Postmodernism• Fredric Jameson is a MARXIST• New Base/Social Order/Economic  Relationship corresponds with changes in  Sup...
Henri Toulouse-Lautrec, At the Moulin Rouge, c. 1892 02/04/11
Henri Toulouse-Lautrec, Moulin Rouge - La           Goulue, c. 1891           Impressionism was first seen as an oppositio...
Modernism, as an artistic style for example, opposed commodification by being ‘non-representational,’ ‘abstract,’ ‘non-rea...
Still Life #28, Tom Wesselmann, 1963  02/04/11
Rather than “resisting”                                              commodification, pop art took from                   ...
Postmodernism• Frederic Jameson is a MARXIST• New Base/Social Order/Economic  Relationship corresponds with changes in  Su...
Popular Culture• Emerges out of Industrial Revolution – Why?           •   Circulation of commodities (new modes of transp...
Theory                     Applications/Essays          Theorist(s)Culture and Civilization   “Culture and Anarchy”       ...
Theorist          Theory             Historical Context    The BeefMatthew Arnold    Culture and        “Culture and      ...
Cultural and Civilization Tradition• MATTHEW ARNOLD• (High) CULTURE = CIVILIZATION    – “Sweetness and light”    – “The be...
Marxism• THEODOR ADORNO• Base    – Forces of Production – factories, farms,      plantations, etc.    – Relations of Produ...
Marxism• Base  Superstructure = Economic Determinism;  VULGAR MARXISM• Base  Superstructure = Cultural Determinism• Base...
MARXISM : The Culture Industry• MARXIST CRITIQUE by THEODOR ADORNO• Base = Mass production• Superstructure = Mass-produced...
Hegemony• Marxism 2.0• ANTONIO GRAMSCI    – Wrote this theory in prison in Fascist Italy, early 1930s    – Given the oppre...
So what is it?• Hegemony is the process by which the ruling  class actively works to secure the proletariat’s  consent for...
Hegemony Theory  Cultural Studies                  • Dick Hebdige – Subcultures                     – Oppositional       ...
Culture Studies Continued• TEXTUAL POACHING, Henry Jenkins           • Practice by which fans as active readers assert the...
Postmodernism• MARXIST CRITIQUE by Fredric Jameson• Pastiche – blank parody, visual quotation,  showcasing references; par...
Bricolage           Textual Poaching       PasticheWho Introduced It   Dick Hebdige        Henry Jenkins          Frederic...
Theorist          High Culture                  Popular CultureMatthew Arnold    Pro                           AntiTheodor...
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Midterm review

