UNDERSTORY FLORA COMPOSITION ASSESSMENT     OF JABONGA, AGUSAN DEL NORTE              JONI REY H. CAMPILAN               A...
APPROVAL SHEETThis undergraduate thesis entitled ―UNDERSTORY FLORA COMPOSITIONASSESSMENT OF JABONGA, AGUSAN DEL NORTE‖, pr...
PERSONAL DATA       The researcher was born in Tboli Evangelical Clinic and Hospital, Inc. onJanuary 6, 1993. He is the el...
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT       This study will not be accomplished without our Almighty God who broughtall possibilities in the lif...
TABLE OF CONTENTSAPPROVAL SHEET..............................................................................................
4.2.3       Uba, San Pablo, Jabonga ..............................................................................334.2.3....
LIST OF TABLESTable 1. Ecological Measurements for Transect 1 in Dinarawan, Jabonga       21Table 2. Ecological Measuremen...
LIST OF FIGURES                                                                                 11Figure 1. Map of Jabonga...
ABSTRACT     CAMPILAN, JONI REY H. ―UNDERSTORY FLORA COMPOSITIONASSESSMENT OF JABONGA, AGUSAN DEL NORTE‖. Undergraduate Th...
1. INTRODUCTION         As one of the world‘s eight biodiversity hottest hotspots (Myers et al,2000), the Philippines is h...
Composition of the vegetative community as well as diversity must beexamined in order to accurately assess differences amo...
Norte. The given information on the, endemic and endangered plant species willassist evolving long term habitat conservati...
2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE2.1    Philippine Biological Diversity        The Philippines has vast natural resources th...
combination of both site-specific biodiversity measures and assessments ofhabitat diversity and heterogeneity are not yet ...
planting, timber stand improvement or TSI and limited harvesting), rehabilitationof degraded lands [reforestation, assiste...
cycles(Chapin, 1983; Zak et al., 1990; Anderson and Eickmeier, 2000;Chastainet al., 2006).       Understory vegetation is ...
number of large diameter trees, tree species richness and diversity (cleaning andthinning), and shrub species richness (pr...
(conservation unit, national park, field station, "community") will play an importantrole in research on theglobal loss of...
2.4    Sampling Parameters       Species diversity is one of the most frequently sampled attributes invegetation studies (...
published cover classes (e.g., Daubenmire or Braun-Blanquet) (Mueller-Dombois& Ellenberg 1974).                           ...
3. MATERIALS AND METHODS3.1   Description of Study Site      Agusan del Norte Province is located on wide, fertile, coasta...
There is a minimum of seasonal variation in temperature and precipitation, asboth remain high throughout the year. The pro...
3.2    Sampling Method       Belt transect method and transect walk survey was utilized for this study.All flora and grass...
3.2.1 Sampling Materials       This study used a 1m X 1m transect belt made of nylon string, and 4wooden stakes. For prese...
3.3      Data Analysis      Ecological measurements of species composition and distribution wereevaluated by calculating t...
o Simpson‘s diversity index is calculated by this equation:                                        ∑                      ...
UNDERSTORY FLORA            STUDY                                                                      DIVERSITY          ...
4.       RESULTS AND DISCUSSION4.1   Species Composition and Richness      Of the 406 qudrats under 11 transects in Jabong...
Nephrolepsis biserrata (Sw.) Schott (Pakong Kalabaw) is the mostabundant species recording 875 individuals in 11 transects...
systems, floral characters, habit, and contains several economically importantgenera (Artocarpus, Brosimum, Brousonettia, ...
Table 1. Ecological Measurements for Transect 1 in Dinarawan, Jabonga                                 RELATIVE    RELATIVE...
numbers of windborne seeds within 8–10 weeks after flowering (more than 80000 seeds per plant per season). Each seed has a...
times, with a relative frequency of 30.17%. Donax cannaeformis (G. Forst.) K.Schum (Bamban) was the most dominant species ...
Species-Area Curve for Transect 2 (Figure 5) showed that the transect surveycovered the total species in the area sampled....
4.2.1.3 Transect 3          There are forty (40) quadrats positioned in Transect 2 covering a total ofthree hundred thirty...
Table 3 shows the top ten important species in the transect whereNephrolepsis biserrata (Sw.) Schott had the highest impor...
There are forty (40) quadrats positioned in Transect 4 covering a total ofsix hundred sixty (660) individuals resolved to ...
Simpson‘s Diversity Index value of 0.871 suggest that Trasect 4understory vegetation has moderate diversity and 25% of the...
There are forty (40) quadrats positioned in Transect 5 covering a total offive hundred eighteen (518) individuals resolved...
Simpson‘s Diversity Index value of 0.941 suggest that Trasect 5understory vegetation has high diversity and there is no sp...
Table 6 shows the top ten important species in the transect whereNephrolepsis biserrata (Sw.) Schott had the highest impor...
4.2.3 Uba, San Pablo, Jabonga4.2.3.1 Transect 7        There are forty (40) quadrats positioned in Transect 7 covering a t...
Zoysia matrella Linn.                     9.442         7.778             6.512   23.732                  Table 7 shows th...
It is native to Central America (extending to 22° N in Mexico) and South America(Colombia) and is introduced as forage pla...
Zoysia matrella Linn.                     10.197       7.263               6.169   23.629                  Table 8 shows t...
inflammatory, bacteriostatic, and fungistatic properties (Zoghbi, 1999). Zoysiamatrella (L.) Merr.), commonly known as Man...
Table 9. Ecological Measurements for Transect 9 in Uba, Jabonga                           RELATIVE    RELATIVE       RELAT...
headache (Ahmad and Raji 1992). S. plana leaves is drunk in decoction as tonicfor treatment postpartum (Harada et al. 2002...
Table 10 shows the top ten important species in the transect where Hypyiscapitata Jacq. had the highest importance value o...
D. ornithopoda is a widespread, polymorphic species, in which a numberof infraspecific taxa has been recognized. It is oft...
relative frequency of 15.32%. It is also the most dominant species (20.52) with arelative dominance of 22.37%.         Tab...
Begonia nigritarum is widely distributed in the Philippines and presentsconsiderable variation (Merrill, 1912). According ...
The Simpson‘s Diversity Index ranged from 0.871 to 0.963 which indicatesthat Jabonga, Agusan del Norte exhibits moderate t...
(Tindalo), Dillenia philippinensis Rolfe (Katmon Baging), and Alangiumlongiflorum Merr. (Malatapay) are vulnerable species...
(FRIM) as one of the potential ‗millennium tree‘ species for forest plantationestablishment in Peninsular Malaysia because...
occurs mostly on dry limestone soils. Vitex timber is used for high-gradeconstruction, interior finishing, flooring, house...
Resource Conservation for Timber of the Philippines (Fernando, 2001) and inJuly 2002 by the Rainforest Action Network (200...
Based on the conservation assessment of Guingab (1994), there are threeendemic species, and fifteen economically important...
housing projects, encroachment of agriculture in the uplands, frequent burning,domestic animal grazing, temperature build-...
5. SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS      The taxonomic understanding is critical to convene the challenges ofbiodi...
Dinarawan, Jabonga. This shows that the area is moderately to highly diversifiedand there is no one species that clearly d...
forms dense population which displaces native vegetation (Weber, 2003). Alsothe presence of invasive species Chromolaena o...
diversity and conservation. Also a continuous monitoring should be madeespecially for plant species being threatened by ut...
