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One to One
Computers in
    Schools
 2010 Literature Review
                          1
Student
            Achievement


  Professional
  Learning and
Laptop Pedagogy

           Leadership and
             Technology
             Integration


Technical Support



         Conclusions and key
            implications
                               2
Student
  Achievement
It is the way laptops are used in learning
       that brings about improvements in
                            achievement.

                      (Silvernail & Gritter, 2007)




                                                     3
 Increasingly authors are
  questioning whether standardised
  testing is appropriate when
  assessing 21st Century Skills.

 Most standardised tests assess
  basic skills tests using multiple
  choice answers. This does not
  address 21st century skills.
  (Silvernail, 2005, p.3)


 Skills inherent to technology and
  laptop use do not align with
  standardised testing
  (Holcomb, 2009)


 Henrico County (USA) is developing
  assessment tools for 21st Century
  skills.

                                       4
 Increasingly authors are
  questioning whether standardised
  testing is appropriate when
  assessing 21st Century Skills

 Most standardised tests assess
  basic skills tests using multiple
  choice answers. This does not
  address 21st century skills.
  (Silvernail, 2005, p.3)


 Skills inherent to technology and
  laptop use do not align with
  standardised testing
  (Holcomb, 2009)


 Henrico County (USA) is developing
  assessment tools for 21st Century
  skills.

                                       5
 Increasingly authors are
  questioning whether standardised
  testing is appropriate when
  assessing 21st Century Skills

 Most standardised tests assess
  basic skills tests using multiple
  choice answers. This does not
  address 21st century skills.
  (Silvernail, 2005, p.3)


 Skills inherent to technology and
  laptop use do not align with
  standardised testing.
  (Holcomb, 2009)


 Henrico County (USA) is developing
  assessment tools for 21st Century
  skills.

                                       6
 Increasingly authors are
  questioning whether standardised
  testing is appropriate when
  assessing 21st Century Skills

 Most standardised tests assess
  basic skills tests using multiple
  choice answers. This does not
  address 21st century skills.
  (Silvernail, 2005, p.3)


 Skills inherent to technology and
  laptop use do not align with
  standardised testing
  (Holcomb, 2009)


 Henrico County (USA) is developing
  assessment tools for 21st Century
  skills.

                                       7
 Despite these limitations,
  standardised testing is uncovering
  improvement in the academic
  achievements of students in one-
  to-one laptop programs, as shown
  in the following studies:




                                       8
 laptops did increase the scores of
  the laptop students over the non-
  laptop students, particularly in the
  areas of literacy response and
  analysis and in writing strategies.
  (Suhr, Hernandez, Grimes, Warshauer, 2010)


 Improvements occurred in the
  second year after teething
  problems were overcome
  (Suhr, Hernandez, Grimes, Warchauer, 2010)


 Unprecedented improvement in
  Maths, English and Science results
  (Bebell & Kay, 2010)




                                               9
 laptops did increase the scores of
  the laptop students over the non-
  laptop students, particularly in the
  areas of literacy response and
  analysis and in writing strategies
  (Suhr, Hernandez, Grimes, Warshauer, 2010)


 Improvement occurred in the
  second year after teething
  problems were overcome
  (Suhr, Hernandez, Grimes, Warchauer, 2010)


 Unprecedented improvement in
  Maths, English and Science results
  (Bebell & Kay, 2010)




                                               10
 laptops did increase the scores of
  the laptop students over the non-
  laptop students, particularly in the
  areas of literacy response and
  analysis and in writing strategies
  (Suhr, Hernandez, Grimes, Warshauer, 2010)


 second year after teething
  problems were overcome
  (Suhr, Hernandez, Grimes, Warchauer, 2010)


 Unprecedented improvement in
  Maths, English and Science results.
  (Bebell & Kay, 2010)




                                               11
Maine One-to-One
laptop study

Over 16,000 students

In 2000 (the year the program
commenced) 29.1% of 8th grade met
the Maine Educational Assessment
writing proficiency standard.

In 2005 (five years in) 41.4% met
this standard




                                     12
Maine One-to-One
laptop study
Improved achievement is not
consistent

In the same one-to-one laptop
school different subjects can perform
differently

The same subjects can perform
differently in different one-to-one
settings




                                        13
Maine One-to-One
laptop study
Improved achievement is not
consistent

In the same one-to-one laptop
school different subjects can perform
differently

The same subjects can perform
differently in different one-to-one
settings




                                        14
Maine One-to-One
laptop study
Improved achievement is not
consistent

In the same one-to-one laptop
school different subjects can perform
differently

the same subjects can perform
differently in different one-to-one
settings




                                        15
Further analysis of Maine
results (Silvernail, 2005)
The “best use” group was
identified. These students used
laptops to draft, perform multiple
edits then final product

The “non use” group was also
identified – those who never used
the laptop for writing

The average student in the “best
use” laptop group scored better than
approximately 75% of the non-use
group

