The Philippine American War (1899 - 1902)


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By: Johnrey Pineda and Roselyn Sabilao

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The Philippine American War (1899 - 1902)

  1. 1. Contrary to the expectations of the Americans, the occupation of the Philippines and its
  2. 2. The Filipinos, though lacking in arms and munitions, fought valiantly throughout the
  3. 3. As Mariano Santos, a veteran of the revolution of 1896 and the , recalled when
  4. 4. Economic Religious Politico - Military The Colonial motives of the United States over the Philippines were economic, politico-
  5. 5. The Filipinos, facing a fully equipped and trained army for conventional warfare, were badly beaten. But the Filipinos ably
  6. 6. The U.S. responded with repressive and violent measures to end the war – using water cure, reconcentration, an d scorched – earth tactics. The people, threatene
  7. 7. Before the signing the Treaty of What, shoul d I do? In Paris, President the Philippines McKinley said he did not know what to do with the Philippines. He added that one night he felon his knees to pray to God to enlighten him on what to do with the God, Please enlighten me. On what to do.
  8. 8. …. We are Interested in the Philippines …. …. ………. ……… ……… …. But he was surrounded by men who had interests in making the Philippines an American colony.
  9. 9. market for American products …. These men, representing Pressure groups were (1) The American businessmen whose interests included the Philippines not only as a market for American products, but also as a
  10. 10. Let’s make the Philippines, on e of our military base. …. These men, representing Pressure groups were (2) The military and naval pressure group, who wanted the Philippines as a base for American ships and as a first line of defense.
  11. 11. Let’s make the Philippines, fo r protestant missionaries base …. These men, representing Pressure groups were (3) The religious pressure group, who wanted the Philippines as a base for protestant missionaries.
  12. 12. I’m the one ! Who decide on what going to the Philippines!! All these pressure groups worked hard to make the Philippines an American
  13. 13. I Proclaim the Philippine… President McKinley issued the so-called Proclamation. For the first time, McKinley officially announced the American Policy
  14. 14. The United States, will exercise sovereignty over the entire Philippines! And the Philippines, will be one of the Colony of the United States. It clearly indicated the intention of the United States to exercise sovereignty over the entire Philippines, making it a
  15. 15. General Merritt, did not published the Full Text of McKinley’s proclamation for fear of arousing the anger of the Filipinos. Instead, he changed some words to soften the language of I will changed some words to soften….
  16. 16. Unfortunately for General Otis, General Marcus P. Miller, who was in Iloilo, published the original proclamation. Copies of this unchanged version fell into the hands of Filipinos.
  17. 17. Aguinaldo knew very well that a war with the United States would bring hardship and suffering to the people. He tried to relax the tension by suggesting to General Otis that their representatives should meet to
  18. 18. General Otis appointed his representatives which were compose of three military officers. Aguinaldo also appointed his three representatives.
  19. 19. The six representatives met for almost one month in January but nothing came out of the meetings because the American representatives were stalling, which heightened the tension
  20. 20. For sure, the American, Fooling Us!! ……….. The Filipino military officers believed that the Americans were only fooling the Filipinos and that they were not interested in keeping the Filipino-American diplomatic
  21. 21. General Otis protested, but Aguinaldo replied that the Americans were not arrested but merely detained because they were found within the Filipino lines. On February 2, General MacArthur protested the presence of the some Filipino soldiers within the American lines, The Filipino soldiers withdrew and MacArthur was
  22. 22. Some incidents which were originally minor in themselves became serious in the face of the mounting tension between the two peoples. On February 1, 1899 a group of American engineers was arrested by Filipino troops.
  23. 23. On the night of February 4, 1899, Private Willie G. Grayson shot a Filipino soldier on the corner of Sociego and Silencio Streets in Santa Mesa, Manila. The Filipino answered with rifle and the Philippine American War was on!.
  24. 24. The Filipino commander of the sector where the firing started was in Malolos, together with other officers, attending a dance. Aguinaldo sent an emissary to inform General Otis that the “Firing on our side the night before had been against my order.” But General Otis, haughty and arrogant, said that the “Fighting, having
  25. 25. Aguinaldo, wanting to know how the incident happened, ordered an investigation to determine the truth. Subsequent investigation showed that even as early as February 2 and 3, the Filipino employees in the service of American ships had been dismissed; that in the morning of February 4, between 200 and 300 American
  26. 26. Because of their advanced preparations and superior arms, the American troops easily captured town in what is now Rizal Province. Earlier in the north of Manila, the Americans won victories in the Battle of La Loma, near the Chinese Cemetery, where Major Jose Torres Bugallon died in combat.
