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Orchestrating soft and
                     hard technologies
                                            Jon Dron
                           Technology-Enhanced Knowledge Research Institute
                                        https://tekri.athabascau.ca/
                                         Athabasca University


                           JTEL Winterschool, Innsbruck, 2010
                                                  1
Tuesday, 2 February 2010
-40 oC=-40oF




Tuesday, 2 February 2010
Pedagogies or
                           technologies first?


                                   3
Tuesday, 2 February 2010
Technology-enhanced
                            Learning?




                            http://expositions.bnf.fr/utopie/grand/3_95b1.htm




Tuesday, 2 February 2010
Technology-enhanced
                            learning?




      http://archives.lse.ac.uk/dserve.exe?dsqServer=lib-4.lse.ac.uk&dsqIni=Dserve.ini&dsqApp=Archive&dsqCmd=Show.tcl&dsqDb=Catalog&dsqPos=0&dsqSearch=(RefNo=
                                                                            %27IMAGELIBRARY/473%27)
Tuesday, 2 February 2010
Technology-enhanced
                            learning?




                           http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gloeden,_Wilhelm_von,_n._0027,_Socrate_alla_fonte.jpg




Tuesday, 2 February 2010
Technology-enhanced
                            learning?




                           http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1e/Torvisen_kansakoulu_1924-26.jpg




Tuesday, 2 February 2010
Technology-enhanced
                            learning?




               http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_sGYULzoQCgA/SA6HEWNCB5I/AAAAAAAABeA/FTkqbqDd9do/s1600-h/1964-worlds-fair-schoolmarm.jpg




Tuesday, 2 February 2010
Technology-enhanced
                            learning?




Tuesday, 2 February 2010
10
Tuesday, 2 February 2010
What is a technology?
                           “Orchestration of phenomena to our use”

              “A phenomenon captured and put to use”

                              “Programming of phenomena to our purposes ”

                     “A combination of artefacts and what you do with them”

                              “The way things are done around
                                  here” (Ursula Franklin)
                                               11
Tuesday, 2 February 2010
Tools are not
                            educational
                           technologies




                                 12
Tuesday, 2 February 2010
What is a pedagogy?

                           A way of doing things

                    A learning design

                            Methods and procedures

                                            A technology
                                              13
Tuesday, 2 February 2010
An old idea...


                  “a field involved in the facilitation of human
                 learning through the systematic identification,
                  development, organization, and utilization of
               learning resources and through the management
                       of these processes” (AECT, 1972)
                           http://www.flickr.com/photos/cornelluniversitylibrary/3855473015/in/set-72157622140446726/


                                                                     14
Tuesday, 2 February 2010
Assemblies




             Images from Wikipedia - see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Intel_microprocessors

Tuesday, 2 February 2010
Holistic vs prescriptive




            http://www.flickr.com/photos/llgc/3989887122/sizes/o/   http://www.flickr.com/photos/osucommons/3724232782/sizes/l/

Tuesday, 2 February 2010
Educational assemblies
                                                         Professional frameworks,
                           Government policies and      standards and accreditation
                                 regulations
                                             University policies, processes and
                                                        regulations

                                           Classrooms         Subject-level technologies

                                                    Pedagogies and learning designs

                           Learning management systems

                                                                   Timetabling
                              Network infrastructure

Tuesday, 2 February 2010
Parts and wholes

                    • structure and behaviour
                    • is a pedagogy a sub-assembly of other
                           technologies or vice versa (sometimes)?




                                             18
Tuesday, 2 February 2010
Pedagogies are flexible




                       electronic technologies are not (so much)



                                           19
Tuesday, 2 February 2010
Parts and wholes




                                  20
Tuesday, 2 February 2010
Parts and wholes




                           http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/00/Complex-adaptive-system.jpg

                                                                21
Tuesday, 2 February 2010
Soft and hard
                                         technologies



                           http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Furby.JPG   http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Science_museum_025_adjusted.jpg




Tuesday, 2 February 2010
The soft-hard spectrum




                                                                                                                                           Hard
Soft




       http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Asp_rocket.jpg   http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Shint%C5%8D_prayer.jpg




Tuesday, 2 February 2010
Naive view
                cognitivist              quiz generators
                pedagogies      timetabling
                                         flash card machines
                        ADDIE process
       institutional strategies                     LMSs




                                                                   Hard
Soft




                     behaviourist            wikis     adaptive
                      pedagogies       email           systems
       constructivist                            blogs
                                                             PCs
         pedagogies                    whiteboard pen



Tuesday, 2 February 2010
richer view
                             Advanced
                Cognitivist                        LMSs   PCs
                pedagogies                   Adaptive systems
         Constructivist       Timetabling wikis
                                            blogs




                                                             Hard
           pedagogies ADDIE process
Soft




        Institutional strategies              Quiz generators
                                   email
                    Behaviourist           Flash card machines
                     pedagogies          Whiteboard
                                 Basic