There was no statistical difference
between those who took the test
online and those who hand–wrote
their answers                          16
Further analysis of Maine
results (Silvernail, 2005)
The “best use” group was
identified. These students used
laptops to draft, perform multiple
edits then final product)

The “non use” group was also
identified – those who never used
the laptop for writing

The average student in the “best
use” laptop group scored better than
approximately 75% of the non-use
group

There was no statistical difference
between those who took the test
online and those who hand–wrote
their answers                          17
Further analysis of Maine
results (Silvernail, 2005)
The “best use” group was
identified. These students used
laptops to draft, perform multiple
edits then final product)

The “non use” group was also
identified – those who never used
the laptop for writing

The average student in the “best
use” laptop group scored better than
approximately 75% of the non-use
group

There was no statistical difference
between those who took the test
online and those who hand–wrote
their answers                          18
Further analysis of Maine
results (Silvernail, 2005)
The “best use” group was
identified. These students used
laptops to draft, perform multiple
edits then final product)

The “non use” group was also
identified – those who never used
the laptop for writing

The average student in the “best
use” laptop group scored better than
approximately 75% of the non-use
group

There was no statistical difference
between those who took the test
online and those who hand–wrote
their answers                          19
It is critical for schools to
understand that simply providing
each student with a laptop is not
enough. How teachers choose to use
the laptop is very important.
  (Holcomb, 2009)




                                     20
Professional
        Learning and
    Laptop Pedagogy
“the biggest challenge however is helping
        teachers to develop the expertise
    required to harness the power of the
                             technology”

                           (Mouza, 2008, p.3)




                                                21
 Research is revealing that it is the
  way the laptops are used in
  learning that makes the difference.
  (Holcomb, 2009; Silvernail & Gritter, 2007)


 In a study of one-to-one laptop
  programs running in three
  technology high schools it was
  found that the lack of time for
  professional development,
  especially for teacher
  collaboration, was a barrier to
  effective integration of computers
  into learning.
  (Drayton, Falk, Stroud, Hobbs, &
  Hammerman, 2010)




                                                22
 Research is revealing that it is the
  way the laptops are used in
  learning that makes the difference
  (Holcomb, 2009; Silvernail & Gritter, 2007)


 In a study of one-to-one laptop
  programs running in three
  technology high schools it was
  found that the lack of time for
  professional development,
  especially for teacher
  collaboration, was a barrier to
  effective integration of computers
  into learning.
  (Drayton, Falk, Stroud, Hobbs, &
  Hammerman, 2010)




                                                23
 Teacher beliefs about pedagogy
  affect their classroom
  implementation of laptops.

 Drayton et al. (2010) give the
  example in one high school in
  which one science teacher
  believed that focusing on
  information transfer was the
  primary focus of teaching while
  another in the same school
  believed that discovery was the
  focus. They found that “inquiry
  oriented teachers deployed
  technology to support and expand
  enquiry; more traditional teachers
  likewise used the technology
  according to their values, in
  conducting a teacher centred
  classroom”
  (Drayton et al., 2010, p. 48)


                                       24
 Beliefs in pedagogy affect the
  individual implementation of
  laptops

 Drayton et al. (2010) give the
  example in one high school in
  which one science teacher
  believed that focusing on
  information transfer was the
  primary focus of teaching while
  another in the same school
  believed that discovery was the
  focus. They found that “inquiry
  oriented teachers deployed
  technology to support and expand
  enquiry; more traditional teachers
  likewise used the technology
  according to their values, in
  conducting a teacher centred
  classroom” .
  (Drayton et al., 2010, p. 48)


                                       25
 Initially benchmarked
  implementation levels of
  technology in the classrooms.

 The study by Drayton et al. (2010)
                                                                 Level   Category
  found that teachers who believed
  in a teacher-centred style of                                   0      Non-use




                                       Integration and Inquiry
  pedagogy use technology in ways                                 1      Awareness
  which can be seen to be equivalent
  to the lowest levels of the LoTi                                2      Exploration
  scale while those who believed in                               3      Infusion
  an inquiry approach utilised the
  technology to expand inquiry in                                 4A     Integration (mechanical)

  ways equivalent to higher levels.                               4B     Integration (routine)

                                                                  5      Expansion

                                                                  6      Refinement

                                                                                                    26
 Initially benchmarked
  implementation levels of
  technology in the classrooms

 The study by Drayton et al. (2010)
                                                                 Level   Category
  found that teachers who believed
  in a teacher-centred style of                                   0      Non-use




                                       Integration and Inquiry
  pedagogy use technology in ways                                 1      Awareness
  which can be seen to be equivalent
  to the lowest levels of the LoTi                                2      Exploration
  scale while those who believed in                               3      Infusion
  an inquiry approach utilised the
  technology to expand inquiry in                                 4A     Integration (mechanical)

  ways equivalent to higher levels.                               4B     Integration (routine)

