Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Bonding Teacher Note

633 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Bonding Teacher Note

  1. 2. <ul><li>The attraction between atoms in a molecule or crystalline structure </li></ul><ul><li>When elements react atoms must collide </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>Bond that results when metal atoms release their valence electrons to a pool of electrons shared by all the metal atoms </li></ul><ul><li>Holds metals together </li></ul><ul><li>Results in high conductivity, malleability, and ductility </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>Composed of positively and negatively </li></ul><ul><li>charged atoms </li></ul><ul><li>Metals on left form compounds with nonmetals on right </li></ul><ul><li>Form ionic bonds- a chemical bond between two ions with opposite charges </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>EXAMPLE: NaCl </li></ul>
  5. 7. <ul><li>Crystalline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>solids </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High melting and boiling points </li></ul><ul><li>Shatter </li></ul><ul><li>May be water soluble </li></ul>
  6. 8. <ul><li>Electrically neutral because same number of protons and electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Gaining or losing 1 or more electrons, atom can be converted into charged particle called ion. </li></ul><ul><li>Ion - an atom or group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge </li></ul>
  7. 9. <ul><li>Cations - positive ion, fewer electrons than protons, lose electrons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive charge on a cation= number of electrons lost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Neutral Mg atom loses 2 electrons  Mg 2+ ion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anions- negative ion, more electrons than protons, gain electrons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>negative charge on nonmetal anion equals the number of electrons gained </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. S  gains 2 electrons, sulfide ion S 2- </li></ul></ul>
  8. 11. <ul><li>Charge on atom </li></ul><ul><li>Group 1,2,3 A form charges equal to the group number (+1, +2, +3) </li></ul><ul><li>Nonmetals 5, 6, 7 A have negative charge usually equal to 8 – A group # (-3, -2, -1) </li></ul>
  9. 12. <ul><li>More than one stable ion </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cu + and Cu 2+ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many transition metals form 2 + ions. </li></ul>
  10. 13. <ul><li>Octet rule : atoms become stable by having 8 electrons in their outer energy level except some of the smallest atoms which have only 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Noble gases lack reactivity (stable)(8 electron) </li></ul><ul><li>Elements stable by achieving configuration of valence electron of 1 of noble gases. (Share or transfer electrons) </li></ul><ul><li>Main group metals react so have an electron configuration like the noble gas before them </li></ul><ul><li>Main group nonmetals react so they have an electron configuration like that of the noble gas after them </li></ul>
  11. 15. <ul><li>Dots around atomic symbol represent the number of valence electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Write electron dot for Radon (Rn), Lead (Pb), and Xenon (Xe) </li></ul>
  12. 17. *How many electrons must be gained or lost to satisfy octet rule? Group 1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A # Valence electrons # e- gained/ lost * Charge on stable ion
  13. 19. <ul><li>MUST BE ELECTRICALLY NEUTRAL (0) </li></ul><ul><li>Have the lowest possible number of each type of atom (Formula unit) </li></ul><ul><li>Subscripts indicate number of ions </li></ul><ul><li>Cations always written first and charges are not included!! </li></ul>
  14. 20. <ul><li>Cation first, anion second </li></ul><ul><li>Cation of Main Group elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simply use the name of element it is formed from </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Na + , sodium ion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cation of Transition Metals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use name of the element it is formed from AND charge designated by a Roman Numeral in ( ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Fe 3+ , Fe (III) ion </li></ul></ul>
  15. 21. <ul><li>Anion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Replace ending of name with _____________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fluoride, chloride, bromide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>oxide, sulfide, selenide, nitride, phosphide, arsenide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Name the following ionic compounds: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MgCl 2 FeF 3 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LiBr ZnO </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Al 2 O 3 Na 2 S </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 22. Table 3-8, p.96
  17. 23. <ul><li>Several atoms bound together that collectively have a charge: </li></ul>3- Example: phosphate ion
  18. 25. <ul><li>Name the following ions: </li></ul><ul><li>NO 3 - </li></ul><ul><li>CN - </li></ul><ul><li>OH - </li></ul>
  19. 26. <ul><li>Write the formulas of the following ions: </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphate ion </li></ul><ul><li>Ammonium ion </li></ul><ul><li>Permanganate ion </li></ul>
  20. 27. <ul><li>Parentheses may be needed for polyatomic ions </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>aluminum hydroxide ____________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ammonium phosphate___________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sodium sulfate_________________________ </li></ul></ul>
  21. 28. p.95a
  22. 29. A Little Trick Magnesium phosphate
  23. 30. <ul><li>1. List Cation first, anion second </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. NaCl NOT ClNa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t write charges of ions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. KF NOT K + F - </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use parentheses around a polyatomic ion formula if it has a subscript </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 NOT AL 2 SO 4 3 </li></ul></ul>
  24. 31. <ul><li>Name the following compounds: </li></ul><ul><li>CuO </li></ul><ul><li>NaNO 3 </li></ul><ul><li>NH 4 Cl </li></ul>
  25. 32. <ul><li>Write formulas for the following compounds: </li></ul><ul><li>Barium Hydroxide </li></ul><ul><li>Copper (II) carbonate </li></ul><ul><li>Magnesium bicarbonate </li></ul>

×