source of a. Reward power would be most applicable when influencing the b. Coercive following targets? 1. Your manager c. Legitimate 2. Your peers/co-worker ? 3. Your subordinate d. Expert e. Referent Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  11. 11. Power ConceptsMcClelland - Achievement, Affiliation and Power.Personalized Power – used for personal gainSocialized Power – used to create motivation – used to accomplish group goals Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  12. 12. What Do You Think?Jarrett has a strong need for power. He enjoys thechallenge of making difficult decisions that have amajor impact on the organization. At times hemakes decisions that have negative consequencesfor himself and his team but are good for the largerorganization. Jarrett…. a. Plays politics to get what he wants b. Has personalized power c. Demonstrates socialized power and mutuality of interest d. Is driven to protect his self-interests Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  13. 13. French & Raven: Power Sources • Position – Reward: If you do it I’ll give you something – Coercive: If you don’t do it something bad will happen – Legitimate: Do it because the boss asks you to • Can be positive or negative Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  14. 14. French & Raven: Power Sources• Personal – Expert: Do it because I know a lot about this subject – Referent: Do it because you like me Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  15. 15. What Do You Think• Which strategy would a. Reward be most effective in b. Coercive each situation? c. Legitimate 1. Upward influence d. Expert 2. Peers e. Referent 3. Downward• What is the best combination of strategies? Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  16. 16. Empowerment • Empowerment sharing varying degrees of power with lower- level employees to tap their full potential Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  17. 17. Power Evolution Power High Distribution Followers are granted Power Degree of Empowerment authority to Sharing make Manager/lea decisions Influence der and Sharing followers Manager/leade jointly make r consults decisions Authoritarian followers when Power making Manager/leader decisions impose decisionsNone Domination Consultation Participation Delegation Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  18. 18. Personal Initiative Levels of Taking Action Action Asking for approval to act Asking someone else to actDecreasing time to action to Telling someone about a problem solve a problem Noncompliance Apathy Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  19. 19. Randolph’s Empowerment Model The Empowerment Plan Share Information Create Autonomy Let Teams Become Through Structure the Hierarchy Remember: Empowerment is not magic; It consists of a few simple steps and a lot of persistence Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  20. 20. Organizational Politics• Organizational Politics intentional enhancement of self- interest• …but the self-interest should be aligned with “Politics isn’t about the organization’s winning at all costs. It’s interests about maintaining relationships and getting results at the same time.” --John Eldred, MGMT Professor & Consultant, Kingston U. UK. Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  21. 21. Uncertainty Causes Politics 1. Unclear objectives 2. Vague performance measures 3. Ill-defined decision processes 4. Strong individual or group competition 5. Any type of change Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  22. 22. What Do You Think? Given what we know about causes of political behavior, who would be most likely to engage in self-interested politics?1. a. A new, relatively young employee starting out her career or b. An older, more established employee. and2. a. Employee’s whose pay and promotion are based on their manager’s rankings of them b. Employee’s whose pay and promotion are based on an established, known set of standards Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  23. 23. Political Action Levels Distinguishing CharacteristicsNetwork Level Cooperative pursuit of general self-interests Cooperative pursuit ofCoalition Level group interests in specific issuesIndividual Level Individual pursuit of general self-interests Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  24. 24. Political TacticsFor each tactic, estimate 1. Attacking or blaming othersthe effectiveness of using 2. Using information as athis tactic to promote political toolorganizational objectives 3. Creating a favorable image1. Highly unlikely to be (impression management) effective 4. Developing a base of support 5. Praising others (ingratiation)2. May or may not be 6. Forming political coalitions effective with strong allies3. Highly likely to be 7. Associating with influential effective people 8. Creating obligations (reciprocity) Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  25. 25. Political TendenciesCharacteristics Naïve Sensible SharksUnderlying Politics is Politics is Politics is anattitude unpleasant necessary opportunityIntent Avoid it at all Further Self-serving and costs departmental predatory goalsTechniques Tell it like it is Network; expand Manipulate; use connections; use fraud and deceit system to give when necessary and receive favors Bully; misuseFavorite tactics None—the Negotiate, information, truth will win bargain cultivate and use out “friends” and other contacts Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  26. 26. Reasonable Boundaries• Screen out overly political individuals at hiring time• Create and open-book management system• Make sure every employee knows how the business works and has a personal line of sight to key results• Have nonfinancial people interpret periodic financial and accounting statements for all employees• Establish formal conflict resolution and grievance processes• As an ethics filter, do only what you would feel comfortable doing on national television• Publicly recognize and reward people who get real results without political games Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  27. 27. Which Would You Prefer? Krietner/Kinicki, 2009