                                                                  5      Expansion

                                                                  6      Refinement

                                                                                                    27
 Research indicates the need for a
  shift from professional learning
  with a focus on technology
  proficiency to a focus on laptop
  pedagogy.
                                                                  Level   Category

 As pedagogical beliefs can                                       0      Non-use




                                        Integration and Inquiry
  determine the level to which the                                 1      Awareness
  one-to-one laptops are integrated
  into learning in the classroom,                                  2      Exploration

  professional learning must include                               3      Infusion
  processes by which teachers
                                                                   4A     Integration (mechanical)
  regularly discuss their pedagogical
  and educational values.                                          4B     Integration (routine)
  (Drayton et al., 2010)
                                                                   5      Expansion

                                                                   6      Refinement

                                                                                                     28
 Research indicates the need for a
  shift from professional learning
  with a focus on technology
  proficiency to a focus on laptop
  pedagogy.
                                                                  Level   Category

 As pedagogical beliefs can                                       0      Non-use




                                        Integration and Inquiry
  determine the level to which the                                 1      Awareness
  one-to-one laptops are integrated
  into learning in the classroom,                                  2      Exploration

  professional learning must include                               3      Infusion
  processes by which teachers
                                                                   4A     Integration (mechanical)
  regularly discuss their pedagogical
  and educational values.                                          4B     Integration (routine)
  (Drayton et al., 2010)
                                                                   5      Expansion

                                                                   6      Refinement

                                                                                                     29
Leadership and
       technology
       integration
   “Perhaps the most important finding
    from our analysis is that technology
      leadership has greater leverage on
desired outcomes than does technology
        infrastructure and expenditures”
              (Anderson & Dexter, 2005, p. 73)




                                                 30
 “Schools setting ambitious goals
  and aiming for excellence seem
  more likely to use laptops well than
  ones without ambitious goals and
  a supportive school culture”
  (Zucker & Hug, 2007)


 These researchers found that
  higher levels of technology
  integration were found in schools
  where leaders set the directions
  for change and developed
  supportive policies and
  collaborative cultures.




                                         31
 “Schools setting ambitious goals
  and aiming for excellence seem
  more likely to use laptops well than
  ones without ambitious goals and
  a supportive school culture”
  (Zucker & Hug, 2007)


 These researchers found that
  higher levels of technology
  integration were found in schools
  where leaders set the directions
  for change and developed
  supportive policies and
  collaborative cultures.




                                         32
 Those teachers who were willing to
  take more risks were found to be
  more willing to integrate
  technology and saw student
  achievement in terms of their
  more intrinsic motivation and
  engagement in learning.
  (Howard, 2009)

 The researcher found that the
  primary area of teacher concern
  was risk to student achievement.
  Those less willing to take risks were
  less willing to integrate technology
  into their teaching. They saw
  achievement in terms of
  quantifiable results such as test
  scores. Knowledge that one-to-
  one laptop programs improve
  student achievement may help
  them to see this as less risky.

                                          33
 Those who were willing to take
  more risks were found to be more
  willing to integrate technology and
  saw student achievement in terms
  of their more intrinsic motivation
  and engagement in learning
  (Howard, 2009)


 The researcher found that the
  primary area of teacher concern
  was risk to student achievement.
  Those less willing to take risks were
  less willing to integrate technology
  into their teaching. They saw
  achievement in terms of
  quantifiable results such as test
  scores. Knowledge that one-to-
  one laptop programs improve
  student achievement may help
  them to see this as less risky.


                                          34
 School culture can either foster
  collaboration and innovation or
  stifle them. Where a school
  culture emphasises accountability
  and security over taking risks,
  teachers are driven away from
  innovation.
  (Drayton et al., 2010)


 Where implementation was left in
  the hands of the individual
  teachers in one school, integration
  was at a lower level than in
  another school where innovations
  were tested and shared among
  teachers.
  Drayton et al. (2010)




                                        35
 School culture can either foster
  collaboration and innovation or
  stifle them. Where a school
  culture emphasises accountability
  and security over taking risks,
  teachers are driven away from
  innovation.
  (Drayton et al., 2010)


 Where implementation was left in
  the hands of the individual
  teachers in one school, integration
  was at a lower level than in
  another school where innovations
  were tested and shared among
  teachers.
  Drayton et al. (2010)




                                        36
 “very few principals have
  themselves used computers in any
  meaningful way with children” This
  led these authors to point strongly
  to the necessity for distributed
  leadership of planning for success
  to occur.
  Flanagan & Jacobsen, 2003, p. 127


 “One key component of a
  successful implementation of one-
  to-one laptop computers is
  leadership in many forms, one of
  the most important being a
  Leadership Team”
  Moulton, 2006, p. 1




                                        37
 “very few principals have
  themselves used computers in any
  meaningful way with children” This
  led these authors to point strongly
  to the necessity for distributed
  leadership of planning for success
  to occur.
  Flanagan & Jacobsen, 2003, p. 127


 “One key component of a
  successful implementation of one-
  to-one laptop computers is
  leadership in many forms, one of
  the most important being a
  Leadership Team”.
  Moulton, 2006, p. 1




                                        38
for
                                          leaders
 leaders need to be enthusiastic,
  build a shared vision, keep the
  focus on that vision, distribute the
  leadership of the initiative and lead
  the leadership team, lead the
  planning, foster a collaborative
  school culture in which teachers
  are comfortable to innovate,
  provide time for collaboration and
  discussion and provide appropriate
  and timely professional learning
  for teachers.




