Rule 1 a

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Rule 1 a

  1. 1. Investment Fundamentals
  2. 2. Objectives       Summarize reasons why people invest, what is required before beginning, how returns are earned, and some ways to obtain funds to invest. Determine your own investment philosophy. Recognize the variety of investments available. Identify the major factors that affect the return on investment. Specify some strategies of portfolio management for long-term investors. List three guidelines to use when deciding the best time to sell investments.
  3. 3. Establishing Investment Goals         Financial goals should be specific and measurable. Why are you accumulating these funds? How much do you need? How will you get it? How long will it take you to reach your goal? How much risk are you willing to assume? Are you willing to sacrifice current consumption to invest for the future? Is it realistic to try and save this amount?
  4. 4. Steps to Create a Personal Investing Plan Step 1 My investment goals are: ____________________ ____________________ Step 2 By ___________, I will have obtained $_______. Step 3 I have $__________ available to invest. Date _____________ Step 9 Continue evaluating choices. Step 4 Possible investment alternatives: 1._________________ 2._________________ 3._________________ 4._________________ Step 8 Final decision 1._______________ 2._______________ Step 7 Investment decision 1._______________ 2._______________ 3._______________ Step 6 Projected return on each alternative 1.__________ 2.__________ 3.__________ 4.__________ Step 5 Risk factors for each alternative 1.____________________ 2.____________________ 3.____________________ 4.____________________
  5. 5. Investment Fundamentals ATTENTION! Difference in return is a major distinction between savings and investing. Successful investors begin to live off earnings, without spending wealth itself.
  6. 6. Preparations for Investing WHY PEOPLE INVEST:  Achieve financial goals  Increase current income  Gain wealth and financial security  Have funds available for retirement
  7. 7. Preparations for Investing PREREQUISITES TO INVESTING:  Live within means  Continue savings program  Establish lines of credit  Carry adequate insurance  Establish investment goals
  8. 8. Preparations for Investing INVESTMENT RETURNS:  Interest  Dividends  Rent  Capital gain/loss  Rate of return or yield
  9. 9. Performing a Financial Checkup Learn to live within your means  pay off high interest credit card debt  Provide adequate insurance protection  Start an emergency fund  three to nine months of living expenses  Have other sources of cash for emergencies  line of credit  cash advance 
  10. 10. Getting Money to Start an Investing Program  Pay yourself first  Participate in elective savings programs  Payroll deduction  electronic transfer  Make a special effort to save one or two months a year  Take advantage of windfalls  Invest half of your tax refund
  11. 11. Value of Having a Long-Term Investing Program  Many people don’t start investing because they only have a small amount to invest but....  Small amounts invested regularly become large amounts over time
  12. 12. Personal Investment Philosophy  Handling risk  Ultraconservative strategies  Conservative  Moderate  Aggressive
  13. 13. Investment Selection  Lend or own  Short-term or long-term  Choose a vehicle
  14. 14. Factors That Affect Investment Decisions Safety - minimal risk of loss  Risk - uncertainty about the outcome  inflation risk  interest rate risk  business failure risk  market risk 
  15. 15. Income From Investments   Safest  CDs  savings bonds  T-bills Higher potential income  municipal bonds  corporate bonds  preferred stocks  mutual funds  real estate
  16. 16. Investment Growth and Liquidity Growth  increase in value  common stock  growth stocks retain earnings  bonds, mutual funds and real estate  Liquidity  ease and speed to convert an asset to cash 
  17. 17. Investment Pyramid High risk Commodities Junk bonds Options High Quality Stocks Mutual funds Utility stocks CDs Rental property Government Securities Money Market Corporate bonds Savings Accounts Cash Low risk
  18. 18. Major Factors That Affect Rate of Return  INVESTMENT RISK:  Pure  Speculative  Risk pyramid
  19. 19. Major Factors That Affect Rate of Return  INVESTMENT RISK TYPES: Inflation  Financial  Deflation  Market volatility  Interest rate  Political 
  20. 20. Major Factors That Affect Rate of Return  INVESTMENT RISK:  Random or unsystematic  Diversification  Market or systematic
  21. 21. Major Factors That Affect Rate of Return  Leverage  Taxes  Marginal tax rate  Taxable vs. tax-free income  Buying and selling costs/commissions  Inflation
  22. 22. Major Factors that Affect Rate of Return  CALCULATE REAL RATE OF RETURN:  Identify before-tax return  Subtract marginal tax rate  Obtain net return after taxes  Subtract estimate of inflation  Obtain real rate
  23. 23. Management Strategies — Long-Term Investors  Business-cycle timing  Dollar-cost averaging  Portfolio diversification  Asset allocation
  24. 24. Monitor Your Investments Read your account statements  Chart the value of your investments  Maintain accurate and current records  Calculate the current yield %  annual income from investment market value of the investment
  25. 25. Sources of Investment Information Newspapers  Business Periodicals  Government Publications  Corporate Reports  Statistical Averages  Investor Services and newsletters   Standard and Poor’s stock reports  Value Line  Moody’s investment service
  26. 26. Investment Philosophies
  27. 27. Best Time to Sell  Take profits  Cut losses  “If wouldn’t buy it now, sell it”

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