… knowing how, when, and
why to say what to whom
• Close the window,
• Would you mind if
I closed the
• Brr, it’s chilly in
It does not take massive
breakdowns to create
tensions between people of
backgrounds. Rather, it is a
cumulative process made up
of uncomfortable moments
and small frustrations.
• Television clips
– Reality TV Aneesa: I feel like she loves attention. I can’t
– Scripted TV (last resort) I have to say in the back of
my mind, like, “you need attention, you need
• DIY attention, you need attention.”
– Unscripted communicativelyattention, yes. speakers
Cara: She does need competent
Aneesa: And I am just like …
Cara: Actually, she is very needy. But, I still think
that she’s physically ill as well.
Tiffany: Hey! How’s it going?
Tiffany: Hey, let’s … can I just look at your calendar? Because I
have a question. I know you’ve got your weekends planned
months in advance, but Elmer and I were just thinking about,
and we’re not sure about this at all, but for the concert, possibly,
if we’re going to be there all day on Saturday, maybe staying in a
hotel room that night.
Tamara: Oh, yeah?
Tiffany: So, if, and this is totally if this works with your guys’
schedule, if you guys wouldn’t mind and you wanted to come up
for that weekend, would you mind watching the dogs?
Tamara: Yeah, no problem.
Tiffany: If it works. If it totally works. Are you sure you don’t
Tiffany: Oh! The doggies will be so happy!
Communicate that you are Listening!
• encouraging words: • repeating questions:
– Mhmm. – word / phrase as
– Yeah. a question
– Wow! • information
• comments: questions:
– How interesting! – Why did she do
– That’s amazing! – What happened
• emphasis questions: next?
Disagreeing Top 4
1. Agreement prefaced disagreement
– “Yes, but”
– Agreement part is faster and weaker
2. Showing discomfort
– Long and flat intonation
3. Checking the statement
– Rising intonation
4. Pretending a lack of comprehension
– Rising Intonation
Great Pronunciation Supplements
• Avery, P. and Erlich, S. (1997) Teaching American English
Pronunciation, Oxford University Press
• Beisbier, B. (1994) Sounds Great, Thompson and Heinle
• Gilbert, J. (2001) Clear Speech, Cambridge University Press
• Grant, L. (2001) Well Said, Heinle and Heinle
• Hancock, A. (1995) Pronunciation Games, Cambridge
• Meyers, C. & Holt, S. (2001) Pronunciation for Success, Aspen
• Miller, S. (2005) Targeting Pronunciation, Houghton Mifflin Co
• Noll, M. (2007) American Accent Skills, Ameritalk Press
Great Pragmatics Supplements
• Foreign Affairs Canada website, www.intercultures.ca
• CARLA website: www.carla.umn.edu/speechacts
• Teaching Pragmatics website:
• Martinez-Flor, A. and Uso-Juan, E (2006) A comprehensive
pedagogical framework to develop pragmatics in the foreign
language classroom: The 6Rs approach, Applied Language
We want our students to be
Thank you for your interest!
SHAPE Language Center, Belgium