Understory Flora Composition Assessment of Jabonga, Agusan del Norte
Understory Flora Composition Assessment of Jabonga, Agusan del Norte
Understory Flora Composition Assessment of Jabonga, Agusan del Norte
Understory Flora Composition Assessment of Jabonga, Agusan del Norte
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Understory Flora Composition Assessment of Jabonga, Agusan del Norte
Understory Flora Composition Assessment of Jabonga, Agusan del Norte
Understory Flora Composition Assessment of Jabonga, Agusan del Norte
Understory Flora Composition Assessment of Jabonga, Agusan del Norte
Understory Flora Composition Assessment of Jabonga, Agusan del Norte
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Understory Flora Composition Assessment of Jabonga, Agusan del Norte
Understory Flora Composition Assessment of Jabonga, Agusan del Norte
Understory Flora Composition Assessment of Jabonga, Agusan del Norte
Understory Flora Composition Assessment of Jabonga, Agusan del Norte
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Understory Flora Composition Assessment of Jabonga, Agusan del Norte
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Understory Flora Composition Assessment of Jabonga, Agusan del Norte
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Understory Flora Composition Assessment of Jabonga, Agusan del Norte
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Understory Flora Composition Assessment of Jabonga, Agusan del Norte
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Understory Flora Composition Assessment of Jabonga, Agusan del Norte
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Understory Flora Composition Assessment of Jabonga, Agusan del Norte
Understory Flora Composition Assessment of Jabonga, Agusan del Norte
Understory Flora Composition Assessment of Jabonga, Agusan del Norte
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Understory Flora Composition Assessment of Jabonga, Agusan del Norte

  1. 1. UNDERSTORY FLORA COMPOSITION ASSESSMENT OF JABONGA, AGUSAN DEL NORTE JONI REY H. CAMPILAN An Undergraduate Thesis Submitted to the Science Department College of Natural Science and Mathematics Mindanao State University Fatima, General Santos City In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN BIOLOGY MARCH 2013
  2. 2. APPROVAL SHEETThis undergraduate thesis entitled ―UNDERSTORY FLORA COMPOSITIONASSESSMENT OF JABONGA, AGUSAN DEL NORTE‖, prepared and submittedby JONI REY H. CAMPILAN, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for theDegree of Bachelor of Science in Biology, has been examined and approved. THESIS COMMITTEE ______________________________ JAIME NAMOCATCAT, Ph.D. Adviser__________________________ _______________________PROF. CARMEN R. NISPEROS FLORENCE L. ZAPICO, MS Member Member ________________________________________________________________This undergraduate thesis is hereby officially accepted in partial fulfillment of therequirements for the degree Bachelor of Science in Biology.__________________________ ____________________________PROF. CARMEN R. NISPEROS MA. LOURDES dM. GALIA, Ph.D Chairperson Dean ______________________ ______________________ Date Date ii
  3. 3. PERSONAL DATA The researcher was born in Tboli Evangelical Clinic and Hospital, Inc. onJanuary 6, 1993. He is the eldest of the two sons of Ptr. Nicolas P. Campilan andMrs. Joan H. Campilan. When he was four years old, he took his preschool education at TLDFI(Tribal Leaders Development Foundation, Inc.) Learning Center where he finishedas second honors. His primary education was completed at Lugan CentralElementary School where he graduated as first honors. He pursued his secondaryeducation at Edwards National High School and graduated as the classvaledictorian. With great dedication in the field of science, he took the degree BS Biologyat Mindanao State University-General Santos City. His learning experiencestaught him that life is not perfect but it was very good, time is never lasting, andrelationship must be prioritized than any other things. Now as he continue to delight himself in the Lord let it be that the desires ofhis heart will be fulfilled. JONI REY H. CAMPILAN iii
  4. 4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This study will not be accomplished without our Almighty God who broughtall possibilities in the life of the researcher and the completion of this paper. ToGod be the glory and honor! The researcher would like to express his great gratitude to his family for thelove, support and encouragement they had shown; to his mother who teaches himhow to sacrifice, to his father who taught me him how to trust God and to hisbrother who taught him how to care for others. To his adviser, Dr. Jaime Namocatcat, who taught him to excel in all things.To Dr. Apolinario Remollo, who never ceases to share his knowledge. And to histeam mates, Victoria Mijares, Dwight Invidiado, Angelie Abistano, Joan De Asis,and to the two guides who strengthen him in his study. To Ms Catherine Aguilar,who took care of him during the field work, and to the people of Jabonga, Agusandel Norte who inspire him to pursue this study. To his friends Vanessa Bidad, Paolo Tagaloguin, Adrian Peñaflorida, AnneTarazona, Ressy Mae Ruelan, Ruth Jean Maratas, and Cherry Mae Labrador. Tohis ‗Nanays‘, Dory Magabullo and Jane Villarosa. To my SRM family- Tay Dodz,Steph, Dave, Benj, Bem, Bea, Joy, Love, Jonivee, & Jebee. Thank you forbringing joy in his life. Not only that I was knit together in my mother’s womb, I was on the rightplace with the right people on the right time. JONI REY H. CAMPILAN iv
  5. 5. TABLE OF CONTENTSAPPROVAL SHEET........................................................................................................ iiPERSONAL DATA..........................................................................................................iiiABSTRACT…………………………………..……………………………………………….….ix1. INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................... 11.1 Objectives of the Study .................................................................................. 21.2 Significance of the Study ............................................................................... 21.3 Scope and Limitation ...................................................................................... 32. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE ............................................................. 42.1 Philippine Biological Diversity ....................................................................... 42.1.1 Philippine Biodiversity Conservation and Management Strategies ............ 42.2. Understanding Understory Vegetation Diversity .......................................... 62.2.1 Effects of Disturbances to Understory Vegetation Diversity ....................... 72.3 Belt Transect Sampling Method ..................................................................... 82.4 Sampling Parameters ....................................................................................103. MATERIALS AND METHODS .........................................................................123.1 Description of Study Site...............................................................................123.2 Sampling Method ...........................................................................................143.2.1 Sampling Materials ........................................................................................153.2.2 Species Processing and Identification .........................................................153.3 Data Analysis .................................................................................................164. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ........................................................................194.1 Species Composition and Richness .............................................................194.2 Ecological Measurement ...............................................................................214.2.1 Dinarawan, San Pablo, Jabonga ...................................................................214.2.1.1 Transect 1 .......................................................................................................214.2.1.2 Transect 2 .......................................................................................................234.2.1.3 Transect 3 .......................................................................................................264.2.1.4 Transect 4 .......................................................................................................274.2.2 Kabugaw, San Pablo, Jabonga .....................................................................294.2.2.1 Transect 5 .......................................................................................................294.2.2.2 Transect 6 .......................................................................................................31 v
  6. 6. 4.2.3 Uba, San Pablo, Jabonga ..............................................................................334.2.3.1 Transect 7 .......................................................................................................334.2.3.2 Transect 8 .......................................................................................................354.2.3.3 Transect 9 .......................................................................................................374.2.4 Magdagooc, Jabonga ....................................................................................394.2.4.1 Transect 10 .....................................................................................................394.2.4.2 Transect 11 .....................................................................................................414.3 Diversity Index ...............................................................................................434.4 Assessment of Conservation Status ............................................................445. SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS .............................51LITERATURE CITED .....................................................................................................55APPENDIX 1. Understory Flora Assemblage Transects and Quadrats in Jabonga, Agusan del Norte ..........................................................66APPENDIX 2. Transect Coordinates .......................................................................65APPENDIX 3. Study Sites and Transect Lines .......................................................76APPENDIX 3. Understory Flora Sampling ..............................................................80APPENDIX 4. Species List of Understory Flora In Jabonga, Agusan Del Norte ..81APPENDIX 5. DENR Assessment of Conservation Status of Threatened Plant Species (DAO 2007-1) .....................................95APPENDIX 6. Guingab (1994) Assessment of Floral Species Conservation Status .........................................................................98APPENDIX 7. Ecological Measurements of Understory Flora Species In Jabonga, Agusan Del Norte ..............................................................................99APPENDIX 8. Photographs of Understory Flora in Jabonga…………...…………130 vi