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  • Midterm review

    1. 1. Postmodernism• Fredric Jameson is a MARXIST• New Base/Social Order/Economic Relationship corresponds with changes in Superstructure, specifically culture (art, music, film)• Capitalism  Late Capitalism• Factory Economy  Information Economy• Production  Consumption02/04/11
    2. 2. Henri Toulouse-Lautrec, At the Moulin Rouge, c. 1892 02/04/11
    3. 3. Henri Toulouse-Lautrec, Moulin Rouge - La Goulue, c. 1891 Impressionism was first seen as an oppositional artistic style - Interest in light, the momentary/fleeting - Often showed the underbelly of society But as a style, because it was still tied to a ‘realistic’ mode of representation… It could be easily commodified – used to sell and advertise things02/04/11
    4. 4. Modernism, as an artistic style for example, opposed commodification by being ‘non-representational,’ ‘abstract,’ ‘non-realistic.’ 02/04/11
    5. 5. Still Life #28, Tom Wesselmann, 1963 02/04/11
    6. 6. Rather than “resisting” commodification, pop art took from the commercial and culture industries Collapsing of high culture and popular culture Emphasis on collage and pastiche Jameson is opposed to this style without content Pop art, an exemplar of postmodernism, shows a new emphasis on consumption in a late capitalist economy He describes symptoms of this particular relationship between postmodernism and late capitalism,Just What Is It That Makes Today’s Homes So but does not offer a cure.Different, So Appealing?, Richard Hamilton,1956 02/04/11
    7. 7. Postmodernism• Frederic Jameson is a MARXIST• New Base/Social Order/Economic Relationship corresponds with changes in Superstructure, specifically culture (art, music, film)• Capitalism  Late Capitalism• Factory Economy  Information Economy• Production  Consumption02/04/11
    8. 8. Popular Culture• Emerges out of Industrial Revolution – Why? • Circulation of commodities (new modes of transport) • Urbanization (creating class stratified neighborhoods) • Regimentation of Work and Leisure Time • Mass Production of Cultural CommoditiesIn Opposition to: - High Culture – poetry like sonnets, classical music like Beethoven - Folk Culture – quilting02/04/11
    9. 9. Theory Applications/Essays Theorist(s)Culture and Civilization “Culture and Anarchy” Matthew ArnoldTraditionMarxism Culture Industries; Base Karl Marx but used by and Superstructure; “On Theodor Adorno and Popular Music”; Frederic Jameson “Postmodernism and Consumer Society”Hegemony (Marxism 2.0) Cultural Studies Antonio Gramsci but used (specifically subcultures, by Dick Hebdige, John textual poachers, fans, Fiske, and Henry Jenkins “semiotic guerilla warfare”)02/04/11
    10. 10. Theorist Theory Historical Context The BeefMatthew Arnold Culture and “Culture and Working class Civilization Anarchy,” late 1860s culture = uncivilized, Tradition England against industrializationTheodor Adorno Marxism “On Popular Music,” Popular culture late 1930s between replicates alienation Germany and of industrial labor; England, fleeing serves as distraction Nazis from class revolutionDick Hebdige Hegemony via “Subculture: The If popular culture = Cultural Studies Meaning of Style,” standardization, late 1970s England what about the oppositional?John Fiske Ditto “Jeaning” 1987 US Ditto + participationHenry Jenkins Ditto “TV fans,” 1992 US Ditto of FiskeFredric Jameson Marxism “Postmodernism,” Consumption defines Early ‘80s US us; Individual no longer exists 02/04/11
    11. 11. Cultural and Civilization Tradition• MATTHEW ARNOLD• (High) CULTURE = CIVILIZATION – “Sweetness and light” – “The best of what has been thought and said”POPULAR CULTURE = ANARCHY - underlying here is an anxiety about the working class and industrialization02/04/11
    12. 12. Marxism• THEODOR ADORNO• Base – Forces of Production – factories, farms, plantations, etc. – Relations of Production – proletariat/bourgeoisie; master/slave; peasant/lord, etc.Superstructure - Law; Politics; Religion; Education; Ethics; Philosophy; Art - CULTURE IS PART OF THE SUPERSTRUCTURE!02/04/11
    13. 13. Marxism• Base  Superstructure = Economic Determinism; VULGAR MARXISM• Base  Superstructure = Cultural Determinism• Base  Superstructure = This is what we want! – The base shapes and conditions the superstructure: it establishes the terrain on which culture is lived and experienced – The superstructure sustains the base: a society’s culture, law, politics, and religion legitimize its forces and relations of production02/04/11
    14. 14. MARXISM : The Culture Industry• MARXIST CRITIQUE by THEODOR ADORNO• Base = Mass production• Superstructure = Mass-produced popular culture, standardized ideas, conformity, obedience• Specifically: – Standardization (The Sitcom) – Pseudo-individualization (The Office UK vs. US) – Social Cement (Prime Time TV  end-goal of obedience)02/04/11
    15. 15. Hegemony• Marxism 2.0• ANTONIO GRAMSCI – Wrote this theory in prison in Fascist Italy, early 1930s – Given the oppressive nature of capitalism’s class relations, why does the proletariat not rise up in revolution? – Frames people NOT as docile bodies complicit in their subjugation02/04/11
    16. 16. So what is it?• Hegemony is the process by which the ruling class actively works to secure the proletariat’s consent for its moral, cultural, intellectual, and political leadership.• Series of negotiations between dominant and subordinate groups• As a theory recognizes that people (the proletariat) have agency. They are NOT docile/obedient/passive masses.02/04/11
    17. 17. Hegemony Theory  Cultural Studies • Dick Hebdige – Subcultures – Oppositional – Bricolage – violent juxtaposition of commodities and symbols taken from a wide variety of sources to create new meanings (Safety Pins, Swastika) – Homology – consistency within a subculture’s stylistic choices, internal logic (musical style matching clothing, lyrics, etc.)02/04/11
    18. 18. Culture Studies Continued• TEXTUAL POACHING, Henry Jenkins • Practice by which fans as active readers assert their mastery and control over mass-produced texts • But more than fans, we all poach. We create meaning through the process of reading. • We contest the author’s authority and right to determine what a text means.02/04/11
    19. 19. Postmodernism• MARXIST CRITIQUE by Fredric Jameson• Pastiche – blank parody, visual quotation, showcasing references; parody without criticism and without humor• EXAMPLE: Pastiche of Kill Bill  Telephone – Lady Gaga and Beyonce (MORE PASTICHE!)02/04/11
    20. 20. Bricolage Textual Poaching PasticheWho Introduced It Dick Hebdige Henry Jenkins Frederic JamesonTheory Hegemony via  Ditto Marxism Cultural StudiesOptimistic vs. Optimistic about OPTIMISTIC Pessimistic aboutPessimistic Subcultures; ABOUT Late Capitalism and Pessimistic about EVERYONE’S Culture (Base and Incorporation READINGS! Superstructure)Hypodermic vs. Participatory Participatory Extreme HypodermicParticipatory (There is no individual)Example Punk Clothing Fan Fiction; Pulp Fiction; Pop Revisionist Literature Art; Girl Talk – Wicked, Wide Sargasso Sea; Shakespeare in Love 02/04/11
    21. 21. Theorist High Culture Popular CultureMatthew Arnold Pro AntiTheodor Adorno Pro AntiDick Hebdige Fluid ~~~~~~~~~~~Fluid Division~~~~~~~~~~~ DivisionJohn Fiske Fluid ~~~~~~~~~~~Fluid Division~~~~~~~~~~~ DivisionHenry Jenkins Fluid ~~~~~~~~~~~Fluid Division~~~~~~~~~~~ DivisionFredric Jameson There is no distinction --- ----There is no  distinction 02/04/11

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