  27. 27. with La Loma in his hands, MacArthur proceeded to Caloocan where he was met by General Antonio Luna’s force. In the battle that ensued, Luna was defeated. The superior arms of the Americans could not be neutralized by bravery and courage alone. Luna then planned to recapture Manila on March 22, he lead the attack on the
  28. 28. American reinforcements arrived in February and March. General Otis took the offensive in the north, while General Henry Lawton started his offensive in the south. In a few days, Pulo feel to the Americans and by March 30, they were at the door of Malolos. Meanwhile, Aguinaldo evacuated Malolos and transferred the Capitol
  29. 29. The Filipinos had very few victories, but these victories were costly to the Americans. On March 25, the Filipino troops repulsed General Lloyd Wheaton in the Battle of Pulo and killed an American colonel. In Quingua (now Plaridel), Major Bell of the American cavalry was killed in
  30. 30. The capture of Malolos by MacArthur led by General Luna to retreat farther North of Luzon. He established his headquarters in Calumpit, the town immediately north of Malolos. Here he prepared his defenses against the Americans who were pursuing him. General Luna sent a Telegram to General Tomas Mascardo in Guagua asking for reinforcements.
  31. 31. But, General Mascardo refused. This angered General Luna and ordered his officers to leave for Guagua to punish Mascardo. He brought with him the artillery units, the cavalry, and elemts of the infantry battalion. During Luna’s absence, General Gregorio Del Pilar commanded the sector at Bagbag, Calumpit.
  32. 32. The Americans swarmed all over the place and defeated Del Pilar. When General Luna returned to Calumpit at twilight, the Americans had already captured a large portion of the town. Luna retreated farther north, to Pampanga, and
  33. 33. Mabini was the next most powerful man in the country, after Aguinaldo. He was president of the Cabinet and, as such, he was Prime Minister. He was also Secretary of Foreign Affairs. Aguinaldo depended on him because he was honest, hardworking and incorruptible. He never used his high position to enrich himself in office. He was poor when he entered the government service. He
  34. 34. When the Americans tried to win over the Filipinos by promising them freedom and autonomy, Mabini said this was a trick of the enemy. He was for the independence of the Philippines. He would not accept anything less than independence. However, his enemies, like Pedro A. Paterno, Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista, Felipe Buencamino, and many others who belonged to the
  35. 35. They believed that autonomy would be good for the Filipinos. So they accepted the American offer of Autonomy. Since the group knew that Mabini was opposed to their views, they persuaded Aguinaldo to remove Mabini from office. On May 7, Aguinaldo informed Mabini that Paterno was forming a New Cabinet. Mabini knew what it meant.
  36. 36. So he sent in the resignation of the entire Cabinet he was heading. Mabini spent his last years in his armchair writing articles against the Americans, and his memoirs of
  37. 37. General Antonio Luna was the most brilliant among the Filipino military officers. Belonging to an educated and a wealthy family of Ilocos Norte, Antonio Luna was born in San Nicolas, Manila. He studied pharmacy in Manila and in Spain, where the identified himself with the propagandists. He was also
  38. 38. The members of the Luna Family had in common; he was shorttempered. He was exiled to spain by the colonial government; and on his way back to the Philippines in 1898, he passed by Hongkong. He asked Felipe Agoncillo, a family friend, to give him a letter of
  39. 39. When the Philippine-American War broke out, Luna was Chief of military zone that included many provinces of Central Luzon. He made many enemies because of his short temper. He slapped Felipe Buencamino, Aguinaldo’s Secretary of Foreign Affairs, who disagreed
  40. 40. Aguinaldo recognized his brilliance and appointed him to a high position in the army. Luna saw that the army had no discipline. So he tried to instill discipline in the army, but the common soldiers particularly the Kawit regiment did not like him for it.
  41. 41. While he was in Bayambang, Pangasinan inspecting the defenses against the advancing Americans, he received a telegram from Cabanatuan saying that he was wanted there. So he went there with his aide, Colonel Francisco Roman and some soldiers. On June 5, 1899, He reached the Aguinaldo’s
  42. 42. Then he heard a rifle shot, rushed downstairs, cursed the soldiers, and slapped one of them. A captain named Pedrong Kastila from Cavite, hacked Luna with a Bolo.