  7. 7. LIST OF TABLESTable 1. Ecological Measurements for Transect 1 in Dinarawan, Jabonga 21Table 2. Ecological Measurements for Transect 2 in Dinarawan, Jabonga 23Table 3. Ecological Measurements for Transect 3 in Dinarawan, Jabonga 25Table 4. Ecological Measurements for Transect 4 in Dinarawan, Jabonga 27Table 5. Ecological Measurements for Transect 5 in Kabugaw, Jabonga 29Table 6. Ecological Measurements for Transect 6 in Kabugaw, Jabonga 31Table 7. Ecological Measurements for Transect 7 in Uba, Jabonga 32Table 8. Ecological Measurements for Transect 8 in Uba, Jabonga 34Table 9. Ecological Measurements for Transect 9 in Uba, Jabonga 37Table 10. Ecological Measurements for Transect 10 in Magdagooc, Jabonga 39Table 11. Ecological Measurements for Transect 11 in Magdagooc, Jabonga 41Table 12. Conservation Status of Understory Flora Based on Guingab (1994) 48 vii
  8. 8. LIST OF FIGURES 11Figure 1. Map of Jabonga, Agusan del Norte, N 090 07 14.6" E 1250 31 50.9"Figure 2. Schematic flowchart of study, indicators, method, and metrics for 17assessment of the understory flora composition, and conservation status 18Figure 3. Total No. of Species in Understory Flora Assessment in Jabonga 22Figure 4. Transect 1 Cumulative Species-Area Curve, Dinarawan, Jabonga 29Figure 5. Transect 2 Cumulative Species-Area Curve, Dinarawan, Jabonga 26Figure 6. Transect 3 Cumulative Species-Area Curve, Dinarawan, Jabonga 28Figure 7. Transect 4 Cumulative Species-Area Curve, Dinarawan, Jabonga 30Figure 8. Transect 5 Cumulative Species-Area Curve, Kabugaw, Jabonga 31Figure 9. Transect 6 Cumulative Species-Area Curve, Kabugaw, Jabonga 33Figure 10. Transect 7 Cumulative Species-Area Curve, Uba, Jabonga 35Figure 11. Transect 8 Cumulative Species-Area Curve, Uba, Jabonga 38Figure 12. Transect 9 Cumulative Species-Area Curve, Uba, Jabonga 40Figure 13. Transect 10 Cumulative Species-Area Curve, Magdagooc, JabongaFigure 14. Transect 11 Cumulative Species-Area Curve, Magdagooc, Jabonga 42Figure 15. Simpsons Diversity Index of Understory Flora Vegetation in Jabonga 43 viii
  9. 9. ABSTRACT CAMPILAN, JONI REY H. ―UNDERSTORY FLORA COMPOSITIONASSESSMENT OF JABONGA, AGUSAN DEL NORTE‖. Undergraduate Thesis,Mindanao State University, General Santos City Thesis Adviser: DR. JAIME NAMOCATCAT Understory flora of Jabonga, Agusan del Norte were assessed from May13-18, 2012 using belt transect method in 11 transects measuring 4, 300 m inlength. 276 species of plants were collected resolved into 95 families and twohundred ten (210) genera where 9 species are Aroids, 1 Bromeliad, 2 Fern Allies,12 Ferns, 19 Grasses, 42 Herbs, 2 Orchids, 4 Palms, 90 Saplings, 4 Sedges, 32Shrubs, 50 Vines, 1 Weed, and 4 Zingibers. Euphorbiaceae (18 spp.) andMoraceae (17spp.) family were highly represented under 4 and 14 genera,respectively. Simpson‘s Diversity Index Value was calculated highest at 0.963 forTransect 1 and lowest at 0.871 for Transect 4, suggesting moderate to highdiversity. Based on DAO 2007-01, Pterocarpus indicus Willd. Forma indicus(Smooth Narra) is listed as Critically Endangered; Afzelia rhomboidea (Blanco)Vidal (Tindalo) is endangered; Alangium longiflorum Merr. (Malatapay),Cynometra inaequefolia A. Gray (Dila-dila), Dillenia reifferscheidia Naves(Katmon Kalabaw), Mangifera merrillii (Pahong Liitan), Securinega flexousa(Muell,-Arg.) (Anislag), Shorea contorta (White Lawaan), and Vitex parvifloraJuss. (Molave) are vulnerable, and Aglaia luzoniensis (Kuling manok) and Dilleniaphilippinensis Rolfe (Katmon Baging) are other wildlife species. The presence ofNephrolepsis biserrata (Sw.) Schott (Pakong Kalabaw), the most abundantspecies, Chromolaena odorata (Hagonoy) and Saccharum spontaneum L.,(Talahib), invasive species, which considered to have dense population, mighthave cause biodiversity loss. With this threats to the biodiversity of the area andwith the observed exploitation activities, the area is considered to be at high risk.The study reveals the utmost need of Jabonga for biodiversity conservationstrategies. ix
  10. 10. 1. INTRODUCTION As one of the world‘s eight biodiversity hottest hotspots (Myers et al,2000), the Philippines is home to some of the most endangered habitats andspecies in the world. Due to the extraordinary rate of environmental destruction,leaving only 3% of the land with primary forest, this biodiversity is at high risk.Despite that situation, information on Philippine forest vegetation is fragmentaryand focused on trees (Langerberger et al., 2006). Forest management todiversify tree species is now being promoted to favor biodiversity (Barbier et al.,2008). Understory vegetation is influenced by overstory composition andstructure through modifications of resource availability (light, water and soilnutrients) and other effects, such as physical characteristics of the litter layer(Barbier et al., 2008). Vegetation has been widely used to describe habitatcharacteristics, water quality and make predictions about the presence andcomposition of the surrounding communities (Appelgren and Mattila, 2005). Thecomposition of understory is usually different from that of the canopy, and thussupports a different fauna than does the canopy (Gentry and Emmons, 1987).The physical structure of the understory plants provides food resources for manyspecies of insects, birds, and mammals, and is responsible for a high percentageof total diversity in the tropical forests (Tchouto et al., 2006). 1
  11. 11. Composition of the vegetative community as well as diversity must beexamined in order to accurately assess differences among communities and thepossible effects of disturbance, including human induced disturbance. This study investigated the understory flora composition of the remnantseconcary forests of Jabonga, Agusan del Norte. Conservation statusassessment of plants in the study site was done in order to evaluate the area‘sbiodiversity.1.1 Objectives of the Study This study sought to: 1. Collect, classify, and identify understory plants of Jabonga, Agusan del Norte. 2. Assess the composition and distribution of the identified specimen in terms of Density, Relative Density, Frequency, Relative Frequency, Dominance, Relative Dominance, Species Diversity, and evenness. 3. Evaluate the conservation status of plants documented based on DAO 2007-01 and IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature) Red List on plants.1.2 Significance of the Study Results of this study will serve as baseline information on speciesrichness, composition, distributional range, species‘ population size andstructure, and conservation status of understory plants inJabonga, Agusan del 2
  12. 12. Norte. The given information on the, endemic and endangered plant species willassist evolving long term habitat conservation, species prioritization, and naturalresources management plan on the area. Furthermore, this will aid thedeveloping core objectives for the conservation monitoring and decisionmakingof the area.1.3 Scope and Limitation Composition of understory plant flora was studied in Jabonga, Agusan delNorte. This study was focused on the inventory and assessment of understoryflora of ≤ 3 m in height of the area. This includes all flora and grass speciesincluding the seedlings, herbs, vines, rattans, saplings and other undergrowths.Determination of the species composition was confined only on the establishedtransects along its trails and peripheries. Identification of the different collectedspecies was based on the directly observable and basic morphological featuresof individual species with no extensive anatomical study made. At least, genuslevel of documented plant species was identified. Density, relative density,frequency, relative frequency, dominance, relative dominance, and speciesdiversity and evenness were the ecological parameters determining thecomposition and distribution of understory flora of the area. Conservation statusassessment of understory plants was solely base on the sampled species, andsearched plants. 3
  13. 13. 2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE2.1 Philippine Biological Diversity The Philippines has vast natural resources that are source of food,water, shelter and livelihood for its rapidly growing population. It is one of 17megabiodiversity countries (containing 2/3 of the earth‘s biodiversity and about70-80% of the world‘s plant and animal species) due to its geographical isolation,diverse habitats and high rates of endemism (native, restricted or unique to acertain country or area). The Philippines is 5th in the number of plant species andmaintains 5% of the world‘s flora (DENR, 2008). The vegetation of the Philippines is very rich and diverse and a majorproportion of the country is covered with tropical forests. There are varieties ofvines, epiphytes, climbers. Flowering plants including ferns and orchids grow inlarge number in the forests of the Philippines (Langenburger, 2004). Philippinespecies endemism is very high, covering at least 25 genera of plants. ThePhilippines is also one of the world‘s biodiversity hotspots, with a large number ofendangered and threatened species and habitats, making it one of the world‘stop global conservation priority areas (DENR, 2008).2.1.1 Philippine Biodiversity Conservation and Management Strategies Biodiversity maintenance is a key management objective and a requisitefor sustainable forestry (Torras and Saura, 2008). Approaches with a 4
  14. 14. combination of both site-specific biodiversity measures and assessments ofhabitat diversity and heterogeneity are not yet established, but in the near futuremay lead to a scientifically based evaluation of the potential for increasingbiodiversity by appropriate landscape management (Duelli, 1997). Philippines, a developing country, works with simple monitoring plan towork out conservation and management of its biodiversity (Danielsen, et.al,2000). Providing human resource, as major lacking power, is addressed with thegiven strategies. Wherein, the monitoring system aims to identify trends inbiodiversity and its uses so as to guide management action; it also promotes theparticipation of local people in the management, stimulates discussion amongstakeholders and builds the capacity of park staff and communities inmanagement skills. In addition, it seeks to provide people with direction regardingthe aims of protected areas, and reinforces the consolidation of existinglivelihoods through strengthening community-based resource managementsystems. The system can be sustained using locally available resources. Thecountries‘ approach is useful in where it embarks on shared management of parkresources with local communities, where rural people depend on use of naturalecosystems, and where the economic resources for park management arelimited. On forestry, the major strategy is the Community Based ForestManagement, CBFM (Lasco & Pulhin, 2006) CBFM focuses on forest and landmanagement and it includes management of tropical forests (enrichment 5
