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Immune System and ReproductiveSystemDay 6
Different Ways Where PathogensCan Cause Disease Producing Poison (toxin) Use of body cells toreplicate Destroy body tis...
Transmission of Diseases Direct Contact (Physical contact) Indirect Contact (Carrier or Vector) Food and Water (Salmone...
Immune System Responsible for defending the body from foreignmaterials that cause diseases, called pathogens Antigens – ...
Cells of the Immune System Leucocytes – main cellular components of theimmune system Phagocytes – are leucocytes that en...
Type ofDefenseLine CharacteristicsNonspecific First Line Prinicipal Barriers suchas skin, mucus, sweat,tearsNonspecific Se...
Second Line1. Damaged tissues release histamine, increasingblood flow to the area2. Histamine causes capillaries to leak, ...
Two Other Components of SecondLine Defense1. Interferon – attacks many viruses and cancercells. Protein that interferes w/...
Third Line: Specific Defense Lymphocytes respond to antigens and are the keyplayers in the immune system Antigens – a mo...
Cell-Mediated Immunity Phagocytosis Neutrophils – they ingest other cells but do not survive Macrophage - phagocytize (...
Kinds of T Cells Cytotoxic T cells / T killer cells Attacks a dangerous cell by producing a protein thatruptures the cel...
Humoral Immunity
Cell Mediated Immunity
Immunization Active Immunization Passive Immunization
Reproductive System Asexual Sexual
Asexual Reproduction Budding Fragmentation Parthenogenesis Spore formation Vegetative reproduction Regeneration Bin...
Male Reproductive System Sperm Scrotum Epididymis Vas Deferens Ejaculatoryduct Seminal Vesicle BulbourethralGland ...
Sperm Head Nucleus – contains the chromosome that carrygenetic material of the male parent Acrosome – produces enzymes ...
Anatomy of the Male ReproductiveOrgan Penis – cylindrical in shape Root – attaches to the wall of the abdomen Body/Shaf...
 Testicles Oval organs about the size of large olives that lie in thescrotum Responsible for making testosterone, gener...
 Vas Deferens Transport mature sperm to the urethra inpreparation fro ejaculation Ejaculatory Duct Formed by the fusio...
 Seminal Vesicles Sac-like pouches that attach to the Vas Deferensnear the base of the bladder Fluid produced makes up ...
 Prostate Gland Walnut-sized below the urinary bladder and in frontof the rectum Small ducts surrounding the urethra, a...
 Bulbourethral gland / Cowper’s Gland Pea-sized structure located on the sides of theurethra just below the prostate gla...
Trivia Blue-whale has the largest penis which measures11 feet and releases 360 gallons of sperm butonly 10% of the sperm ...
Female Reproductive System Egg Ovaries Fallopian Tube Uterus Cervix Vagina
Pregnancy lasts about 40 weeks, counting from the first dayof your last normal period. The weeks aregrouped into three tr...
Day 6
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Day 6

