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Sa08 Prop Depot Panel Frank Zegler


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Frank Zegler's Space Access 08 Propellant Depot Panel presentation on ULA's latest work on propellant depots and related technologies.

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Sa08 Prop Depot Panel Frank Zegler

  1. 1. Cryogenic Propellant Depots for the Real World March 27 2008 United Launch Alliance
  2. 2. Depots Amplify Performance <ul><li>EDS Topping from orbital depot amplifies lunar payload </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EDS is half full in LEO for ESAS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accommodates mission delays or high propellant boil-off </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small variations in fabrication have large impacts to tank heating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Untestable prior to launch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Centaur experience shows 2:1 variation in heating, same mission </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Likelihood of launch delays is historically very high </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Opens the door for more capable exploration architectures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indefinite surface stays, autonomous asset/consumables delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simplified vehicle design, increased systems commonality </li></ul></ul>Payload Increase, mT Propellant Transfer Mass(mT) Pictures Credit: NASA 123126 EDS LSAM CEV
  3. 3. Historic Propellant Depot Paradigm NASA 9902019 <ul><li>Propellant transfer has been associated with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large scale propellant depots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zero Boil off fluid transfer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zero Boil off Storage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Propellant depots imply: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zero-G cryo fluid management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Currently at low TRL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Huge initial hurdle to cryo fluid transfer implementation </li></ul></ul>Historic Architectures are an Insurmountable Barrier
  4. 4. Simple Cryo Depot Concept <ul><li>Exploration is mostly about moving LO2 around </li></ul><ul><li>Simple depot sidesteps barriers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single propellant (LO2), single unit, single launch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on existing tanks/upper stages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simplified thermal management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Geometry isolates cold and hot elements (long conductive paths); </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sun Shield, MLI, vapor cooling </li></ul></ul></ul>Liquid Gas Gas Solar Array Sun Shield Hot Equip Deck Dock Port Hot Side Cold Side Rotational Settling SUN <ul><ul><li>Settled (rotational) propellant management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Settled Propellant transfer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gas reservoir provides thermal barrier, expulsion gas </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Two Obvious Options <ul><li>Depot based on Modified Upper Stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Least possible Non-recurring investment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compromised onboard systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bound to a single launch supplier- minimal competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inevitably leads to higher recurring costs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restricted propellant capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Depot as a Dedicated Payload </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher Non-recurring Investment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimized onboard systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Much larger propellant capacity, greater utility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supplied/replenished by multiple launchers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enables direct competition for orbital propellant delivery </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Best chance for market-driven lower costs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Upper Stage Based Depot 1 or 2 additional burns for phasing <ul><li>Existing Vehicles deliver 12-16 tons: Lunar cargo increase 3-4t </li></ul><ul><li>Baseline ACES delivers 17-25 tons </li></ul><ul><li>Extended tank designs deliver 40-42 t </li></ul>ACES BASELINE 200 nm circ orbit 1 or 2 additional burns for phasing 1 200k 1 2 2 4 4 6 6 200k 1 1 Number of RL10 engines
  7. 7. Upper Stage Based Depot Integrated 6 DOF LO2/LH2 Attitude Control Solar Power System Baseline ACES Upper Stage, 41t Propellant Load at Launch Deployable Multiple-Petal Open-Cavity Sunshield (2 petals removed for clarity) EDS docking interface Long Duration Avionics with Rendezvous, Docking, Propellant Mgt functions Vapor Cooled Depot Systems Interface LO2 Tank <ul><li>A dedicated ACES on Atlas HLV delivers 25t Propellant to LEO </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equivalent to Altair Cryogenic propellant load (24t) </li></ul></ul>LH2 Tank
  8. 8. Dedicated Depot Depot shown uses Identical sunshade to ACES upper stage version <ul><li>Launched partially filled to maximum launcher capability </li></ul><ul><li>Refilled via commercial LO2 delivery to LEO </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Falcon, Delta, Atlas, Ariane, SSTO/RLV </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Capacity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>230 t LO2 or 167% of EDS capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>14.3t LH2 or 63% of EDS capacity </li></ul></ul>Extended Upper Tank (LO2 or LH2) Truncated Lower Tank (GO2 or GH2)