  15. 15. planting, timber stand improvement or TSI and limited harvesting), rehabilitationof degraded lands [reforestation, assisted natural regeneration (ANR)] andagroforestry. The action has positive results that led to conservation of naturalforests and the associated biodiversity. Tree planting in farms and landscapeshas led to soil and water conservation, carbon sequestration and biomassproduction. In small ways, zoos meet their conservation role through captivebreeding, education, research, animal-welfare, environmental enrichment,reintroduction, and support for in situ conservation of species and their habitats(Catibog-Sinha, 2008). Another is ecotourism that has been identified as one ofthe measures to achieve biodiversity conservation at both in situ (e.g. protectedareas) and ex situ (e.g. zoos) conditions (Catibog-Sinha, 2010).2.2. Understanding Understory Vegetation Diversity The understory layer is a critical component of forest ecosystems typicallysupporting the vast majority of total ecosystem floristic diversity (Halpern andSpies, 1995; Gilliamand Roberts, 2003) and providing habitat elements toassociatedwildlife species (Carey and Johnson, 1995). These communities alsoplay a central role in the dynamics and functioning of forestecosystems byinfluencing long-term successional patterns (Phillips and Murdy, 1985; Abramsand Downs, 1990; Oliver andLarson, 1996; McCarthy et al., 2001; Royo andCarson, 2005;Nyland et al., 2006) and contributing to forest nutrient 6
  16. 16. cycles(Chapin, 1983; Zak et al., 1990; Anderson and Eickmeier, 2000;Chastainet al., 2006). Understory vegetation is influenced by overstory composition andstructure through modifications of resource availability (light, water and soilnutrients) and other effects, such as physical characteristics of the litter layer.Overstory light transmittance and diverse properties of forest litter are factors thathave been most fully studied to date, but other factors such as throughfall waterquantity and chemistry may also play a role (Barbier et al., 2008). Understoryplant species assemblages may have different patterns of diversity than treespecies because of variable responses to different abiotic factors. Forests growing on former agricultural land often have reducedfrequencies of many native forest herbs compared with forests that were nevercleared for agriculture. A leading explanation for this pattern is that many forestherbs are dispersal limited, but environmental conditions may also hindercolonization. It is suggested that some plants growing in post-agricultural standsmay be N (nitrogen) limited, whereas undisturbed stands in this region appear tobe approaching N saturation (Fraterrigo et al., 2009).2.2.1 Effects of Disturbances to Understory Vegetation Diversity An intermediate disturbance hypothesis states that diversity is highest atintermediate disturbance levels. Stand improvement treatments increased the 7
  17. 17. number of large diameter trees, tree species richness and diversity (cleaning andthinning), and shrub species richness (pruning) (Torras and Saura, 2008). In a study, thinning and burning treatments are a common method ofreducing fire risk while simultaneously promoting understory production. Theseecological restoration treatments did promote a more diverse and abundantunderstory community. The disturbances generated by these treatments alsopromoted an invasion by an undesirable nonnative species (McGlone etal.,2009).2.3 Belt Transect Sampling Method Numerous vegetation sampling techniques are outlinedin samplingtextbooks (Mueller-Dombois & Ellenberg1974; Krebs 1989; Kent & Coker 1994;and Barbour et al.1999) and in the scientific literature (Stohlgren et al.1995;Etchberger & Krausman 1997; Stohlgren et al. 1998) for quantifyingdifferent plant community attributes. Although there is no one correct technique for sampling vegetation, thesampling design chosen may greatly influence the conclusions researchers candraw from restoration treatments. Considerations when designing vegetationsampling protocol include determining what sampling attributes to measure, thesize and shape of the sampling plot, the number of replicates and their locationwithin the study area, and the frequency of sampling (Korb et al., 2003).Sampling methods to estimate total species richness of a defined area 8
  18. 18. (conservation unit, national park, field station, "community") will play an importantrole in research on theglobal loss of biodiversity. Such methods should be fast,because time is of the essence. They shouldbe reliable because diverse workerswill need to apply them in diverse areas to generate comparabledata. Theyshould also be simple and cheap, because the problem of extinction is mostsevere indeveloping tropical countries where the scientific and museuminfrastructure is often still rudimentary (Coddington et al, undated). Sutter (1996) outlined four criteria of monitoringtechniques that must bemet to reliably and precisely detect change: (1) Data need to have a known andacceptable level of precision; (2) data sampling techniques needto be repeatable;(3) data need to be collected for a longenough time to capture responses totreatments; and (4) techniques need to be feasible, realistic, and inexpensiveenough to be maintained long term. Determining the sampling technique that shouldbe used for a particularstudy needs to take into consideration numerous factors such as the restorationgoals, sampling attributes, level of sampling precision, and financialandpersonnel constraints (Korb et al., 2003). In this study two 1x1m Belt Transectwas spaced 10m apart across ends of 20m transect line. The primary objective ofthe belt transect is to obtain a species list of the area (Kent& Coker 1994). Allherbaceous and shrub species within the belt were recorded including theirfoliage cover data. 9
  19. 19. 2.4 Sampling Parameters Species diversity is one of the most frequently sampled attributes invegetation studies (Ricklefs & Schluter 1993). Species diversity is often usedinterchangeably with species richness.Species richness, however, is one of twocomponents thatdefine species diversity, the other being species evenness (Kent& Coker 1994). The well-known concept states that an increase in sampling areawill increase species richness detection (Rapson et al. 1997). Species abundance is some measure of the amount of a species in asample (Chiarucci et al. 1999). Plant community attributes that measure speciesabundance include plant foliar cover, plant density, and plant frequency. Plantfoliar cover is one of the most widely used abundance measurements because itis not biased by the size or distribution of individual species as plant density andplant frequency measurements can be (Floyd & Anderson 1987). Ecologists havedesigned numerous sampling techniques to quantify plant foliar cover. The threemost commonly used techniques include the point-intercept, the line-intercept,and ocular estimation (Buckner 1985). Visual estimation of plant cover is oneof the most common measurementsin plant ecology and restoration studies (Kennedy & Addison 1987). Ocularestimates are normally taken within a 1m 2 area because one of the requirementsfor accuracy is that observations must be made from a vertical perspective withina bounded plot (Buckner 1985). Ocular estimates can either be estimated to thenearest predetermined percent (e.g., closest 1%) or they can be categorized into 10
  20. 20. published cover classes (e.g., Daubenmire or Braun-Blanquet) (Mueller-Dombois& Ellenberg 1974). 11
  21. 21. 3. MATERIALS AND METHODS3.1 Description of Study Site Agusan del Norte Province is located on wide, fertile, coastal plateau inthe northeastern part of Mindanao. This province is bordered on the north andeast by the Province of Surigao del Norte and Surigao del Sur, on the south bythe Province of Agusan del Sur, and on the southwest by the Province ofMisamis Oriental. Fertile, coastal plains and valleys along the Agusan Rivercharacterize the terrain of Agusan del Norte Province. The average elevation is46 meters above sea level: The climate is classified as tropical wet.Temperatures of the coolest month are above 18°C, and rainfall in the driestmonth is at least 60 mm.Figure 1. Map of Jabonga, Agusan del Norte, N 090 07 14.6" E 1250 31 50.9" 12
  22. 22. There is a minimum of seasonal variation in temperature and precipitation, asboth remain high throughout the year. The province is large, 2,590 squarekilometers (Carney et al., 1978). In Agusan del Norte, Lake Mainit is located where it is covered bydifferent vegetative groups: grassland, brush land, secondary forest , limestoneforest, marshland, riparian and lowland rice paddies. Municipality of Jabonga isone of the Municipalities that surrounds Lake Mainit. There are four study sites in Jabonga that are strategically selected for thestudy of the understory flora namely Dinarawan, Kabugaw, Uba, and Magdagooc(see Appendix 2). Jabonga vegetation is composed of wetlands, grasslands, andsecondary forest. Dinarawan, Kabugaw, and Uba were primarily composed of secondaryforests with grassland and agricultural areas, located besides Mamanwa‘scommunity, along the shore of Lake Mainit. The forest is the main source ofliving for the people as it provides food, water, and income. Utilization of Kaong[Areaga pinnata (Wurmb) Merr.], agricultural area, and the forest timber were theobserved income sources. Magdagooc is located besides Butuan Bay. The secondary forest in thearea is dominated by Cocos nucifera L.. Coconut and fishing were the mainsource of income of the people in the area. 13
  23. 23. 3.2 Sampling Method Belt transect method and transect walk survey was utilized for this study.All flora and grass species including the seedlings, herbs, vines, rattans, saplingsand other undergrowths of less than or equal to 3-m tall that were physicallyintercepted by the transect line or those projection of foliage is intercepted by thetransect lines was identified, counted and recorded. Visual estimation of plant &soil cover was made by ocular estimation to the nearest 1% percent. Endemic,threatened and native species were subject for documentation during transectwalk survey. The biological method targeted the determination of the minimalarea and species area curve, density estimation, estimation of plant coverage,and diversity measurement. A 20m transect tape was used to space successivesampling stations. Establishment of new stations was made continuously until theboundary of the study area are reached. Coordinates of sampling stations wastaken using the GPS receiver. Two (2) perpendicular 1m x 1m belt transect was laid down in to each ofthe transect stations established in the line intercept method. This belt transectwas described to be oriented parallel to the axis of the environmental gradientwithin an area being sampled. The quadrats were placed five (5) meters apart onboth sides. Common name, scientific name, family, and genera, abundance and directtop coverage estimation of each species, as well as the bare ground, wererecorded. 14
  24. 24. 3.2.1 Sampling Materials This study used a 1m X 1m transect belt made of nylon string, and 4wooden stakes. For preservation of specimens, plastic bags and sacks, woodenplant pressers, corrugated ventilators, blotters, newspapers, and straps wereused. A digital camera was used to photograph voucher specimens, andsampling areas, and GPS receiver for determining coordinates of located areasof belt transects, and track rare species of plants.3.2.2 Species Processing and Identification Collected samples were identified with the use of Flora of Manila, USDAplant database, and Guide to Philippine Flora and Fauna. The identificationscheme covered at least up to the genus level. The conservation status of theidentified plants was assessed with the use of IUCN Red List for threatenedspecies and DAO 2007-1. Journals and publications for conservation focused intropical forest and vegetation in Asia and Philippines were used for furtherreferences. Preparation of the species for herbarium purposes followed theprocedures set by Flora of Manila. Specimens for herbarium were gatheredcumulatively. Field pressing procedure was applied on the actual stations. 15
