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Bonding Teacher Note


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Bonding Teacher Note

  1. 2. <ul><li>The attraction between atoms in a molecule or crystalline structure </li></ul><ul><li>When elements react atoms must collide </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>Bond that results when metal atoms release their valence electrons to a pool of electrons shared by all the metal atoms </li></ul><ul><li>Holds metals together </li></ul><ul><li>Results in high conductivity, malleability, and ductility </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>Composed of positively and negatively </li></ul><ul><li>charged atoms </li></ul><ul><li>Metals on left form compounds with nonmetals on right </li></ul><ul><li>Form ionic bonds- a chemical bond between two ions with opposite charges </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>EXAMPLE: NaCl </li></ul>
  5. 7. <ul><li>Crystalline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>solids </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High melting and boiling points </li></ul><ul><li>Shatter </li></ul><ul><li>May be water soluble </li></ul>
  6. 8. <ul><li>Electrically neutral because same number of protons and electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Gaining or losing 1 or more electrons, atom can be converted into charged particle called ion. </li></ul><ul><li>Ion - an atom or group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge </li></ul>
  7. 9. <ul><li>Cations - positive ion, fewer electrons than protons, lose electrons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive charge on a cation= number of electrons lost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Neutral Mg atom loses 2 electrons  Mg 2+ ion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anions- negative ion, more electrons than protons, gain electrons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>negative charge on nonmetal anion equals the number of electrons gained </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. S  gains 2 electrons, sulfide ion S 2- </li></ul></ul>
  8. 11. <ul><li>Charge on atom </li></ul><ul><li>Group 1,2,3 A form charges equal to the group number (+1, +2, +3) </li></ul><ul><li>Nonmetals 5, 6, 7 A have negative charge usually equal to 8 – A group # (-3, -2, -1) </li></ul>
  9. 12. <ul><li>More than one stable ion </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cu + and Cu 2+ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many transition metals form 2 + ions. </li></ul>
  10. 13. <ul><li>Octet rule : atoms become stable by having 8 electrons in their outer energy level except some of the smallest atoms which have only 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Noble gases lack reactivity (stable)(8 electron) </li></ul><ul><li>Elements stable by achieving configuration of valence electron of 1 of noble gases. (Share or transfer electrons) </li></ul><ul><li>Main group metals react so have an electron configuration like the noble gas before them </li></ul><ul><li>Main group nonmetals react so they have an electron configuration like that of the noble gas after them </li></ul>
  11. 15. <ul><li>Dots around atomic symbol represent the number of valence electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Write electron dot for Radon (Rn), Lead (Pb), and Xenon (Xe) </li></ul>
  12. 17. *How many electrons must be gained or lost to satisfy octet rule? Group 1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A # Valence electrons # e- gained/ lost * Charge on stable ion
  13. 19. <ul><li>MUST BE ELECTRICALLY NEUTRAL (0) </li></ul><ul><li>Have the lowest possible number of each type of atom (Formula unit) </li></ul><ul><li>Subscripts indicate number of ions </li></ul><ul><li>Cations always written first and charges are not included!! </li></ul>
  14. 20. <ul><li>Cation first, anion second </li></ul><ul><li>Cation of Main Group elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simply use the name of element it is formed from </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Na + , sodium ion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cation of Transition Metals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use name of the element it is formed from AND charge designated by a Roman Numeral in ( ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Fe 3+ , Fe (III) ion </li></ul></ul>
  15. 21. <ul><li>Anion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Replace ending of name with _____________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fluoride, chloride, bromide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>oxide, sulfide, selenide, nitride, phosphide, arsenide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Name the following ionic compounds: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MgCl 2 FeF 3 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LiBr ZnO </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Al 2 O 3 Na 2 S </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 22. Table 3-8, p.96
  17. 23. <ul><li>Several atoms bound together that collectively have a charge: </li></ul>3- Example: phosphate ion
  18. 25. <ul><li>Name the following ions: </li></ul><ul><li>NO 3 - </li></ul><ul><li>CN - </li></ul><ul><li>OH - </li></ul>
  19. 26. <ul><li>Write the formulas of the following ions: </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphate ion </li></ul><ul><li>Ammonium ion </li></ul><ul><li>Permanganate ion </li></ul>
  20. 27. <ul><li>Parentheses may be needed for polyatomic ions </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>aluminum hydroxide ____________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ammonium phosphate___________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sodium sulfate_________________________ </li></ul></ul>
  21. 28. p.95a
  22. 29. A Little Trick Magnesium phosphate
  23. 30. <ul><li>1. List Cation first, anion second </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. NaCl NOT ClNa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t write charges of ions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. KF NOT K + F - </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use parentheses around a polyatomic ion formula if it has a subscript </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 NOT AL 2 SO 4 3 </li></ul></ul>
  24. 31. <ul><li>Name the following compounds: </li></ul><ul><li>CuO </li></ul><ul><li>NaNO 3 </li></ul><ul><li>NH 4 Cl </li></ul>
  25. 32. <ul><li>Write formulas for the following compounds: </li></ul><ul><li>Barium Hydroxide </li></ul><ul><li>Copper (II) carbonate </li></ul><ul><li>Magnesium bicarbonate </li></ul>