  9. 9. Depot Location <ul><li>LEO location poses orbital inclination/launch opportunity limitations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex mission planning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Depots in Lunar orbit or at Earth-Moon L1/L2 have even greater utility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easier thermal management (Solar heating dominated) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Propellants confirmed safely delivered at destination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal performance is known via daily operation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Delivery of unmanned Altair to LLO an obvious next step </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drastically reduces performance demand for ARES, EDS, Altair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ARES V can be far simpler- 65-80t @ LEO vehicle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Altair optimized for lunar operations- no LOI function </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Depot Technologies are In Hand <ul><li>Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>XSS-11 and Orbital Express show ARD to be straightforward, cost effective </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cryogenic Propellant Storage, Thermal Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Settled-Propellant design is critical to eliminating complexity and risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Existing designs/data/analyses directly applicable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LO2-only design decreases thermal storage complexity and risks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Foundation for LH2-only systems as needs evolve </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis shows 0.01%/day boil-off is possible, supporting long, passive cryo storage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cryogenic Propellant Gaging, Interconnection, Transfer, Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Settled operation takes all the risk out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer identical to engine propellant feed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High capacity interconnects based on slip-joint ducting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mass gaging simple and accurate without exotica </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vent control based on existing designs, proportional valving </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. ULA Technology Development <ul><li>Gas Strut Deployable Sunshield </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Full scale demo in 2007. Continued 2008 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intermediate Bulkhead Load Bearing Insulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compressive load cryostat completed, testing underway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insulation selection 2008 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bulkhead concept definition 2008 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rotational Propellant Settling Flight Demonstration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using 11kLbm residuals on Centaur spring 2008 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>H2 Para-Ortho Hardware Demonstration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Completed baseline demo, more work 2008 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>H2/O2 Catalytic Thruster </li></ul><ul><ul><li>>1 hour hotfire time 2007, continued development 2008 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Integrated H2/O2 propulsion/fluids system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No Ghe, No Hydrazine, Long Duration capable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concept validated 2007, continued work 2008 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cryogenic proportional valving, Cryo-compatible regulator array </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development start 2008 </li></ul></ul>Ullage Liquid
  12. 12. Cryo Transfer Extensibility <ul><li>Transfer of cryogens is mandatory for exploration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Real exploration implies long stay durations, indeterminate mission design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Routine handling of tons of LH2 and LO2 for fuel cells, ECLSS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scavenging of propellants from expended stages and landers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows practical sizing for vehicles with wider range of missions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISRU has large-scale cryogenic propellant handling at its heart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mars implies routine and unlimited fill/transfer/refill operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accumulation of Mars-bound assets at L1/L2 is essentially mandatory for even a skeleton exploration crew </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Near-continuous pre-departure propellant delivery missions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Propellant Synthesis, densification and storage on the surface </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Orbital and endoatmospheric operations </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mars is a near-perfect SSTO location </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Replenishment of Earth-return assets in Mars orbit </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Enhances science missions through orbital replenishment and servicing </li></ul>This Technology is Essential
  13. 13. Summary <ul><li>Propellant transfer is a powerful tool </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amplifies existing ESAS capabilities (doubling or tripling of cargo) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Removes unrealistic demands on proposed vehicle designs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware simplification  lowered risk  lowered cost  faster schedule  higher rate  better science  more popular support </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Simple depots can be done NOW </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single propellant, single launch, single unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple, proven thermal management, propellant xfer techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provides a mission all launch suppliers can participate in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High density, low intrinsic value cargo with simple mission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideal cargo for first generation SSTO/reuseable vehicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SSTO vehicles have low inherent lift capability but depot demands provide high launch rate for economic operations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must support multiple SSTO vehicles for viability </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sets the stage for later LEO lift of propellant for Mars missions </li></ul></ul></ul>