  25. 25. 3.3 Data Analysis Ecological measurements of species composition and distribution wereevaluated by calculating the species density, frequency, dominance, and theirrelative measures. Values were derived using the following formulas: o Density = Total no. of individuals of species A / Total area sampled o Relative Density = o Frequency = o Relative frequency = o Dominance = o Relative dominance = o Importance Value= Relative Density + Relative Frequency + Relative Dominance Diversity per transect was evaluated through the use of Simpson‘s (D)index as a measure of species richness and evenness of the community usingMicrosoft QuickBASIC Application. 16
  26. 26. o Simpson‘s diversity index is calculated by this equation: ∑ D= ( ) Where: n = total no. of organisms of a particular species N = total no. of organisms of all species Electronic aid offered by Microsoft Excel was used for faster datacomputations and analysis. 17
  27. 27. UNDERSTORY FLORA STUDY DIVERSITY TARGET SPECIES FOR UNDERSTORY DIVERSITY CONSERVATION INDICATORS Rare, Endemic, Endagered Grasses, Ferns, Herbs, Shrubs Species ≤ 3 m (height) BELT TRANSECT & AREA METHOD QUADRAT SAMPLING SEARCH METRICS No. of Species Species Status Relative Abundance, Frequency, & Density of Target Species Species Diversity and Coverage RESULT ANALYSIS DATA ANALYSIS & CONSERVATION STATUS ASSESSMENT Figure 2. Schematic flowchart of study, indicators, method, and metrics for assessment of the understory floracomposition, and conservation status. 18
  28. 28. 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION4.1 Species Composition and Richness Of the 406 qudrats under 11 transects in Jabonga, Agusan del Norte, twohundred seventy-two (272) species of understory plants were collected resolvedto a total of 95 families and to two hundred ten (210) genera. On record are 9Aroids, 1 Bromeliad, 2 Fern Allies, 12 Ferns, 19 Grasses, 42 Herbs, 2 Orchids, 4Palms, 90 tree Saplings, 4 Sedges, 32 Shrubs, 50 Vines, 1 Weed, and 4Zingibers. Transect 1 captured the highest number of species (83 species)followed by Transect 9 (63 species). Transect 6 (57 species) and transect 11captured the least number of species (43 species).Figure 3. Total No. of Species in Understory Flora Assessment in Jabonga90 838070 63 55 55 5760 51 52 52 49 4850 4340302010 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 TRANSECT LINE Total no. of Species 19
  29. 29. Nephrolepsis biserrata (Sw.) Schott (Pakong Kalabaw) is the mostabundant species recording 875 individuals in 11 transects. Nephrolepsisbiserrata (Sw.) Schott are ever green perennial herb that form congestedcolonies in very wet soils, along the edges of streams or marshes and aresometimes on surfaces of lake and stagnant waters (Omojola, 1997).Nephrolepis biserrata distribution is pantropical (Hovenkamp and Miyamoto,2005), they are indigenous to an immense area, covering most parts of tropicalsouthern hemisphere and has become naturalized in almost every tropical regionof the globe. They have stems often in the form of rhizome by which theycommonly reproduce vegetatively (Robert et al, 1965). Roots are adventitiousand grow usually in clusters from the rhizome which are pteridophyte (ITIS,2010). The leaves are commonly pinnately compound and consist of two parts:the frond (leafy portion) and the stripe (stalk). Young developing leaves arecircinate-coiled in on themselves like a watch spring and the tip unrollsprogressively as the lower plants develop (Chee and Faiz, 1991). Nephrolepsisbiserrata have an exponential growth potential and forms dense population whichdisplaces native vegetation (Weber, 2003). Its fronds form a thick mat on theground, preventing any establishment of native plant (Weber, 2003). Euphorbiaceae (18spp.) and Moraceae (17spp.) families had the mostnumber of species under 4 and 14 genera, respectively. The Moraceae (37genera, 1100 species) is primarily a tropical to subtropical family which displaysan amazing diversity of inflorescence structures, pollination syndromes, breeding 20
  30. 30. systems, floral characters, habit, and contains several economically importantgenera (Artocarpus, Brosimum, Brousonettia, Ficus, and Treculia) (Swenson etal, 2003). Euphorbiaceae is generally distinguished by the milky sap, (Whenpresent) unisexual (evolved) flower, ovary trilocular and superior, placentationaxile (Kothale et al, 2011).4.2 Ecological Measurement4.2.1 Dinarawan, San Pablo, Jabonga4.2.1.1Transect 1 There are forty (40) quadrats positioned in Transect 1 covering a total offive hundred eighty-six (586) individuals resolved to eighty-three (83) species.Soleria scribiculata Nees (Arat) was the most abundant species recorded (53individuals). Also, it is the densest species scoring 1.196 and has a relativedensity of 9.39% and the most frequent species (16) with a relative frequency of6.48%. Donax cannaeformis (G. Forst.) K. Schum (Bamban) was the mostdominant species (9.022) with a relative dominance of 11.66%. Table 1 shows the top ten important species in the transect where Soleriascribiculata Nees had the highest importance value of 25.554 followed by Donaxcannaeformis (G. Forst.) K. Schum and Chromoloena odorata (Hagonoy) scoring20.397 and 14.095, respectively. 21
  31. 31. Table 1. Ecological Measurements for Transect 1 in Dinarawan, Jabonga RELATIVE RELATIVE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE SPECIES DENSITY FREQUENCY DOMINANCE VALUEChromoloena odorata 8.874 2.834 2.388 14.095Dioscorea hispida 2.048 3.644 2.949 8.641Donax cannaeformis (G. Forst.) 3.072 5.668 11.657 20.397K. SchumFicus pseudopalma Blanco 2.560 2.834 2.528 7.922Leucosyke capitellata (Poir.) 3.242 2.834 1.404 7.481Wedd.Nephrolepsis biserrata (Sw.) 4.437 2.834 4.635 11.906SchottSaccharum spontaneum L. 7.850 2.024 1.264 11.138Selaginella plana Hieron 3.584 4.049 4.073 11.705Semecarpus philippinesis Engl. 1.706 2.834 3.652 8.192Soleria scribiculata Nees 9.386 6.478 9.691 25.554 Simpson‘s Diversity Index value of 0.963 suggest that Trasect 1understory vegetation has high diversity and there is no species that clearlydominates area. The Species-Area Curve for Transect 1 (Figure 4) indicates thatthere could be uncovered species in the area sampled. Local guides prohibitedthe researcher to survey the rest of the trek in accordance to their belief that theforegoing area is sacred. Soleria scribiculata Nees is a sedge under Cyperaceae family, consideredto be an abundant species. The stems of Bamban (Donax) is economicallymanufactured to laundry basket (FPRDI, 2012). Chromolaena odorata isconsidered as one of the world‘s most invasive weeds. It produces huge 22
  32. 32. numbers of windborne seeds within 8–10 weeks after flowering (more than 80000 seeds per plant per season). Each seed has a tuft of white hairs that allow itto be transported by wind and water. Seeds will also attach to vehicles,Figure 4. Transect 1 Cumulative Species-Area Curve, Dinarawan, Jabonga 90 80 70 60 Species No. 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 No. of Belt Transectmachinery, clothing, footwear and animals. Most seeds germinate immediatelyafter rain, though some appear to remain dormant for several years (EDI, 2012).4.2.1.2 Transect 2 There are forty (40) quadrats positioned in Transect 2 covering a total ofthree hundred thirty-one (331) individuals resolved to fifty-five (55) species.Nephrolepsis biserrata (Sw.) Schott (Pakong Kalabaw) was the most abundantspecies on record (101 individuals). Also, it is the densest species scoring 2.53and has a relative density of 30.50% and the most frequent species, appeared 27 23
  33. 33. times, with a relative frequency of 30.17%. Donax cannaeformis (G. Forst.) K.Schum (Bamban) was the most dominant species (1.94) with a relativedominance of 19.9%. Table 2 shows the top ten important species in the transect whereNephrolepsis biserrata (Sw.) Schott had the highest importance value of 68.02followed by Saccharum spontaneum L. (Talahib) and Soleria scribiculata Nees(Arat) scoring 23.46 and 15.76, respectively.Table 2. Ecological Measurements for Transect 2 in Dinarawan, Jabonga RELATIVE RELATIVE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE SPECIES DENSITY FREQUENCY DOMINANCE VALUEBlumea balsamifera L. DC 1.511 2.439 4.239 8.188Caryota mitis 2.115 3.415 3.768 9.297Donax cannaeformis (G. Forst.) K.Schum 2.719 4.390 5.024 12.133Ficus pseudopalma Blanco 2.417 3.902 3.454 9.773Ganophyllum falcatum Blume 1.813 2.927 2.512 7.094Hypyis capitata Jacq. 6.647 4.878 4.239 15.763Leucosyke capitellata (Poir.)Wedd. 4.532 4.878 3.297 12.706Nephrolepsis biserrata (Sw.)Schott 30.514 13.171 24.333 68.017Saccharum spontaneum L. 7.855 6.341 9.262 23.459Soleria scribiculata Nees 6.344 7.805 4.396 18.545 Simpson‘s Diversity Index value of 0.887 suggest that Trasect 2understory vegetation has moderate diversity and 25% of the area is nearlydominated (24%) by Nephrolepsis biserrata (Sw.) Schott. The Cumulative 24
  34. 34. Species-Area Curve for Transect 2 (Figure 5) showed that the transect surveycovered the total species in the area sampled.Figure 5. Transect 2 Cumulative Species-Area Curve, Dinarawan, Jabonga 60 50 40 Species No. 30 20 10 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 No. of Belt Transect Saccharum spontaneum L., an invasive Asian grass species (Graminae),one of two wild species of sugarcane (Hammond 1999). S. spontaneum formsdense, continuous thickets that inhibit the establishment of woody species(Hooper et al., unpublished data) and are resistant to weed control measures dueto the species‘ deep and extensive root system. S. spontaneum resproutsvigorously after fire (Peet, Watkinson et al. 1999; Peet, Watkinson et al. 1999). 25
  35. 35. 4.2.1.3 Transect 3 There are forty (40) quadrats positioned in Transect 2 covering a total ofthree hundred thirty-one (331) individuals resolved to fifty-five (55) species.Nephrolepsis biserrata (Sw.) Schott (Pakong Kalabaw) was the most abundantspecies on record (101 individuals). Also, it is the densest species scoring 2.523and has a relative density of 30.50% and the most frequent species, appeared 27times, with a relative frequency of 30.17%. Donax cannaeformis (G. Forst.) K.Schum (Bamban) was the most dominant species (1.94) with a relativedominance of 19.9%.Table 3. Ecological Measurements for Transect 3 in Dinarawan, Jabonga RELATIVE RELATIVE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE SPECIES DENSITY FREQUENCY DOMINANCE VALUEAcrostiqhum aureum L. 3.474 3.286 4.881 11.642Cylea merrillii Diels. 2.417 5.634 2.232 10.282Donax cannaeformis (G. 8.459 11.268 14.505 34.232Forst.) K. SchumHypyis capitata Jacq. 6.042 3.286 3.208 12.536Lygodium flexuosum (L) Sw 5.287 7.512 4.184 16.983Nephrolepsis biserrata (Sw.) 27.341 8.451 11.158 46.950SchottSelaginella plana Hieron 7.553 4.225 5.579 17.357Soleria scribiculata Nees 4.230 2.817 2.789 9.836Thespesia populnea (L.) 2.568 4.225 3.626 10.420Soland ex Corr.Zoysia matrella Linn. 5.891 3.756 3.068 12.715 26