  43. 43. The other soldiers, seeing that he was wounded, started hacking him as well with their bolos and some fired gunshots at him. Luna drew his revolver but he fell outside the convent and died saying, “Cowards! Assassins!” he died with more than
  44. 44. The Conquest of the Visayas Meanwhile, General Otis instructed Miller to invade Iloilo. To Miller’s demand that the Filipino troops surrender, the Visayan patriots under the leadership of General Martin Delgado decided to fight instead. To prevent the enemy from capturing the city, Delgado ordered his men to burn it. The Cebu
  45. 45. They resorted to guerilla warfare under the command of General Arcadio Maxilom and Landro Fullon. It took some time and much effort for the Americans to completely subdue the brave Cebuanos. Meanwhile in Negros, many wealthy Negrenses sympathized with the Americans. When the enemy came, they raised the American
  46. 46. A committee composed of prominent Negrenses was sent to Manila to ask General Otis to allow them to arm a battalion to maintain peace and order. General Otis approved the petition, for it was a unusual act of collaboration with the Americans. On March 1, General Otis issued an order providing for the creation of a military district
  47. 47. This was known as the Visayan Military District. The Negrenses were allowed to meet in a convention to frame a constitution. Known as the Negros Constitution, it was submitted to President McKinley for approval. The American President did not take it seriously and nothing came out of it.
  48. 48. The Kiram-Bates Treaty Upon learning that the Spaniards failed to completely subjugate the Muslims, the Americans dealt with them in a diplomatic way in order to neutralize their offensive. General John C. Bates tried to win the friendship of the Muslims by
  49. 49. The Sultan of Jolo, Datu Kiram, insisted that the Americans must not be allowed to occupy any other part of Sulu except the town proper of Jolo. Furthermore, the Sultan insisted in collecting customs duties in place that were not occupied by the Americans.
  50. 50. The Sultan of Jolo, Datu Kiram, insisted that the Americans must not be allowed to occupy any other part of Sulu except the town proper of Jolo. Furthermore, the Sultan insisted in collecting customs duties in place that were not occupied by the Americans. On August 20, 1899 an agreement was signed by General Bates, representing the United State and the Sultan of Jolo and Datus, representing the Sulu
  51. 51. Known as the Bates Treaty, it provided that the “Sovereignty of the United States over the whole archipelago of Sulu and its dependencies is declared acknowledged” and that “the rights and dignities of His Highness, the Sultan and his Datus shall be fully
  52. 52. The American promised not to interfere in religious matters and no to persecute anybody on account of his religious beliefs. The Americans also agreed to pay the Sultan and his leading Datus monthly salaries. With the neutralizations of the Muslims, the Americans proceeded with the socalled pacification of the Christian
  53. 53. With the death of General Luna, many Filipino field commanders were demoralized. A number of Aguinaldo’s Generals surrendered to the enemy. This development led General Otis to make plans to entrap, the recognized leader of the Filipino people and his army General Emilio Aguinaldo.
  54. 54. Because, the Americans were not familiar with the local terrain and not used to the tropical climate would be put to a great disadvantage with this tactic. Meanwhile, Aguinaldo and with some selected men, his son, wife, mother, and sister fled to pangansinan. The Americans followed him and tried to catch
  55. 55. People cooperate to Aguinaldo; they contributed money, food and other supplies to the Revolutionary Army. Later, he left his family behind in order to spare them from the hardships of travelling. Aguinaldo and a handful of faithful followers walked to Tierra Virgen, Cagayan. On September 6, 1990, he and his men reached Palanan, Isabella
  56. 56. While fleeing the Americans, Aguinaldo reached the Mountain Province. He ordered his trusted General Gregorio Del Pilar, to remain behind as they continued to advance. Del Pilar was to intercept the Americans who were tracking them.
  57. 57. After the departure of Aguinaldo, Del Pilar chose to delay the enemy at Pasong Tirad, a narrow pass of 4,500 feet high where he had a good view of the surrounding country. So narrow was the trail that only one man at a time could climb it. It was in this place that Del Pilar and sixty loyal soldiers positioned themselves.
  58. 58. The American troops under Major Peyton march to pursued Aguinaldo. In the morning of December 2, 1899 Major Peyton March and his well-armed men proceeded toward Del Pillar’s position. The Filipino troops guarding the narrow pass fired at the Americans who had no recourse but to retreat.
  59. 59. Unfortunately, an Igorot guided the Americans to a secret trail leading to Del Pilar’s men. The Americans slowly and quietly wne up the trail and surprised the Filipino troops. A fierce battle ensued and Del Pilar was killed by a bullet that passed through his neck.
  60. 60. The American soldiers rushed to the dead body of the young general and looted his personal belongings for souvenirs. The American left the body there and for two days it remained unburied. On the third day, the Igorots buried his remains in a shallow grave.
  61. 61. Aguinaldo was no longer an effective leader at this stage of the war. Through surprise attacks or ambush, and with the support of the townspeople including many of the elites, the war lasted longer than expected. Many Filipino military officers were emboldened to fight with renewed enthusiasm.