                                                    39
Technical
            support
This can bring about great difficulties for
teachers when they find themselves not
 only working in a change paradigm but
          also as the computer engineer

                       Simpson & Payne, 2005




                                               40
 Lei (2010) found that extra
  technical support is a critically
  important condition for success of
  such projects.

 Importantly, this need for support
  does not diminish as the laptop
  program matures
  (Lei, 2010, Newhouse 2008).




                                       41
 Lei (2010) found that extra
  technical support is a critically
  important condition for success of
  such projects

 Importantly, this need for support
  does not diminish as the laptop
  program matures.
  (Lei, 2010, Newhouse 2008)




                                       42
Research findings validate
decision made and
implemented by the DER-
NSW program around:

  technology support as critical for
   the success of the programs
  charging of laptops at home
  wireless access points in every
   classroom
  fast internet access
  technical support needs do not
   diminish as the program
   matures



                                        43
 In one study (Shapley et al., 2010)
  it was found that student use at
  home for home learning and
  homework was the strongest
  predictor of students reading and
  mathematics test scores.




                                        44
Conclusions
              and key
          implications
 “Higher implementing schools reported
        that committed leaders, thorough
    planning, teacher buy-in, preliminary
  professional development for teachers,
and a commitment to the transformation
   of students learning were keys to their
           successful implementation and
                  technology immersion”
                          Shapley et al., 2010




                                                 45
 One-to-one laptop programs can
  bring about improvements to
  student learning.

 Improvements in student
  achievement are related to the
  way laptops are used in learning

 Professional learning is essential
  for successful integration

 Teacher pedagogical beliefs largely
  determine the degree and type of
  integration that occurs in the
  classroom

 Professional learning must include
  processes by which teachers
  regularly discuss their pedagogical
  and educational values
                                        46
 One-to-one laptop programs can
  bring about improvements to
  student learning

 Improvements in student
  achievement are related to the
  way laptops are used in learning

 Professional learning is essential
  for successful integration

 Teacher pedagogical beliefs largely
  determine the degree and type of
  integration that occurs in the
  classroom

 Professional learning must include
  processes by which teachers
  regularly discuss their pedagogical
  and educational values
                                        47
 One-to-one laptop programs can
  bring about improvements to
  student learning

 Improvements in student
  achievement are related to the
  way laptops are used in learning

 Professional learning is essential
  for successful integration.

 Teacher pedagogical beliefs largely
  determine the degree and type of
  integration that occurs in the
  classroom

 Professional learning must include
  processes by which teachers
  regularly discuss their pedagogical
  and educational values
                                        48
 One-to-one laptop programs can
  bring about improvements to
  student learning

 Improvements in student
  achievement are related to the
  way laptops are used in learning

 Professional learning is essential
  for successful integration

 Teacher pedagogical beliefs largely
  determine the degree and type of
  integration that occurs in the
  classroom.

 Professional learning must include
  processes by which teachers
  regularly discuss their pedagogical
  and educational values
                                        49
 One-to-one laptop programs can
  bring about improvements to
  student learning

 Improvements in student
  achievement are related to the
  way laptops are used in learning

 Professional learning is essential
  for successful integration

 Teacher pedagogical beliefs largely
  determine the degree and type of
  integration that occurs in the
  classroom

 Professional learning must include
  processes by which teachers
  regularly discuss their pedagogical
  and educational values.
                                        50
 Teachers need time for discussion
  and the sharing of ideas/resources.

 Leadership is crucial for successful
  integration

 School leaders must build a shared
  vision, keep the focus on that
  vision, lead the planning, provide
  time for collaboration and
  discussion and provide appropriate
  and timely professional learning
  for teachers

 Leaders must foster a collaborative
  and supportive school culture

 Distributed leadership and a whole
  school approach are most effective
                                         51
 Teachers need time for discussion
  and the sharing of ideas/resources

 Leadership is crucial for successful
  integration.

 School leaders must build a shared
  vision, keep the focus on that
  vision, lead the planning, provide
  time for collaboration and
  discussion and provide appropriate
  and timely professional learning
  for teachers

 Leaders must foster a collaborative
  and supportive school culture

 Distributed leadership and a whole
  school approach are most effective
                                         52
 Teachers need time for discussion
  and the sharing of ideas/resources

 Leadership is crucial for successful
  integration

 School leaders must build a shared
  vision, keep the focus on that
  vision, lead the planning, provide
  time for collaboration and
  discussion and provide appropriate
  and timely professional learning
  for teachers.