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Day 6

  1. 1. Immune System and ReproductiveSystemDay 6
  2. 2. Different Ways Where PathogensCan Cause Disease Producing Poison (toxin) Use of body cells toreplicate Destroy body tissues byfeeding on or burrowing intotissues (parasites)
  3. 3. Transmission of Diseases Direct Contact (Physical contact) Indirect Contact (Carrier or Vector) Food and Water (Salmonella, Botulinum)
  4. 4. Immune System Responsible for defending the body from foreignmaterials that cause diseases, called pathogens Antigens – causes the production of theantibodies Antibodies – identifies and neutralizes foreignmaterials like bacteria or viruses
  5. 5. Cells of the Immune System Leucocytes – main cellular components of theimmune system Phagocytes – are leucocytes that engulf anddigest unwanted cells and pathogens in anonspecific manner Macrophage – Largest phagocytes; each canengulf hundreds of bacteria cells Lymphocytes – leucocytes that is involved inthe body’s specific defense system
  6. 6. Type ofDefenseLine CharacteristicsNonspecific First Line Prinicipal Barriers suchas skin, mucus, sweat,tearsNonspecific Second Line Inflammatory ResponseSpecific Third Line Immune responses-Humoral and Cell-mediatedEffective againstspecific kinds of
  7. 7. Second Line1. Damaged tissues release histamine, increasingblood flow to the area2. Histamine causes capillaries to leak, releasingphagocytes and clotting factors into the wound3. Phagocytes engulf bacteria, dead cells &cellular debris4. Platelets move out of the capillary to seal thewounded area
  8. 8. Two Other Components of SecondLine Defense1. Interferon – attacks many viruses and cancercells. Protein that interferes w/ the replication ofviruses. Released by cells that have beeninvaded by viruses2. Natural Killer cells – Found in both blood andlymph. Fever – when macrophage produce pyrogens w/cstimulates the brain to raise body temperature,can inhibit growth and development of pathogensand phagocytes will become more active
  9. 9. Third Line: Specific Defense Lymphocytes respond to antigens and are the keyplayers in the immune system Antigens – a molecule that elicits the immuneresponse. Surface Most antigens are moleculeson the surface of the pathogens (certain toxinsare also antigens) Antibody (Y-shaped) – a disease fighting proteinproduced in response to a specific antigen
  10. 10. Cell-Mediated Immunity Phagocytosis Neutrophils – they ingest other cells but do not survive Macrophage - phagocytize (engulf and then digest) cellulardebris and pathogens either as stationary or as mobilecells, and to stimulate lymphocytes and other immune cellsto respond to the pathogen. Lymphocytes T cells – Divided into 3 ( T killer cells, helper T cells andSuppressor T cells) B cells - type of lymphocyte that, when stimulated by aparticular antigen, differentiates into plasma cells thatsynthesize the antibodies that circulate in the blood andreact with the specific antigens NK cells – Attacks body cells that have been infected with
  11. 11. Kinds of T Cells Cytotoxic T cells / T killer cells Attacks a dangerous cell by producing a protein thatruptures the cell membrane Work the same manner with NK cells Helper T cells Stimulate T cells to divide forming a large army ofKiller T cells Suppressor T cells Inhibit the activity of other T cells when they are nolonger needed
  12. 12. Humoral Immunity
  13. 13. Cell Mediated Immunity
  14. 14. Immunization Active Immunization Passive Immunization
  15. 15. Reproductive System Asexual Sexual
  16. 16. Asexual Reproduction Budding Fragmentation Parthenogenesis Spore formation Vegetative reproduction Regeneration Binary fission
  17. 17. Male Reproductive System Sperm Scrotum Epididymis Vas Deferens Ejaculatoryduct Seminal Vesicle BulbourethralGland Prostate Gland Penis
  18. 18. Sperm Head Nucleus – contains the chromosome that carrygenetic material of the male parent Acrosome – produces enzymes that help the spermpenetrate the egg Midpiece – packed withmitochondria, manufacturers ATP, provide energyfor movement of flagellum Flagellum – The tail of the cell. It has the typical9+2 arrangement of microtubules
  19. 19. Anatomy of the Male ReproductiveOrgan Penis – cylindrical in shape Root – attaches to the wall of the abdomen Body/Shaft Glans – the head of the penis. Covered with a layerof skin called foreskin Erectile tissue – allows penis to erect Scrotum Loose pouch like sac of skin that hangs below thepenis Climate control system
  20. 20.  Testicles Oval organs about the size of large olives that lie in thescrotum Responsible for making testosterone, generating sperm Epididymis Long coiled tube that stands on the backside of each testis Transport and storage of sperm cells produced from the testi To bring sperm to maturity During sexual arousal, contractions force the sperm into theVas deferens If sperm is not ejaculated after its sperm life, they willdegenerate
  21. 21.  Vas Deferens Transport mature sperm to the urethra inpreparation fro ejaculation Ejaculatory Duct Formed by the fusion of the vas deferens andseminal vesicles Urethra
  22. 22.  Seminal Vesicles Sac-like pouches that attach to the Vas Deferensnear the base of the bladder Fluid produced makes up most of the volume of aman’s ejaculatory fluid Viscous secretions, produce sugar-rich fluid(fructose) Provides sperm with a source of energy Helps with the sperm’s motility
  23. 23.  Prostate Gland Walnut-sized below the urinary bladder and in frontof the rectum Small ducts surrounding the urethra, a milky fluidcontaining a little citric acid, some lipids, fewenzymes and enough bicarbonate to make the fluidalkaline Prostate secretions aid in sperm motility and helpneutralize acid in urethral urine residue and vaginalsecretions Contributes additional fluid to ejaculate Prostate fluid nourishes the sperm
  24. 24.  Bulbourethral gland / Cowper’s Gland Pea-sized structure located on the sides of theurethra just below the prostate gland Produce a clear, slippery fluid that empties directlyinto the urethra
  25. 25. Trivia Blue-whale has the largest penis which measures11 feet and releases 360 gallons of sperm butonly 10% of the sperm can be fertilized Average size of penis not erect – 3.5 inches Average size of penis when erect – 5.2 – 6.4inches Largest ever recorded: 13 inches
  26. 26. Female Reproductive System Egg Ovaries Fallopian Tube Uterus Cervix Vagina
  27. 27. Pregnancy lasts about 40 weeks, counting from the first dayof your last normal period. The weeks aregrouped into three trimesters.

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