  62. 62. They took advantage of the cooperative attitude of the wealthy Filipinos to help the people in the resistance. Faced with the effective guerrilla warfare, Americans used cruel methods to persuade the Filipinos to cooperate with them. For Example, they used the “Water Cure” on many Filipinos to punish or extract information
  63. 63. This form of torture was done by forcing water into the stomach of a person until it gets filled. Then the person would be made to lie on his back and an American soldier would jump on his stomach. Another form of torture was placing a rope around a person’s neck and then twisting it to choke him.
  64. 64. Another form of torture was beating the victim until he became blue in the face. In Samar, the Americans also resorted to massacre to avenge the death of their comrades who were killed by the Filipino Guerrillas under the command of General Vicente Lukban.
  65. 65. The Americans also burned down the whole town of Balangiga and killed all men and even boys over ten years old. Many are surrendered/died because they could not take any more of these brutalities.
  66. 66. With the help of a Spaniard, Lazaro Segovia, who joined the Filipino forces against the Americans, Colonel Frederick Funston planned the capture of Aguinaldo. The Spaniard led some men from Macabebe and pretended to have captured some American soldiers.
  67. 67. They walked to Palanan and informed Aguinaldo through a courier that they were bringing in the Americfan captives. Aguinaldo was happy to hear the news and made preparations for the soldiers who had captured the enemy.
  68. 68. When Segovia arrived in the house where Aguinaldo was staying, he and his men signaled to their comrades to start firing. When Aguinaldo rushed to the window to see what was happening, Funston and his men told Aguinaldo to surrender.
  69. 69. Aguinaldo was brought to Manila where, on April 1, 1901, he took the oath of allegiance to the government of the United States. In a proclamation of April 19, he appealed to the Filipino people to accept the “Sovereignty of the United States.”
  70. 70. Upon Aguinaldo’s capture many Filipino field commanders surrendered, while the wealthy Filipinos happily collaborated with the Americans. However, there were still a few Filipino generals who refused to give up the fight.
  71. 71. General Miguel Malvar of Batangas took over the leadership of the Filipino Government and fought the enemy in running battles. He was so successful that the Americans tried to frighten the civilian population by re-concentrating them in a place where food supply was supposedly assured.
  72. 72. To live outside thse zones or sona meant lack of protection and sure hunger. At this time, Virus(rinderpest) killed over 90% of carabaos, thus, rice planting was greatly affected causing severe shortage of food. The American continued their relentless campaign against the guerrillas.
  73. 73. On February 27, 1902, they captured General Vicente Lukban in Samar. This was the end of the guerrilla war-face in that province. Two months later, April 16, 1902 General Malvar surrendered in order to save his people from the brutality of the enemy and from hunger.
  74. 74. With the surrender of General Malvar, systematic opposition to American sovereignty ceased. The case of Macario Sakay, patriots refused to surrender, but at this point, their effect on the Americans was negligible. The guerrilla war-face was crushed.
  75. 75. Despite the official declaration of the end of the war by President Theodore Roosevelt on July 4, 1902, recent studies point to the continuation of the fight against the colonizers by politico-religious groups called ladrones by the Americans, which means thieves and bandits.
  76. 76. Composed of the poor and uneducated peasants, these groups continued to harass the newlyorganized Philippine Scounts or the Filipinos now serving in the U.S. Army. These groups who believed in the power of prayers, rituals, and amulets (Anting-anting) were not only anti-foreigners (Friars, Spanish and Americans) but also
  77. 77. Among them were the samahans and confradias of Ruperto Rios in Tayabas; Apo Ipe Salvador in Bulacan, Pampangan, Nueva Ijica, Tarlac and Pangasinan; and Papa Isio of Negros who was greatly feared by the elite who welcomed the Americans and put up their own Republic.
  78. 78. There were also the Pulajanes in Cebu (led by the Tabal brothers), “Dios-Dios” in Leyte led by Faustino Ablan and by Papa Pablo in Samar. War was ended in these places in piecemeal fashion 1903 to 1913, using violent means.
  79. 79. The Non-Christian Filipinos like those in the Cordilleras of Luzon and the Muslims in the Sulu archipelago on the south, were “Pacified” through the creation of two special provinces; The Moro Province in 1903 and the Mountain Province in 1908. In the Moro Province warfare would continue for a decade up to 1916.
  80. 80. The brutal military campaigns of the U.S. against them was revealed in the massacre at Bud Dajo in 1906 in Sulu, where after four days of fierce fighting, the U.S forces suffered 20 casualties and 70 men wounded. All the Tausugs – men, women and children about a thousand of them, were all killed.