 Leaders must foster a collaborative
  and supportive school culture

 Distributed leadership and a whole
  school approach are most effective
                                         53
 Teachers need time for discussion
  and the sharing of ideas/resources

 Leadership is crucial for successful
  integration

 School leaders must build a shared
  vision, keep the focus on that
  vision, lead the planning, provide
  time for collaboration and
  discussion and provide appropriate
  and timely professional learning
  for teachers

 Leaders must foster a collaborative
  and supportive school culture.

 Distributed leadership and a whole
  school approach are most effective
                                         54
 Teachers need time for discussion
  and the sharing of ideas/resources

 Leadership is crucial for successful
  integration

 School leaders must build a shared
  vision, keep the focus on that
  vision, lead the planning, provide
  time for collaboration and
  discussion and provide appropriate
  and timely professional learning
  for teachers

 Leaders must foster a collaborative
  and supportive school culture

 Distributed leadership and a whole
  school approach are most
  effective.
                                         55
Click to open the 1:1 Computers in schools
        Literature Review document
                                             56
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                                                                 57

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1:1 Computing in schools

  • 1. One to One Computers in Schools 2010 Literature Review 1
  • 2. Student Achievement Professional Learning and Laptop Pedagogy Leadership and Technology Integration Technical Support Conclusions and key implications 2
  • 3. Student Achievement It is the way laptops are used in learning that brings about improvements in achievement. (Silvernail & Gritter, 2007) 3
  • 4.  Increasingly authors are questioning whether standardised testing is appropriate when assessing 21st Century Skills.  Most standardised tests assess basic skills tests using multiple choice answers. This does not address 21st century skills. (Silvernail, 2005, p.3)  Skills inherent to technology and laptop use do not align with standardised testing (Holcomb, 2009)  Henrico County (USA) is developing assessment tools for 21st Century skills. 4
  • 5.  Increasingly authors are questioning whether standardised testing is appropriate when assessing 21st Century Skills  Most standardised tests assess basic skills tests using multiple choice answers. This does not address 21st century skills. (Silvernail, 2005, p.3)  Skills inherent to technology and laptop use do not align with standardised testing (Holcomb, 2009)  Henrico County (USA) is developing assessment tools for 21st Century skills. 5
  • 6.  Increasingly authors are questioning whether standardised testing is appropriate when assessing 21st Century Skills  Most standardised tests assess basic skills tests using multiple choice answers. This does not address 21st century skills. (Silvernail, 2005, p.3)  Skills inherent to technology and laptop use do not align with standardised testing. (Holcomb, 2009)  Henrico County (USA) is developing assessment tools for 21st Century skills. 6
  • 7.  Increasingly authors are questioning whether standardised testing is appropriate when assessing 21st Century Skills  Most standardised tests assess basic skills tests using multiple choice answers. This does not address 21st century skills. (Silvernail, 2005, p.3)  Skills inherent to technology and laptop use do not align with standardised testing (Holcomb, 2009)  Henrico County (USA) is developing assessment tools for 21st Century skills. 7
  • 8.  Despite these limitations, standardised testing is uncovering improvement in the academic achievements of students in one- to-one laptop programs, as shown in the following studies: 8
  • 9.  laptops did increase the scores of the laptop students over the non- laptop students, particularly in the areas of literacy response and analysis and in writing strategies. (Suhr, Hernandez, Grimes, Warshauer, 2010)  Improvements occurred in the second year after teething problems were overcome (Suhr, Hernandez, Grimes, Warchauer, 2010)  Unprecedented improvement in Maths, English and Science results (Bebell & Kay, 2010) 9
  • 10.  laptops did increase the scores of the laptop students over the non- laptop students, particularly in the areas of literacy response and analysis and in writing strategies (Suhr, Hernandez, Grimes, Warshauer, 2010)  Improvement occurred in the second year after teething problems were overcome (Suhr, Hernandez, Grimes, Warchauer, 2010)  Unprecedented improvement in Maths, English and Science results (Bebell & Kay, 2010) 10
  • 11.  laptops did increase the scores of the laptop students over the non- laptop students, particularly in the areas of literacy response and analysis and in writing strategies (Suhr, Hernandez, Grimes, Warshauer, 2010)  second year after teething problems were overcome (Suhr, Hernandez, Grimes, Warchauer, 2010)  Unprecedented improvement in Maths, English and Science results. (Bebell & Kay, 2010) 11
  • 12. Maine One-to-One laptop study Over 16,000 students In 2000 (the year the program commenced) 29.1% of 8th grade met the Maine Educational Assessment writing proficiency standard. In 2005 (five years in) 41.4% met this standard 12
  • 13. Maine One-to-One laptop study Improved achievement is not consistent In the same one-to-one laptop school different subjects can perform differently The same subjects can perform differently in different one-to-one settings 13
  • 14. Maine One-to-One laptop study Improved achievement is not consistent In the same one-to-one laptop school different subjects can perform differently The same subjects can perform differently in different one-to-one settings 14