Tuesday, 2 February 2010
Assembly view
                               Advanced

         full tuition                           automated help
          by email                                  system




                                                                 Hard
                              email
Soft




                                    class listserv
             answer
            question                             email to SMS
                                 Basic

Tuesday, 2 February 2010
Consequences
                                 of
                                this
                            perspective

Tuesday, 2 February 2010
The question of
                            compatibility




                              http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Jigsaw.svg

Tuesday, 2 February 2010
Total incompatibility




              http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Craie1.jpg
                                                                  http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cheese_market_Basel.jpg




Tuesday, 2 February 2010
Sub-optimal
                           incompatibility




                            http://www.flickr.com/photos/nationaalarchief/2948560477/sizes/o/




                                                          30
Tuesday, 2 February 2010
Heath Robinson
                           incompatibility




                                  31
Tuesday, 2 February 2010
Adaptable
                           incompatibility




                            http://www.flickr.com/photos/kaptainkobold/3203311346/


                                                     32
Tuesday, 2 February 2010
The dark side of
                             mashing up




                              http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA07660




Tuesday, 2 February 2010
Choice and control
                                             100%


                                             75%




                                                    Control
                                            50%


                                            25%
                             Cho
                                ices        0%




                                       34
Tuesday, 2 February 2010
The great unknown




                              http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:AdventuresIntoDarkness1401.jpg



Tuesday, 2 February 2010
Maintenance




                            http://www.flickr.com/photos/osucommons/3226077133/



Tuesday, 2 February 2010
People matter


                                  • people matter most



                           http://www.flickr.com/photos/nationallibrarynz_commons/3326203787/sizes/o/

                                                             37
Tuesday, 2 February 2010
Traditional view




                            http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Computer_education_boys_Gujarat.jpg




Tuesday, 2 February 2010
New view




                           http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Linkware.jpg




Tuesday, 2 February 2010
Reverse the trend




Tuesday, 2 February 2010
Good people do bad
                                 things




                               http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Satan_Exulting_over_Eve.jpg


                                                              41
Tuesday, 2 February 2010
soul > technique



                               If you don’t live it, it won’t
                                 come out of your horn
                                     (Charlie Parker)




                                            42
Tuesday, 2 February 2010
No significant
                            difference?




Tuesday, 2 February 2010
The need for
                           communication




                              http://expositions.bnf.fr/utopie/grand/3_95b2.htm




Tuesday, 2 February 2010
What’s new?




                           http://www.flickr.com/photos/cornelluniversitylibrary/3855473015/in/set-72157622140446726/




Tuesday, 2 February 2010
that’s all folks
                                 jond@athabascau.ca
                             http://jondron.athabascau.ca


                  Technology-Enhanced Knowledge Research Institute




Tuesday, 2 February 2010

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Orchestrating Soft and Hard Technologies