  36. 36. Table 3 shows the top ten important species in the transect whereNephrolepsis biserrata (Sw.) Schott had the highest importance value of 63.56followed by Saccharum spontaneum L. (Talahib) and Soleria scribiculata Nees(Arat) scoring 21.77 and 17.74 respectively. Simpson‘s Diversity Index value of 0.897 suggest that Trasect 3understory vegetation has moderate diversity and there is no species that clearlydominates area. The Cumulative Species-Area Curve for Transect 3 (Figure 6)Figure 6. Transect 3 Cumulative Species-Area Curve, Dinarawan, Jabonga 60 50 40 Species No. 30 20 10 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 No. of Belt Transectshowed that the transect survey might covered more species in the areasampled. 4.2.1.4 Transect 4 27
  37. 37. There are forty (40) quadrats positioned in Transect 4 covering a total ofsix hundred sixty (660) individuals resolved to fifty-five (55) species.Nephrolepsis biserrata (Sw.) Schott was the most abundant species on record(203 individuals). Also, it is the densest species scoring 5.08 and has a relativedensity of 30.76% and the most frequent species, appeared 32 times, with arelative frequency of 15.76%. It is also the most dominant species (19.87) with arelative dominance of 22.85%. Table 4 shows the top ten important species in the transect whereNephrolepsis biserrata (Sw.) Schott had the highest importance value of 69.37followed by Hypyis capitata Jacq. (Dilang Baka) and Donax cannaeformis (G.Forst.) K. Schum scoring 34.30 and 18.98 respectively.Table 4. Ecological Measurements for Transect 4 in Dinarawan, Jabonga RELATIVE RELATIVE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE SPECIES DENSITY FREQUENCY DOMINANCE VALUEAlpinia zerumbet (Pers.) 2.424 4.433 1.580 8.438Burtl. & SmithCylea merrillii Diels. 1.818 3.448 1.437 6.703Dinochloa luconiae (Munro) 2.727 3.941 3.161 9.829Merr. BabuaiDonax cannaeformis (G. 7.727 4.926 6.322 18.975Forst.) K. SchumHypyis capitata Jacq. 14.697 7.389 12.213 34.299Nephrolepsis biserrata (Sw.) 30.758 15.764 22.845 69.366SchottNephrolepsis hirsutula 1.818 2.463 2.586 6.867Paspalum conjugatum Berg. 3.788 3.448 4.023 11.259Piper aduncum 1.364 3.448 1.724 6.536Soleria scribiculata Nees 3.939 3.941 3.736 11.616 28
  38. 38. Simpson‘s Diversity Index value of 0.871 suggest that Trasect 4understory vegetation has moderate diversity and 25% of the area is nearly(23%) dominated by Nephrolepsis biserrata (Sw.) Schott. The CumulativeSpecies-Area Curve for Transect 4 (Figure 7) showed that the transect surveyhad uncovered species in the area sampled.Figure 7. Transect 4 Cumulative Species-Area Curve, Dinarawan, Jabonga 60 50 40 Species No. 30 20 10 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 No. of Belt Transect Hypyis capitata Jacq. is an introduced species originally from tropicalAmerica but now pantropic, it could grow from near sea level to 750 m and isusually found on degraded farmland and along roads and clearings in lowlandrain forest (Jacquin, 1787).4.2.2 Kabugaw, San Pablo, Jabonga4.2.2.1 Transect 5 29
  39. 39. There are forty (40) quadrats positioned in Transect 5 covering a total offive hundred eighteen (518) individuals resolved to fifty-one (51) species.Nephrolepsis biserrata (Sw.) Schott was the most abundant species on record(61 individuals). Also, it is the densest species scoring 1.53 and has a relativedensity of 11.78% and the most frequent species, appeared 22 times, with arelative frequency of 9.74%. It is also the most dominant species (11.13) with arelative dominance of 12.79%. Table 5 shows the top ten important species in the transect whereNephrolepsis biserrata (Sw.) Schott had the highest importance value of 34.30followed by Hypyis capitata Jacq. and Chromoloena odorata scoring 21.46 and19.06 respectively.Table 5. Ecological Measurements for Transect 5 in Kabugaw, Jabonga RELATIVE RELATIVE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE SPECIES DENSITY FREQUENCY DOMINANCE VALUEChromoloena odorata 8.880 4.867 5.316 19.064Ficus pseudopalma Blanco 2.510 5.752 5.316 13.578Hypyis capitata Jacq. 11.583 3.982 5.891 21.456Ipomoea obscura (L.) K.G 3.282 6.195 3.448 12.925Lygodium flexuosum (L) Sw 2.510 5.310 3.879 11.699Nephrolepsis biserrata 11.776 9.735 12.787 34.298(Sw.) SchottSaccharum spontaneum L. 5.405 2.655 3.305 11.365Selaginella plana Hieron 6.371 5.310 6.322 18.002Soleria scribiculata Nees 7.336 4.867 4.167 16.370Zoysia matrella Linn. 6.950 4.425 5.603 16.978 30
  40. 40. Simpson‘s Diversity Index value of 0.941 suggest that Trasect 5understory vegetation has high diversity and there is no species that clearlydominates area. The Cumulative Species-Area Curve for Transect 5 (Figure 8)showed that the transect survey covered the total species in the area sampled.Figure 8. Transect 5 Cumulative Species-Area Curve, Kabugaw, Jabonga 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 No. of Belt Transect4.2.2.2 Transect 6 There are forty-four (44) quadrats positioned in Transect 6 covering a totalof five hundred sixty-five (565) individuals resolved to fifty-seven (57) species.Nephrolepsis biserrata (Sw.) Schott was the most abundant species on record(99 individuals). Also, it is the densest species scoring 2.25 and has a relativedensity of 17.52% and the most frequent species, appeared 26 times, with arelative frequency of 11.00%. It is also the most dominant species (14.43) with arelative dominance of 16.49%. 31
  41. 41. Table 6 shows the top ten important species in the transect whereNephrolepsis biserrata (Sw.) Schott had the highest importance value of 45.22followed by Hypyis capitata Jacq. and Chromoloena odorata scoring 23.26 and25.68 respectively.Table 6. Ecological Measurements for Transect 6 in Kabugaw, Jabonga RELATIVE RELATIVE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE SPECIES DENSITY FREQUENCY DOMINANCE VALUEChromoloena odorata 3.009 3.448 2.468 8.925Donax cannaeformis (G. 2.655 3.879 3.766 10.300Forst.) K. SchumLygodium flexuosum (L) 3.717 5.172 3.117 12.006SwNephrolepsis biserrata 17.522 11.207 16.494 45.223(Sw.) SchottSaccharum spontaneum L. 13.097 3.017 7.143 23.257Selaginella plana Hieron 6.195 2.586 4.156 12.937Soleria scribiculata Nees 3.009 3.879 3.247 10.135Spathoglottis plicata 9.558 6.897 9.221 25.675BlurneThespesia populnea (L.) 2.478 4.310 2.987 9.775Soland ex Corr.Zoysia matrella Linn. 4.071 4.310 2.987 11.368 Simpson‘s Diversity Index value of 0.929 suggest that Trasect 6understory vegetation has high diversity and there is no species that clearlydominates area. The Cumulative Species-Area Curve for Transect 6 (Figure 9)showed that the transect survey covered the total species in the area sampled.Figure 9. Transect 6 Cumulative Species-Area Curve, Kabugaw, Jabonga 60 50 40 Species No. 30 32 20 10 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39
  42. 42. 4.2.3 Uba, San Pablo, Jabonga4.2.3.1 Transect 7 There are forty (40) quadrats positioned in Transect 7 covering a total offour hundred eighty-nine (489) individuals resolved to forty-eight (48) species.Hypyis capitata Jacq. was the most abundant species on record (94 individuals).Also, it is the densest species scoring 2.35 and has a relative density of 19.29%and the most frequent species, appeared 17 times, with a relative frequency of9.44%. It is also the most dominant species (9.38) with a relative dominance of10.85%.Table 7. Ecological Measurements for Transect 7 in Uba, Jabonga RELATIVE RELATIVE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE SPECIES DENSITY FREQUENCY DOMINANCE VALUEAlpinia zerumbet (Pers.) 2.258 2.222 2.894 7.374Burtl. & SmithCentrosema pubescens 9.647 9.444 10.999 30.090Benth.Chromoloena odorata 2.258 3.889 2.171 8.317Donax cannaeformis (G. 2.668 2.778 3.618 9.064Forst.) K. SchumHypyis capitata Jacq. 19.294 9.444 10.854 39.592Ipomoea obscura (L.) K.G 1.437 3.889 2.026 7.352Nephrolepsis biserrata (Sw.) 18.678 16.667 19.392 54.737SchottPaspalum conjugatum Berg. 8.621 3.889 5.933 18.443Piper aduncum 2.258 3.333 2.460 8.051 33
  43. 43. Zoysia matrella Linn. 9.442 7.778 6.512 23.732 Table 7 shows the top ten important species in the transect where Hypyiscapitata Jacq. had the highest importance value of 39.59 followed byNephrolepsis biserrata (Sw.) Schott and Centrosema pubescens Benth.(Sentrosema) scoring 54.74 and 30.09 respectively. Simpson‘s Diversity Index value of 0.900 suggest that Trasect 7understory vegetation has high diversity and there is no species that clearlydominates area. The Cumulative Species-Area Curve for Transect 7 (Figure 10)showed that the transect survey covered the total species in the area sampled.Figure 10. Transect 7 Cumulative Species-Area Curve, Uba, Jabonga 60 50 40 Species No. 30 20 10 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 No. of Belt Transect Centrosema pubescens is a vigorous, trailing, twining and climbingperennial herb with trifoliate leaves and is fairly drought tolerant (Skermann,1988). 34
  44. 44. It is native to Central America (extending to 22° N in Mexico) and South America(Colombia) and is introduced as forage plant near sea level to 100 m. It is widelydistributed throuout the world but it is mostly found in the New World (Ren andGilbert, 2010).4.2.3.2 Transect 8 There are forty (40) quadrats positioned in Transect 8 covering a total offive hundred fifty-nine (559) individuals resolved to fifty-two (52) species.Nephrolepsis biserrata (Sw.) Schott was the most abundant species on record(91 individuals). Also, it is the densest species scoring 2.28 and has a relativedensity of 16.28% and the most frequent species, appeared 23 times, with arelative frequency of 12.85%. It is also the most dominant species (14.88) with arelative dominance of 17.07%.Table 8. Ecological Measurements for Transect 8 in Uba, Jabonga RELATIVE RELATIVE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE SPECIES DENSITY FREQUENCY DOMINANCE VALUEAlpinia zerumbet (Pers.) 14.848 6.704 7.747 29.299Burtl. & SmithCentrosema pubescens 9.660 9.497 11.478 30.635Benth.Chromoloena odorata 3.220 2.793 2.296 8.309Cyperus rotundus L. 5.188 1.117 1.435 7.740Hypyis capitata Jacq. 5.725 2.793 4.161 12.678Lygodium japonicum 1.431 3.352 2.152 6.935Neotrewia cumingii 2.326 2.793 1.865 6.984(Muell.-Arg) Pax & K.Nephrolepsis biserrata 16.279 12.849 17.073 46.201(Sw.) SchottPaspalum conjugatum 2.504 2.235 3.587 8.326Berg. 35
  45. 45. Zoysia matrella Linn. 10.197 7.263 6.169 23.629 Table 8 shows the top ten important species in the transect whereNephrolepsis biserrata (Sw.) Schott had the highest importance value of 46.20followed by Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) Burtl. & Smith (Barik) and Zoysia matrellaLinn. (Barit) scoring 29.30 and 23.63 respectively. Simpson‘s Diversity Index value of 0.921 suggest that Trasect 8understory vegetation has high diversity and there is no species that clearlydominates area. The Cumulative Species-Area Curve for Transect 8 (Figure 11)showed that the transect survey covered the total species in the area sampled. Figure 11. Transect 8 Cumulative Species-Area Curve, Uba, Jabonga 60 50 40 Species No. 30 20 10 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 No. of Belt Transect Alpinia zerumbet (Family Zingiberaceae) is a perennial ginger growingwidely in the subtropics and tropics. It is used in folk medicine for its anti- 36
