EXPLAIN THE CHEMICAL REFININGPROCESS. DESCRIBE EXACTLY WHATIS/ARE REMOVED IN EACH STEP OFTHE REFINING PROCESSReference :PROCESS DESIGN IN DEGUMMING AND BLEACHING OFPALM OIL by PROF.MADYA DR. NOOR AZIAN MORAD,PROF.MADYA MUSTAFA KAMAL ABD AZIZ &ROHANI BINTI MOHD ZIN of CLEAR, UTMCLEAR : CENTRE OF LIPIDS ENGINEERING AND APPLIED RESEARCH
CHEMICAL REFINING OFCRUDE PALM OIL• Also known as Alkali Refining• A conventional method used to refinecrude palm oil• This method involves THREE stages ofrefining process o Gum conditioning & Neutralization o Bleaching & Filtration o Deodorization
DegummingCrude Palm Oil • Gums Chemical Refining (CPO) Alkali Neutralization • Soap StockDeodorization Bleaching • Soap Stock will then splits to FFA NBDPO
Stage 1: Gum Conditioning andNeutralization Phosphatide portion of oil is removed Addition of some additives/agents under specific condition eg: phosphoric acid and citric acid. The oil mass is then neutralised with alkali R-COOH + NaOH RCOONa + H2O
Stage 2 : Bleaching and Filtration In this operation, the oil is taken into cylindrical vessel with agitator called `Bleacher and kept under vacuum and heated up to 90°C with steam. Bleaching agents will adsorb most of the residual colour of the remaining oil after neutralisation
Filtration through a standard plate and frame press for separation Clear oil obtained is bleached oil In this operation, the coloured pigments in oil are adsorbed by certain bleaching agents under specific conditions
Stage 3 : Deodorization• This bleached oil are then sent to acylindrical vessel called `Deodorizer’.• This oil is then cooled and clarifiedthrough a Filter Press to get sparkling oil.• The purpose of deodorization is tomake oil blend and tasteless. In thisprocess, theperoxide value of oil is brought down asminimum as possible.