  • 15. Maine One-to-One laptop study Improved achievement is not consistent In the same one-to-one laptop school different subjects can perform differently the same subjects can perform differently in different one-to-one settings 15
  • 16. Further analysis of Maine results (Silvernail, 2005) The “best use” group was identified. These students used laptops to draft, perform multiple edits then final product The “non use” group was also identified – those who never used the laptop for writing The average student in the “best use” laptop group scored better than approximately 75% of the non-use group There was no statistical difference between those who took the test online and those who hand–wrote their answers 16
  • 17. Further analysis of Maine results (Silvernail, 2005) The “best use” group was identified. These students used laptops to draft, perform multiple edits then final product) The “non use” group was also identified – those who never used the laptop for writing The average student in the “best use” laptop group scored better than approximately 75% of the non-use group There was no statistical difference between those who took the test online and those who hand–wrote their answers 17
  • 18. Further analysis of Maine results (Silvernail, 2005) The “best use” group was identified. These students used laptops to draft, perform multiple edits then final product) The “non use” group was also identified – those who never used the laptop for writing The average student in the “best use” laptop group scored better than approximately 75% of the non-use group There was no statistical difference between those who took the test online and those who hand–wrote their answers 18
  • 19. Further analysis of Maine results (Silvernail, 2005) The “best use” group was identified. These students used laptops to draft, perform multiple edits then final product) The “non use” group was also identified – those who never used the laptop for writing The average student in the “best use” laptop group scored better than approximately 75% of the non-use group There was no statistical difference between those who took the test online and those who hand–wrote their answers 19
  • 20. It is critical for schools to understand that simply providing each student with a laptop is not enough. How teachers choose to use the laptop is very important. (Holcomb, 2009) 20
  • 21. Professional Learning and Laptop Pedagogy “the biggest challenge however is helping teachers to develop the expertise required to harness the power of the technology” (Mouza, 2008, p.3) 21
  • 22.  Research is revealing that it is the way the laptops are used in learning that makes the difference. (Holcomb, 2009; Silvernail & Gritter, 2007)  In a study of one-to-one laptop programs running in three technology high schools it was found that the lack of time for professional development, especially for teacher collaboration, was a barrier to effective integration of computers into learning. (Drayton, Falk, Stroud, Hobbs, & Hammerman, 2010) 22
  • 23.  Research is revealing that it is the way the laptops are used in learning that makes the difference (Holcomb, 2009; Silvernail & Gritter, 2007)  In a study of one-to-one laptop programs running in three technology high schools it was found that the lack of time for professional development, especially for teacher collaboration, was a barrier to effective integration of computers into learning. (Drayton, Falk, Stroud, Hobbs, & Hammerman, 2010) 23
  • 24.  Teacher beliefs about pedagogy affect their classroom implementation of laptops.  Drayton et al. (2010) give the example in one high school in which one science teacher believed that focusing on information transfer was the primary focus of teaching while another in the same school believed that discovery was the focus. They found that “inquiry oriented teachers deployed technology to support and expand enquiry; more traditional teachers likewise used the technology according to their values, in conducting a teacher centred classroom” (Drayton et al., 2010, p. 48) 24
  • 25.  Beliefs in pedagogy affect the individual implementation of laptops  Drayton et al. (2010) give the example in one high school in which one science teacher believed that focusing on information transfer was the primary focus of teaching while another in the same school believed that discovery was the focus. They found that “inquiry oriented teachers deployed technology to support and expand enquiry; more traditional teachers likewise used the technology according to their values, in conducting a teacher centred classroom” . (Drayton et al., 2010, p. 48) 25
  • 26.  Initially benchmarked implementation levels of technology in the classrooms.  The study by Drayton et al. (2010) Level Category found that teachers who believed in a teacher-centred style of 0 Non-use Integration and Inquiry pedagogy use technology in ways 1 Awareness which can be seen to be equivalent to the lowest levels of the LoTi 2 Exploration scale while those who believed in 3 Infusion an inquiry approach utilised the technology to expand inquiry in 4A Integration (mechanical) ways equivalent to higher levels. 4B Integration (routine) 5 Expansion 6 Refinement 26
  • 27.  Initially benchmarked implementation levels of technology in the classrooms  The study by Drayton et al. (2010) Level Category found that teachers who believed in a teacher-centred style of 0 Non-use Integration and Inquiry pedagogy use technology in ways 1 Awareness which can be seen to be equivalent to the lowest levels of the LoTi 2 Exploration scale while those who believed in 3 Infusion an inquiry approach utilised the technology to expand inquiry in 4A Integration (mechanical) ways equivalent to higher levels. 4B Integration (routine) 5 Expansion 6 Refinement 27
