Future of Healthcare Robotics


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by Richard M. Satava, MD FACS, Professor of Surgery, University of Washington, Program Manager, Advanced Biomedical Technologies, DARPA, and Special Assistant, Advance Medical Technologies US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Future of Healthcare Robotics, CyberTherapy 2005 Robotics Session, Basel, Switzerland, June 7, 2005

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Future of Healthcare Robotics

  1. 1. Future of Healthcare Robotics Richard M. Satava, MD FACS Professor of Surgery University of Washington Program Manager, Advanced Biomedical Technologies Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and Special Assistant, Advance Medical Technologies US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command CyberTherapy 2005 Robotics Session Basel, Switzerland June 7, 2005
  2. 2. Prediction “Prediction is difficult . . . . . . especially about the Future” ….Yogi Berra
  3. 3. Virtual Reality … the promise of the future 1 9 8 7
  4. 4. Virtual Reality … the realization of the future 2 0 0 5
  5. 5. Surgeon of the Future ?? Cybertherapist of the Future ??
  6. 6. Wizard of Id by Brant Parker
  7. 7. Superhuman Robots! Movie: Alien The Touch Lab, MIT
  8. 8. Current Visions “The Future is here … . . . it’s the Information Age”
  9. 9. Holomer Total body-scan for total diagnosis From visible human to Virtual Soldier Multi-modal total body scan on every trauma patient in 15 seconds Satava March, 2004
  10. 10. Why robotics, imaging and modeling & simulation • Healthcare is the only industry without a computer representation of its “product” •A robot is not a machine . . . it is an information system with arms . . . • A CT scanner is not an imaging system it is an information system with eyes . . . thus • An operating room is an information system with . . .
  11. 11. Total Integration of Surgical Care Minimally Invasive Surgery Remote Surgery Pre-operative planning Simulation & Training Joel Jensen, Intra-operative navigation SRI International, Menlo Park, CA
  12. 12. Remote telesurgery “Operation Lindberg” ROUTINE telesurgery from Hamilton to North Bay First remote and trans-Atlantic 300 mile distant Telesurgery procedure Prof. Jacques Marescaux, IRCAD Dr. Mehran Anvari, MD McMaster Univ, Toronto CANADA
  13. 13. “Penelope” – robotic scrub nurse Michael Treat MD, Columbia Univ, NYC. 2003
  14. 14. Entirely computerized ICU Total Patient Awareness The LSTAT • Defibrillator • Ventilator • Suction • Monitoring • Blood Chemistry Analysis • 3-Channel Fluid/Drug Infusion •Data Storage and Transmission • On-board Battery • On-board Oxygen • Accepts Off-Board Courtesy of Integreated Medical Systems, Signal Hill, CA Power and Oxygen
  15. 15. LSTAT Deployment to Kosovo - March 2000 212th MASH Deployed with LSTAT - Combat Support Hospital Courtesy of Integreated Medical Systems, Signal Hill, CA
  16. 16. Why now? VTOL UAV technology is maturing rapidly enough to minimize risk.
  17. 17. Nightingale UAV Goal Or: Identify “optimum” VTOL UAV design Create a new VTOL UAV tailored to the operational need LSTAT
  18. 18. Robotic Medical Assistant Nursing shortage crisis Applicable at all levels Hospitals Clinics Nursing Home Assisted living SATAVA 7 July, 1999 DARPA Courtesy Yulun Wang, InTouch Technologies, Inc, Goleta, CA
  19. 19. Honda Humanoid Robot Asimo Honda Motor Company, Tokyo Japan
  20. 20. “Blue Dragon” passive recording device Courtesy Blake Hannaford, University of Washington, Seattle
  21. 21. Novice Objective Assessment Intermediate Expert Hand motion tracking patterns Ara Darzi, MD. Imperial College, London, 2000
  22. 22. Integrating Surgical Systems for Autonomy The Operating Room (personnel) of the Future 100,000 Surgeon Assistant Scrub Nurse Circulating nurse Satava March, 2000
  23. 23. The Operating Room of the Future
  24. 24. Predator 2003 Fighter Pilots – until 2002 Fighter Pilots – Beyond 2003 SATAVA 7 July, 1999 DARPA
  25. 25. Disruptive Visions “The Future is not what it used to be” ….Yogi Berra
  26. 26. DARPA Controlled Biological Systems Program Animats Machine Living Animals Biomimetic Systems Biohybrid Organisms Biological Systems •Integration of biological design •New interfaces for measuring •Pheremone control of for sensorimotor function neural-muscular outputs sensorimotor sensorimotor output - plume •neural control architecture control in freely moving/sensing tracing •biomechanical self- behaving biological systems stabilization •Plasticity of associative •sensor/performance •Stimulation of neural and muscular learning to threats of interest systems to influence sensorimotor (conditioned training) •Autonomous navigation function •Investigate behavior with •Modular design/fabrication of •Inexpensive attachment of sensors sensor motor architecture fault tolerant mobile sensor (chem/bio) platforms Courtesy Alan Rudolph, Program Manager, 1999
  27. 27. Biomimetic robot - Ariel
  28. 28. Biomimetic Micro-robot Courtesy Sandia National Labs
  29. 29. Capsule camera for gastrointestinal endoscopy Courtesy Paul Swain, London, England
  30. 30. Femtosecond Laser (1 x 10 –15 sec) Los Alamos National Labs, Los Alamos NM Time of Flight Spectroscopy Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Long Island, NY Cellular opto-poration
  31. 31. BioSurgery Satava September 2003
  32. 32. tial fi d en C on
  33. 33. Technologies will change the Future • The rate of new discovery is accelerating exponentially • The changes raise profound fundamental issues • Moral and ethical solutions will take decades to resolve Sector Technology Rate of Change Business Society Healthcare TIME Differing responses to scientific discovery by various sectors
  34. 34. And just what are these profound moral and ethical issues?
  35. 35. Gaak Kismet Intelligent “Living Robot” Uses genetic algorithms to “learn” TECHNOLOGY NEWS quot;Thinkingquot; robot in escape bid Scientists running a pioneering experiment with robots which think for themselves have caught one Courtesy Rosalind Picard, trying to flee the centre where it quot;livesquot;. MIT Affective Computing Lab, Boston, MA The small unit, called Gaak, is one of 12 taking part in a quot;survival of the fittestquot; test at the Magna science centre in Rotherham, South Yorkshire, which has been running since March. E D Gaak made its bid for freedom after it had been taken out of the arena where hundreds of visitors AP watch the machines learning how to repair themselves after doing daily battle. S C Professor Noel Sharkey said he turned his back on the drone, but when he returned 15 minutes later he found it had forced its way out of the E small make-shift paddock it was being kept in. He later found it had travelled down an access slope, through the front door of the centre and was discovered at the main entrance to the car park when a visitor nearly flattened it with his car. Courtesy Professor Noel Sharkey, Sheffield Unversity, London
  36. 36. WHEN COMPUTERS EXCEED Humans vs Machine HUMAN INTELLIGENCE Humans 4.0X10 19 cps Red Storm 3.5X10 15 cps The Age of Moore’ s Law Spiritual “computer power doubles Machines ROBOT every 18 months” Do the Math !! Ray Kurzweil Who is smarter now?? Hans Moravec Will Machines become “smarter than humans?
  37. 37. Do Robots Dream ?