  46. 46. inflammatory, bacteriostatic, and fungistatic properties (Zoghbi, 1999). Zoysiamatrella (L.) Merr.), commonly known as Manila Grass, is one of the the mostcommonly used lawn grass species and it typically grows more slowly and is lesscold-hardy, but is more tolerant to salinity and insect pests among other Zoysiaspecies (Patton, 2010).4.2.3.3 Transect 9 There are forty-four (44) quadrats positioned in Transect 9 covering a totalof five hundred three (503) individuals resolved to sixty-three (63) species.Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) Burtl. & Smith was the most abundant species on record(82 individuals). Also, it is the densest species scoring 2.05 and has a relativedensity of 16.30% and the most frequent species, appeared 16 times, with arelative frequency of 8.56%. It is also the most dominant species (5.13) with arelative dominance of 6.03%. Table 9 shows the top ten important species in the transect where Alpiniazerumbet (Pers.) Burtl. & Smith had the highest importance value of 30.89followed by Paspalum conjugatum Berg. (Carabao Grass) and Selaginella planaHieron (Kamariang Gubat) scoring 14.31 and 24.41 respectively. Simpson‘s Diversity Index value of 0.938 suggest that Trasect 9understory vegetation has high diversity and there is no species that clearlydominates area. The Cumulative Species-Area Curve for Transect 9 (Figure 12)showed that the transect survey covered the total species in the area sampled. 37
  47. 47. Table 9. Ecological Measurements for Transect 9 in Uba, Jabonga RELATIVE RELATIVE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE SPECIES DENSITY FREQUENCY DOMINANCE VALUEAcrostiqhum aureum L. 3.380 4.813 4.559 12.751Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) 16.302 8.556 6.029 30.888Burtl. & SmithArachis pentoi 4.970 1.070 2.500 8.540Caryota cumingii Lodd. 1.789 4.278 4.412 10.479Caryota mitis 1.789 2.674 3.971 8.434Hypyis capitata Jacq. 7.753 4.813 5.441 18.007Ipomoea obscura (L.) K.G 2.783 5.348 2.941 11.072Nephrolepsis biserrata 2.783 3.209 2.500 8.492(Sw.) SchottPaspalum conjugatum 11.531 1.604 1.176 14.312Berg.Selaginella plana Hieron 7.952 7.487 8.971 24.410 Paspalum conjugatum Berg. is a species under the genus Paspalum, oneof the most complex genera containing over 400 species that are largely endemicto the tropics and subtropics of the world (Clayton and Renvoize, 1986). InNigeria, P. conjugatum is one of the species which are mostly straggling plantsgrown in damp open places in the genus (Lowe,1989). Selaginella plana Hieron is a naturally spreading species of Seleinellathrough human introduction (Setyawan, 2011). Aging and drought causes thecolor of S. plana to become darker reddish brown than young and humid ones(Lu and Jernstedt 1996). In Sabah, Dayaks use S. plana to treat high fever and 38
  48. 48. headache (Ahmad and Raji 1992). S. plana leaves is drunk in decoction as tonicfor treatment postpartum (Harada et al. 2002).Figure 12. Transect 9 Cumulative Species-Area Curve, Uba, Jabonga 70 60 50 Species No. 40 30 20 10 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 No. of Belt Transects4.2.4 Magdagooc, Jabonga4.2.4.1 Transect 10 There are forty-four (44) quadrats positioned in Transect 10 covering atotal of eight hundred forty-three (843) individuals resolved to fifty-two (52)species. Hypyis capitata Jacq. was the most abundant species on record (135individuals). Also, it is the densest species scoring 3.07 and has a relativedensity of 16.01% and the most frequent species, appeared 28 times, with arelative frequency of 9.89%. It is also the most dominant species (10.11) with arelative dominance of 11.37%. 39
  49. 49. Table 10 shows the top ten important species in the transect where Hypyiscapitata Jacq. had the highest importance value of 37.28 followed by .Nephrolepsis biserrata (Sw.) Schott and Dimeria ornithopoda Trin., Fund. Agrost.(T Plant) scoring 33.34 and 20.08 respectively. RELATIVE RELATIVE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE SPECIES DENSITY FREQUENCY DOMINANCE VALUEAlpinia zerumbet (Pers.) 8.660 5.654 4.853 19.166Burtl. & SmithChromoloena odorata 4.152 4.947 4.598 13.697Derris elliptica Benth. 4.745 6.360 5.109 16.214Dimeria ornithopoda Trin., 8.778 5.300 6.003 20.081Fund. Agrost.Dinochloa luconiae 6.406 1.767 2.043 10.216(Munro) Merr. BabuiFicus pseudopalma Blanco 2.017 4.947 6.003 12.966Hypyis capitata Jacq. 16.014 9.894 11.367 37.275Nephrolepsis biserrata 10.676 9.894 12.771 33.342(Sw.) SchottSaccharum spontaneum L. 5.101 2.120 2.682 9.903Selaginella plana Hieron 4.152 4.240 5.364 13.756Table 10. Ecological Measurements for Transect 10 in Magdagooc, Jabonga Simpson‘s Diversity Index value of 0.932 suggest that Trasect 10understory vegetation has high diversity and there is no species that clearlydominates area. The Cumulative Species-Area Curve for Transect 10 (Figure 13)showed that the transect survey covered the total species in the area sampled. 40
  50. 50. D. ornithopoda is a widespread, polymorphic species, in which a numberof infraspecific taxa has been recognized. It is often found in streams, moistplaces, and is often gregarious (Shouliang and Phillips, 2006).Figure 13. Transect 10 Cumulative Species-Area Curve, Magdagooc, Jabonga 60 50 40 species No. 30 20 10 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 No. of Belt Transects4.2.4.2 Transect 11 There are thirty (30) quadrats positioned in Transect 11 covering a total ofthree hundred fifteen (315) individuals resolved to forty-three (43) species.Selaginella plana Hieron was the most abundant species on record (14individuals). Also, it is the densest species scoring 2.90 and has a relativedensity of 26.67% and the most frequent species, appeared 15 times, with a 41
  51. 51. relative frequency of 15.32%. It is also the most dominant species (20.52) with arelative dominance of 22.37%. Table 11 shows the top ten important species in the transect whereSelaginella plana Hieron had the highest importance value of 64.35 followed byAlpinia zerumbet (Pers.) Burtl. & Smith and Begonia nigritarum Steud. scoring25.38 and 20.11 respectively.Table 11. Ecological Measurements for Transect 11 in Magdagooc, Jabonga RELATIVE RELATIVE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE SPECIES DENSITY FREQUENCY DOMINANCE VALUEAlpinia zerumbet (Pers.) 11.111 9.009 5.263 25.383Burtl. & SmithBegonia nigritarum Steud. 11.429 3.604 5.075 20.107Spp.Costus malorticanus 1.905 2.703 3.947 8.555Derris elliptica Benth. 2.857 3.604 1.504 7.965Ficus pseudopalma Blanco 1.587 4.505 2.820 8.911Homolomena rubescens 3.175 2.703 6.767 12.644(Roxb.) KunthLygodium flexuosum (L) Sw 2.540 4.505 1.880 8.924Nephrolepsis biserrata 5.079 5.405 5.827 16.312(Sw.) SchottSchimatoglottis spp. 5.397 5.405 7.707 18.509Selaginella plana Hieron 26.667 15.315 22.368 64.350 Simpson‘s Diversity Index value of 0.893 suggest that Trasect 11understory vegetation has moderate diversity and 25% of the area is nearly(22%) dominated by Selaginella plana Hieron. The Cumulative Species-AreaCurve for Transect 11 (Figure 14) showed that the transect survey covered thetotal species in the area sampled. 42
  52. 52. Begonia nigritarum is widely distributed in the Philippines and presentsconsiderable variation (Merrill, 1912). According to Hughes (2010), Begonianigritarum is considered doubtful, giving a total of 10 species, nine of which areendemic in the Philippines.Figure 14. Transect 11 Cumulative Species-Area Curve, Magdagooc, Jabonga 50 45 40 35 Species No. 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 No. of Belt Transects4.3 Diversity Index Among the eleven (11) transect lines that were assessed, Transect 1located at Dinarawan, Jabonga, Agusan del Norte scored the highest inSimpson‘s Diversity Index. This value was described the understory vegetationdiversity as high. Transect 5 and 6 in Kabugaw and 7, 8, 9 10 in Uba, Jabongawere considered also as highly diversified areas. Transect 4 followed by Transect2, Transect 11, and Transect 3 were considered as moderately diversified. 43
  53. 53. The Simpson‘s Diversity Index ranged from 0.871 to 0.963 which indicatesthat Jabonga, Agusan del Norte exhibits moderate to high diversity understoryflora composition. This also indicates that no species clearly dominates eachtransect.Figure 15. Simpsons Diversity Index of Understory Flora Vegetation in Jabonga SIMPSONS DIVERSITY INDEX 0.980 0.963 0.960 0.941 0.938 0.929 0.932 0.940 0.921 0.920 0.897 0.900 0.893 0.900 0.887 0.880 0.871 0.860 0.840 0.820 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10 T114.4 Assessment of Conservation Status IUCN ver. 2012.2 database on threatened species showed that amongthe 276 species recorded, Shorea contorta (White Lawaan) is a criticallyendangered species and Pterocarpus indicus Willd. Forma indicus (SmoothNarra), Vitex parviflora Juss. (Molave), Afzelia rhomboidea (Blanco) Vid. 44
  54. 54. (Tindalo), Dillenia philippinensis Rolfe (Katmon Baging), and Alangiumlongiflorum Merr. (Malatapay) are vulnerable species, while Aglaia luzoniensis(Kuling manok) is a near threatened species. In the list of DAO 2007-1, there is one critically endangered species,coded as CR A1cd, in the area, the Pterocarpus indicus Willd. Forma indicus(Smooth Narra); one endangered: and Afzelia rhomboidea (Blanco) Vidal (codedas EN A1cd); seven are vulnerable: Vitex parviflora Juss. (Molave) (VU A1c) ,Cynometra inaequefolia A. Gray (Dila-dila) (VU A1c) , Dillenia reifferscheidiaNaves (Katmon Kalabaw) (VU A1c), Alangium longiflorum Merr. (Malatapay) (VUA1c), Mangifera merrillii (Pahong Liitan) (VU A1c), Shorea contorta (WhiteLawaan) (VU A1cd), Securinega flexousa (Muell,-Arg.) (Anislag) (VU A1c); andtwo other wildlife species: Aglaia luzoniensis (Kuling manok) and Dilleniaphilippinensis Rolfe (Katmon Baging) Pterocarpus indicus is one of the commercial tree legume species thatdominate South-East Asia and some Pacific regions (Soerianegara & Lemmens1993). It is one of the most valuable and commonly used reforestation species inthe Philippines. It is propagated by seeds and cuttings but seedling stocks aremainly used for reforestation and rehabilitation of denuded land areas (Rise,1995). Pterocarpus indicus grows on a variety of soil types from fertileagricultural soil to rocky soil, along inundated river banks, swamps and lagoons(Allen & Allen 1981, Corner 1988). It has the status of national tree in thePhilippines and has been identified by the Forest Research Institute Malaysia 45