  • 28.  Research indicates the need for a shift from professional learning with a focus on technology proficiency to a focus on laptop pedagogy. Level Category  As pedagogical beliefs can 0 Non-use Integration and Inquiry determine the level to which the 1 Awareness one-to-one laptops are integrated into learning in the classroom, 2 Exploration professional learning must include 3 Infusion processes by which teachers 4A Integration (mechanical) regularly discuss their pedagogical and educational values. 4B Integration (routine) (Drayton et al., 2010) 5 Expansion 6 Refinement 28
  • 29.  Research indicates the need for a shift from professional learning with a focus on technology proficiency to a focus on laptop pedagogy. Level Category  As pedagogical beliefs can 0 Non-use Integration and Inquiry determine the level to which the 1 Awareness one-to-one laptops are integrated into learning in the classroom, 2 Exploration professional learning must include 3 Infusion processes by which teachers 4A Integration (mechanical) regularly discuss their pedagogical and educational values. 4B Integration (routine) (Drayton et al., 2010) 5 Expansion 6 Refinement 29
  • 30. Leadership and technology integration “Perhaps the most important finding from our analysis is that technology leadership has greater leverage on desired outcomes than does technology infrastructure and expenditures” (Anderson & Dexter, 2005, p. 73) 30
  • 31.  “Schools setting ambitious goals and aiming for excellence seem more likely to use laptops well than ones without ambitious goals and a supportive school culture” (Zucker & Hug, 2007)  These researchers found that higher levels of technology integration were found in schools where leaders set the directions for change and developed supportive policies and collaborative cultures. 31
  • 32.  “Schools setting ambitious goals and aiming for excellence seem more likely to use laptops well than ones without ambitious goals and a supportive school culture” (Zucker & Hug, 2007)  These researchers found that higher levels of technology integration were found in schools where leaders set the directions for change and developed supportive policies and collaborative cultures. 32
  • 33.  Those teachers who were willing to take more risks were found to be more willing to integrate technology and saw student achievement in terms of their more intrinsic motivation and engagement in learning. (Howard, 2009)  The researcher found that the primary area of teacher concern was risk to student achievement. Those less willing to take risks were less willing to integrate technology into their teaching. They saw achievement in terms of quantifiable results such as test scores. Knowledge that one-to- one laptop programs improve student achievement may help them to see this as less risky. 33
  • 34.  Those who were willing to take more risks were found to be more willing to integrate technology and saw student achievement in terms of their more intrinsic motivation and engagement in learning (Howard, 2009)  The researcher found that the primary area of teacher concern was risk to student achievement. Those less willing to take risks were less willing to integrate technology into their teaching. They saw achievement in terms of quantifiable results such as test scores. Knowledge that one-to- one laptop programs improve student achievement may help them to see this as less risky. 34
  • 35.  School culture can either foster collaboration and innovation or stifle them. Where a school culture emphasises accountability and security over taking risks, teachers are driven away from innovation. (Drayton et al., 2010)  Where implementation was left in the hands of the individual teachers in one school, integration was at a lower level than in another school where innovations were tested and shared among teachers. Drayton et al. (2010) 35
  • 36.  School culture can either foster collaboration and innovation or stifle them. Where a school culture emphasises accountability and security over taking risks, teachers are driven away from innovation. (Drayton et al., 2010)  Where implementation was left in the hands of the individual teachers in one school, integration was at a lower level than in another school where innovations were tested and shared among teachers. Drayton et al. (2010) 36
  • 37.  “very few principals have themselves used computers in any meaningful way with children” This led these authors to point strongly to the necessity for distributed leadership of planning for success to occur. Flanagan & Jacobsen, 2003, p. 127  “One key component of a successful implementation of one- to-one laptop computers is leadership in many forms, one of the most important being a Leadership Team” Moulton, 2006, p. 1 37
  • 38.  “very few principals have themselves used computers in any meaningful way with children” This led these authors to point strongly to the necessity for distributed leadership of planning for success to occur. Flanagan & Jacobsen, 2003, p. 127  “One key component of a successful implementation of one- to-one laptop computers is leadership in many forms, one of the most important being a Leadership Team”. Moulton, 2006, p. 1 38
  • 39. for leaders  leaders need to be enthusiastic, build a shared vision, keep the focus on that vision, distribute the leadership of the initiative and lead the leadership team, lead the planning, foster a collaborative school culture in which teachers are comfortable to innovate, provide time for collaboration and discussion and provide appropriate and timely professional learning for teachers. 39
  • 40. Technical support This can bring about great difficulties for teachers when they find themselves not only working in a change paradigm but also as the computer engineer Simpson & Payne, 2005 40
  • 41.  Lei (2010) found that extra technical support is a critically important condition for success of such projects.  Importantly, this need for support does not diminish as the laptop program matures (Lei, 2010, Newhouse 2008). 41
  • 42.  Lei (2010) found that extra technical support is a critically important condition for success of such projects  Importantly, this need for support does not diminish as the laptop program matures. (Lei, 2010, Newhouse 2008) 42