  • 1. Orchestrating soft and hard technologies Jon Dron Technology-Enhanced Knowledge Research Institute https://tekri.athabascau.ca/ Athabasca University JTEL Winterschool, Innsbruck, 2010 1 Tuesday, 2 February 2010
  • 2. -40 oC=-40oF Tuesday, 2 February 2010
  • 3. Pedagogies or technologies first? 3 Tuesday, 2 February 2010
  • 4. Technology-enhanced Learning? http://expositions.bnf.fr/utopie/grand/3_95b1.htm Tuesday, 2 February 2010
  • 5. Technology-enhanced learning? http://archives.lse.ac.uk/dserve.exe?dsqServer=lib-4.lse.ac.uk&dsqIni=Dserve.ini&dsqApp=Archive&dsqCmd=Show.tcl&dsqDb=Catalog&dsqPos=0&dsqSearch=(RefNo= %27IMAGELIBRARY/473%27) Tuesday, 2 February 2010
  • 6. Technology-enhanced learning? http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gloeden,_Wilhelm_von,_n._0027,_Socrate_alla_fonte.jpg Tuesday, 2 February 2010
  • 7. Technology-enhanced learning? http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1e/Torvisen_kansakoulu_1924-26.jpg Tuesday, 2 February 2010
  • 8. Technology-enhanced learning? http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_sGYULzoQCgA/SA6HEWNCB5I/AAAAAAAABeA/FTkqbqDd9do/s1600-h/1964-worlds-fair-schoolmarm.jpg Tuesday, 2 February 2010
  • 9. Technology-enhanced learning? Tuesday, 2 February 2010
  • 11. What is a technology? “Orchestration of phenomena to our use” “A phenomenon captured and put to use” “Programming of phenomena to our purposes ” “A combination of artefacts and what you do with them” “The way things are done around here” (Ursula Franklin) 11 Tuesday, 2 February 2010
  • 12. Tools are not educational technologies 12 Tuesday, 2 February 2010
  • 13. What is a pedagogy? A way of doing things A learning design Methods and procedures A technology 13 Tuesday, 2 February 2010
  • 14. An old idea... “a field involved in the facilitation of human learning through the systematic identification, development, organization, and utilization of learning resources and through the management of these processes” (AECT, 1972) http://www.flickr.com/photos/cornelluniversitylibrary/3855473015/in/set-72157622140446726/ 14 Tuesday, 2 February 2010
  • 15. Assemblies Images from Wikipedia - see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Intel_microprocessors Tuesday, 2 February 2010
  • 16. Holistic vs prescriptive http://www.flickr.com/photos/llgc/3989887122/sizes/o/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/osucommons/3724232782/sizes/l/ Tuesday, 2 February 2010
  • 17. Educational assemblies Professional frameworks, Government policies and standards and accreditation regulations University policies, processes and regulations Classrooms Subject-level technologies Pedagogies and learning designs Learning management systems Timetabling Network infrastructure Tuesday, 2 February 2010
  • 18. Parts and wholes • structure and behaviour • is a pedagogy a sub-assembly of other technologies or vice versa (sometimes)? 18 Tuesday, 2 February 2010
  • 19. Pedagogies are flexible electronic technologies are not (so much) 19 Tuesday, 2 February 2010
  • 20. Parts and wholes 20 Tuesday, 2 February 2010
  • 21. Parts and wholes http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/00/Complex-adaptive-system.jpg 21 Tuesday, 2 February 2010
  • 22. Soft and hard technologies http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Furby.JPG http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Science_museum_025_adjusted.jpg Tuesday, 2 February 2010
  • 23. The soft-hard spectrum Hard Soft http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Asp_rocket.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Shint%C5%8D_prayer.jpg Tuesday, 2 February 2010
  • 24. Naive view cognitivist quiz generators pedagogies timetabling flash card machines ADDIE process institutional strategies LMSs Hard Soft behaviourist wikis adaptive pedagogies email systems constructivist blogs PCs pedagogies whiteboard pen Tuesday, 2 February 2010
  • 25. richer view Advanced Cognitivist LMSs PCs pedagogies Adaptive systems Constructivist Timetabling wikis blogs Hard pedagogies ADDIE process Soft Institutional strategies Quiz generators email Behaviourist Flash card machines pedagogies Whiteboard Basic Tuesday, 2 February 2010
  • 26. Assembly view Advanced full tuition automated help by email system Hard email Soft class listserv answer question email to SMS Basic Tuesday, 2 February 2010
  • 27. Consequences of this perspective Tuesday, 2 February 2010
  • 28. The question of compatibility http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Jigsaw.svg Tuesday, 2 February 2010
  • 29. Total incompatibility http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Craie1.jpg http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cheese_market_Basel.jpg Tuesday, 2 February 2010
  • 30. Sub-optimal incompatibility http://www.flickr.com/photos/nationaalarchief/2948560477/sizes/o/ 30 Tuesday, 2 February 2010
  • 31. Heath Robinson incompatibility 31 Tuesday, 2 February 2010
  • 32. Adaptable incompatibility http://www.flickr.com/photos/kaptainkobold/3203311346/ 32 Tuesday, 2 February 2010
  • 33. The dark side of mashing up http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA07660 Tuesday, 2 February 2010
  • 34. Choice and control 100% 75% Control 50% 25% Cho ices 0% 34 Tuesday, 2 February 2010
  • 35. The great unknown http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:AdventuresIntoDarkness1401.jpg Tuesday, 2 February 2010
  • 36. Maintenance http://www.flickr.com/photos/osucommons/3226077133/ Tuesday, 2 February 2010
  • 37. People matter • people matter most http://www.flickr.com/photos/nationallibrarynz_commons/3326203787/sizes/o/ 37 Tuesday, 2 February 2010
  • 38. Traditional view http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Computer_education_boys_Gujarat.jpg Tuesday, 2 February 2010
  • 39. New view http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Linkware.jpg Tuesday, 2 February 2010
  • 40. Reverse the trend Tuesday, 2 February 2010
  • 41. Good people do bad things http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Satan_Exulting_over_Eve.jpg 41 Tuesday, 2 February 2010
  • 42. soul > technique If you don’t live it, it won’t come out of your horn (Charlie Parker) 42 Tuesday, 2 February 2010
  • 43. No significant difference? Tuesday, 2 February 2010
  • 44. The need for communication http://expositions.bnf.fr/utopie/grand/3_95b2.htm Tuesday, 2 February 2010
  • 45. What’s new? http://www.flickr.com/photos/cornelluniversitylibrary/3855473015/in/set-72157622140446726/ Tuesday, 2 February 2010
  • 46. that’s all folks jond@athabascau.ca http://jondron.athabascau.ca Technology-Enhanced Knowledge Research Institute Tuesday, 2 February 2010