  55. 55. (FRIM) as one of the potential ‗millennium tree‘ species for forest plantationestablishment in Peninsular Malaysia because of its fast growth and otherdesirable characteristics (Appanah & Wienland 1993, Lok 1996). The timber of P.indicus is classified as light hardwood and is used for light to heavy construction,joists, beams and interior finishes. The wood, which is commonly traded asrosewood, has beautiful distinct growth rings and is ranked among the finest forfurniture making, high grade cabinet work, carvings, decorative flooring andmusical instruments (Appanah & Weinland 1993, Soerianegara & Lemmens1993). Pterocarpus indicus was characterized as critically endangered and codedas CEN A1cd which indicates that the species is critically endangered as itspopulation is reduced in the form of an observed, estimated, inferred orsuspected reduction of at least 80% over the last 10 years or 3 generations,whichever is the longer, based on a decline area of occupancy, extent ofoccurrence and/or quality of habitat and actual or potential levels of exploitation. According to Orwa et al (2009), Vitex parviflora Juss. occurs mostcommonly in comparatively dry regions in lowland forest, often in deciduousforest on rocky ground, on grassy slopes and on dry limestone soils, butsometimes also in littoral rain forest or hill forest. It is usually found in regionswith distinct wet and dry seasons. The species often occur gregariously insecondary forest and primary forest, in association with Intsia, Pahudia, Sindora,Toona and Wrightia species. V. parviflora tolerates a wide range of soils but 46
  56. 56. occurs mostly on dry limestone soils. Vitex timber is used for high-gradeconstruction, interior finishing, flooring, house building, shipbuilding, railwaysleepers and carving. The wood often takes on a yellowish- green or greenish-brown tint when boiled in water. Vitex parviflora Juss. is coded as EN A1cd, B2bc which indicates that thespecies is endangered where its population is reduced in the form of anobserverved, estimated, inferred or suspected reduction of at least 50% over thelast 10 years or 3 generations whichever is longer, based on a decline area ofoccupancy, extent of occurrence and/or quality of habitat and actual or potentiallevels of exploitation; and the extent of occurrence of the species is estimated tobe less than 20,000 km2 or area of occupancy is estimated to be less than 2,000km2, and estimates indicates continuing decline, inferred, observed or projectedin area of occupancy and area, extent and/or quality of habitat (Fernando et al,2012). Tindalo [Afzelia rhomboidea (Blanco) Vid.] of the family Caesalpiniaceaeis an endemic tree in the country that plays an important role in ecosystemprocesses such as in biochemical and hydrological cycles. It also provideshabitat for wildlife and offers protection against soil erosion (Pandey, 2002).Tindalo is a leguminous tree species and it is considered as one of the finestwood in the country (Florido, 2001). It belongs to the Molave type forest which isvalued for its natural beauty and durability (DENR, 2001). At present, the globalconservation status of Tindalo is endangered both on 2001 by the Genetic 47
  57. 57. Resource Conservation for Timber of the Philippines (Fernando, 2001) and inJuly 2002 by the Rainforest Action Network (2002). Afzelia rhomboidea is coded as EN A1cd, B2c which indicates that thespecies is endangered where its population is reduced in the form of anobserverved, estimated, inferred or suspected reduction of at least 50% over thelast 10 years or 3 generations whichever is longer, based on a decline area ofoccupancy, extent of occurrence and/or quality of habitat and actual or potentiallevels of exploitation; and the extent of occurrence of the species is estimated tobe less than 20,000 km2 or area of occupancy is estimated to be less than 2,000km2, and estimates indicates continuing decline, inferred, observed or projectedin area, extent and/or quality of habitat. The six vulnerable species coded as VU A1c were characterized to beplants undergone population reduction in the form of a decline in area ofoccupancy, extent of occurrence and/or quality of habitat while Shorea contortacharacterized coded as VU A1cd was said to be vulnerable as it undergonepopulation reduction in the form of a decline in area of occupancy, extent ofoccurrence and/or quality of habitat, and actual or potential levels of exploitation. Two other wildlife species Aglaia luzoniensis and Dillenia philippinensisRolfe are evaluated species but does not satisfy any of the categories CriticallyEndangered, Endangered, or Vulnerable but have the tendency to becomethreatened due to predation and destruction of habitat. This is equivalent to theLower Risk, least concern category of IUCN. 48
  58. 58. Based on the conservation assessment of Guingab (1994), there are threeendemic species, and fifteen economically important species in the area (asshown in Table 12). Endemic species is described as- the taxon is confined to acertain geographical region or its parts thus; it is unique and found nowhere elsein the world. The Economically important species are under this criteria on thebasis of known uses, these taxon that command high economic value are proneto extinction because they tend to be over-exploited.Table 12. Conservation Status of Understory Flora based on (Guingab, 1994) Scientific Name Common Name StatusCanarium asperum Benth. Pagsahingin EISFicus nota (Blanco) Merr. Tibig EISFicus septica Burma f. var. septica Hawili EISFicus ulmifolia Lam. Isis EC/VULantana camara L. Coronitas EISLeca guineensis G. Don Mali-Mali EISLeucosyke capitellata (Poir.) Wedd. Alagasi EISLitsea glutinosa Sablot EISMacaranga tanarius (Linn.) Muell.-Arg Binunga EISMallotus philippinensis (Lam) Banato EISMelanolepis multiglandulosa (Reinw ex Blume) Alim EC/EISMelastoma malabathricum Linn. Malatungaw EISMussaenda philippica A.Rich Kahoy Dalaga ECPolyscias nodosa (Blume) Seem. Malapapaya EISPremna odorata Blanco Alagao EISSemecarpus philippinesis Engl. Kamiring EISVitex parviflora Juss. Molave VU/EIS The threatened species described are mainly shrubs and saplings oftrees. These species could be vulnerable to habitat fragmentation caused bylogging and kaingin, to anthropogenic pressures brought by development plans, 49
  59. 59. housing projects, encroachment of agriculture in the uplands, frequent burning,domestic animal grazing, temperature build-up at the forest fringe, and pollution,and to introduction of invasive alien species that dramatically alter manyecosystems in the world. 50
  60. 60. 5. SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS The taxonomic understanding is critical to convene the challenges ofbiodiversity conservation in the 21st century (Bhaskaran and Rajan, 2010). It is offundamental importance for understanding biodiversity and ecosystemfunctioning, as it provides us with the data to explore and describe biodiversitythrough scientific analysis. The study provides the basic information about theunderstory flora species, which are currently found in Jabonga, Agusan delNorte. Such a list could play an important role for the local and nationalauthorities interested in future to conserve and sustainable use the phyto-diversity for the sustainable development of the area. There are two hundred seventy-six (272) species of understory flora thatwere recorded in Jabonga, Agusan del Norte resolved to a total of 95 familiesand two hundred ten (210) genera. Of these species, thirty-three percent (33%)were saplings, eighteen percent (18%) were vines and sixteen percent (15%)were herbs. Euphorbiaceae (18 spp.) and Moraceae (17 spp.) family had themost number of species that were under 4 and 14 genera, respectively. ThePAWB (1997) study recorded 219 floral species distributed in 84 genera and 78families in the area surrounding Lake Mainit. Thus, this study extensively improvethe data recorded in the area. Simpson‘s Diversity Index Value was calculated highest at 0.963 forTransect 1 and lowest value of 0.871 for Transect 4 both transects are located in 51
  61. 61. Dinarawan, Jabonga. This shows that the area is moderately to highly diversifiedand there is no one species that clearly dominates each transect. Such diversityis of high priority in biodiversity conservation. Under the National List on Threatened Philippine Plants, there is onecritically endangered species found in the area, the seedlings of Pterocarpusindicus Willd. Forma indicus, one is endangered species, Afzelia rhomboidea(Blanco) Vidal; seven are vulnerable: Cynometra inaequefolia A. Gray, Dilleniareifferscheidia Naves, Alangium longiflorum Merr., Mangifera merrillii, Shoreacontorta, Securinega flexousa (Muell,-Arg.), Vitex parviflora Juss., and two areconsidered as other wildlife species: Aglaia luzoniensis and Dilleniaphilippinensis Rolfe. Under IUCN 2012 database Shorea contorta is a criticallyendangered species and Pterocarpus indicus Willd. Forma indicus, Vitexparviflora Juss., Afzelia rhomboidea (Blanco) Vid., Dillenia philippinensis Rolfe,and Alangium longiflorum Merr. are vulnerable species, while Aglaia luzoniensisis a near threatened species. These threatened species are at high risk inpossible forest exploition activities indicated by the presence of illegal loggingand kaingin. This further shows that Jabonga, Agusan del Norte deserveconsideration for urgent conservation support. There are threatening species recorded in the area. The most abundantspecies, Nephrolepsis biserrata (Sw.) Schott (Pakong Kalabaw) that dominates73% or eight out of eleven of transects, have an exponential growth potential and 52
  62. 62. forms dense population which displaces native vegetation (Weber, 2003). Alsothe presence of invasive species Chromolaena odorata (Hagonoy) andSaccharum spontaneum L., (Talahib) with the abilities to form dense population.Invasive species can have devastating ecological impacts and may be theprimary cause of biodiversity loss (Mack et al., 2000). Selaganilla planna Hieron (Kamariang Gubat), a highly distributedthrough human introduction, also dominates one of the transect (Transect 11).Selaginella grow at various climatic and soil types, but generally require humidityfor better growing and need water for fertilization; its presence in an areabecomes indicator of habitat condition, including global warming and globalcooling (Setyawan, 2011). These study compared with the dendrological assessment of the samearea of Mijares (2013), shows that there is a higher number of understorty floraspecies (272) recorded than of the tree species (222). The understory floracomposition is thereby more diversed than of the tree species in the area. Thus,the understory flora must be prioritized, in terms of biodiversity conservation,more than the overstory flora community. This floristic inventory is far from complete. The discovery of additionalnative species is very likely and new exotic plant species could invade andbecome established. It is recommended that a further exploration of the areashould be made to support preliminary results and to expand knowledge of plant 53
  63. 63. diversity and conservation. Also a continuous monitoring should be madeespecially for plant species being threatened by utilization. There is a need to increase awareness level of researchers, localgovernment, and communities nearby on critical flora resources and plantdiversity of the area through production and distribution of information materials,like flyers, leaflet and the like preferably written in local dialects. Or in othermeans, information dissemination regarding with the conservation andbiodiversity of the area must be done through symposiums. Billboards to warn gatherers as a preliminary measure against illegalcutting of plant species must be displayed around the area. A pictorial guide tothe identification of the floral species is envisioned in the near future. This shouldbe published to facilitate identification by students and researchers. 54

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