  • 43. Research findings validate decision made and implemented by the DER- NSW program around:  technology support as critical for the success of the programs  charging of laptops at home  wireless access points in every classroom  fast internet access  technical support needs do not diminish as the program matures 43
  • 44.  In one study (Shapley et al., 2010) it was found that student use at home for home learning and homework was the strongest predictor of students reading and mathematics test scores. 44
  • 45. Conclusions and key implications “Higher implementing schools reported that committed leaders, thorough planning, teacher buy-in, preliminary professional development for teachers, and a commitment to the transformation of students learning were keys to their successful implementation and technology immersion” Shapley et al., 2010 45
  • 46.  One-to-one laptop programs can bring about improvements to student learning.  Improvements in student achievement are related to the way laptops are used in learning  Professional learning is essential for successful integration  Teacher pedagogical beliefs largely determine the degree and type of integration that occurs in the classroom  Professional learning must include processes by which teachers regularly discuss their pedagogical and educational values 46
  • 47.  One-to-one laptop programs can bring about improvements to student learning  Improvements in student achievement are related to the way laptops are used in learning  Professional learning is essential for successful integration  Teacher pedagogical beliefs largely determine the degree and type of integration that occurs in the classroom  Professional learning must include processes by which teachers regularly discuss their pedagogical and educational values 47
  • 48.  One-to-one laptop programs can bring about improvements to student learning  Improvements in student achievement are related to the way laptops are used in learning  Professional learning is essential for successful integration.  Teacher pedagogical beliefs largely determine the degree and type of integration that occurs in the classroom  Professional learning must include processes by which teachers regularly discuss their pedagogical and educational values 48
  • 49.  One-to-one laptop programs can bring about improvements to student learning  Improvements in student achievement are related to the way laptops are used in learning  Professional learning is essential for successful integration  Teacher pedagogical beliefs largely determine the degree and type of integration that occurs in the classroom.  Professional learning must include processes by which teachers regularly discuss their pedagogical and educational values 49
  • 50.  One-to-one laptop programs can bring about improvements to student learning  Improvements in student achievement are related to the way laptops are used in learning  Professional learning is essential for successful integration  Teacher pedagogical beliefs largely determine the degree and type of integration that occurs in the classroom  Professional learning must include processes by which teachers regularly discuss their pedagogical and educational values. 50
  • 51.  Teachers need time for discussion and the sharing of ideas/resources.  Leadership is crucial for successful integration  School leaders must build a shared vision, keep the focus on that vision, lead the planning, provide time for collaboration and discussion and provide appropriate and timely professional learning for teachers  Leaders must foster a collaborative and supportive school culture  Distributed leadership and a whole school approach are most effective 51
  • 52.  Teachers need time for discussion and the sharing of ideas/resources  Leadership is crucial for successful integration.  School leaders must build a shared vision, keep the focus on that vision, lead the planning, provide time for collaboration and discussion and provide appropriate and timely professional learning for teachers  Leaders must foster a collaborative and supportive school culture  Distributed leadership and a whole school approach are most effective 52
  • 53.  Teachers need time for discussion and the sharing of ideas/resources  Leadership is crucial for successful integration  School leaders must build a shared vision, keep the focus on that vision, lead the planning, provide time for collaboration and discussion and provide appropriate and timely professional learning for teachers.  Leaders must foster a collaborative and supportive school culture  Distributed leadership and a whole school approach are most effective 53
  • 54.  Teachers need time for discussion and the sharing of ideas/resources  Leadership is crucial for successful integration  School leaders must build a shared vision, keep the focus on that vision, lead the planning, provide time for collaboration and discussion and provide appropriate and timely professional learning for teachers  Leaders must foster a collaborative and supportive school culture.  Distributed leadership and a whole school approach are most effective 54
  • 55.  Teachers need time for discussion and the sharing of ideas/resources  Leadership is crucial for successful integration  School leaders must build a shared vision, keep the focus on that vision, lead the planning, provide time for collaboration and discussion and provide appropriate and timely professional learning for teachers  Leaders must foster a collaborative and supportive school culture  Distributed leadership and a whole school approach are most effective. 55
  • 56. Click to open the 1:1 Computers in schools Literature Review document 56
  • 57. Graffiti: http://www.flickr.com/photos/vaxzine/172651123  Chairs: http://www.flickr.com/photos/svet/4304374413  Cables: http://www.flickr.com/photos/mindfieldz/3241016661  Legs: http://www.compfight.com  Links: http://www.flickr.com/photos/uqbar/114320354 57