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CONTENTS
MEANING
CHARACTERISTICS
NEED FOR COORDINATION
TYPES OF COORDINATION
PRINCIPLES OF COORDINATION
APPROACHESFOR ACHIEVING EFFECTIVE COORDINATION
CONCLUSION
MEANING
•ACCORDING TO E.F.L.BRECH,” COORDINATION IS BALANCING AND KEEPING
TOGETHER THE TEAM BY ENSURING SUITABLE ALLOCATION OF TASK TO THE
VARIOUS MEMBERS AND SEEING THAT THE TASKS ARE PERFORMED WITH
DUE HARMONY AMONG THE MEMBERS THEMSELVES “
CHARACTERISTICS
THE ABOVE OBSERVATIONS REVEAL THE FOLLOWING FEATURES OF COORDINATION
COORDINATION IS NOT A DISTINCT FUNCTION .BUT , REPRESENTS THE ESSENCE OF
MANAGEMENT.
 THE OUTCOME OF THE COORDINATION IS TO ATTAIN THE COMMON PURPOSE.
COORDINATION IS ESSENTIAL IN ALL WORK SITUATIONS WHERE PEOPLE WORK TOGETHER
COORDINATION IS A CONTINUOUS AND AN ON GOING PROCESS
COORDINATION DOES NOT ARISE SPONTANEOUSLY OR BY FORCE . IT IS THE RESULT OF
CONCERTED ACTION
COORDINATION IS REQUIRED IN GROUP EFFORTS BUT NOT IN INDIVIDUAL EFFORTS
NEED FOR COORDINATION
NEED FOR COORDINATION ( CONT’D)
PERSONAL CONFLICTS BETWEEN EMPLOYEES
EMPLOYEESARE HUMAN BEINGS . PERSONAL RIVALRIES ,JEALOUSIES AND POLITICS
IN THE WORK SITUATION ARE BOUND TO CREATE PROBLEMS TO THE MANAGEMENT
SUBORDINATION OF INDIVIDUAL INTEREST TO THAT OF ORGANISATIONAL INTEREST
INDIVIDUAL INTERESTS ARE IMPORTANT FOR DEVELOPING LOYALTY, INTEGRITY
,HARD WORK , INITIATION AND MOTIVATION . ORGANISATIONAL INTERESTS ARE MUCH MORE IMPORTANT
THAN INDIVIDUAL INTERESTS . FOR ACHIEVING THIS , SUBORDINATION OF INDIVIDUAL NEEDS TO THAT OF
ORGANISATIONAL GOALS IS A MUST. THE PURPOSE OF COORDINATION IS TO ATTAIN THIS DESIRED END
TYPES OF COORDINATION
DEPENDING UPON THE NATURE AND COVERAGE , COORDINATION MAY BE STUDIED UNDER DIFFERENT TYPES
.THEY ARE AS FOLLOWS
INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL COORDINATION
COORDINATION BETWEEN UNITS OF THE SAME ORGANIZATION IS TERMED AS
INTERNAL COORDINATION. IT SUMMARISES THE ACTIVITIES OF DIFFERENT UNITS SO AS TO MAKE THE
ORGANISATIONMORE EFFECTIVE . ORGANISATIONS ARENOT FREE FROM THE INFLUENCE OF EXTERNAL
ENVIRONMENT . HENCE, ESTABLISHING A CLOSE LINK BETWEEN ORGANISATIONS AND EXTERNAL
ENVIRONMENT IS A MUST EITHER TO SURVIVE OR SURPASS THE GROWING COMPETITION. EXTERNAL
ENVIRONMENT INCLUDES TECHNOLOGY ,COMPETITION, MARKET FORCES, CUSTOMERS,GOVERNMENT
POLICY ETC., EXTERNAL CO-ORDINATION TRIES TO COORDINATE ALL THESE FORCES UPTO THE ADVANTAGE
OF AN ORGANIZATION
TYPES (CONT’D)
VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL COORDINATION
COORDINATION BETWEEN DIFFERENT LEVELS OF HIERARCHY DOWN THE
LINE IS TERMED AS “VERTICAL COORDINATION”.IT ENSURES THAT ALL LEVELS OF PEOPLE ,FROM TOP TO THE
BOTTOM, WORK IN HARMONY .IT IS GREATLY FACILITATED BY A TECHNIQUE LIKE DELIGATIONOF AUTHORITY
TO THE LOWER LEVELS OF HIERARCHY. COORDINATION BETWEEN PEOPLEOF THE SAME CADRE AND BETWEEN
DIFFERENT DEPARTMENTS AT THE SAME LEVEL IS TERMED AS “HORIZONTAL COORDINATION”
PROCEDURAL AND SUBSTANTIVE COORDINATION
PROCEDURAL COORDINATION IMPLIES THE SPECIFICATIONS OF DIFFERENT UNITS IN THE
SAME ORGANIZATION. ON THE OTHER HAND, SUBSTANTIVE COORDINATION IS CONCERNED WITH THE
CONTENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL ACTIVITIES.
PRINCIPLES OF COORDINATION
MARY PARKERFOLLET HAS LAID DOWN THE FOLLOWING FOUR PRINCIPLES FOR EFFECTIVE COORDINATION
.THESE PRINCIPLES HELP EVERY MANAGER IN DISCHARGING HIS FUNCTIONS .
EARLY START
THINKING FUNCTION OF THE MANAGEMENT PRECEDES THE DOING FUNCTION . THE TASK OF
COORDINATIONBECOMES RELATIVELY IF IT STARTS AT PLANNING STAGE .
DIRECT PERSONAL CONTACT
IT STRESSES THE IMPORTANCE OF DIRECT CONTACT IN REMOVING CONFLICTS AND
MISUNDERSTANDING. EFFECTIVE COORDINATION IS BEST ACHIEVED THROUGH DIRECT PERSONAL
CONTACT.
PRINCIPLES (CONT’D)
CONTINUITY
COORDINATION IS AN UNENDING PROCESS . IT CANNOT BE LEFT TO CHANCE . THE
MANAGEMENT HAS TO CONTINUOUSLY STRIVE HARD TO MAINTAIN PERFECT BALANCE AMONG DIFFERENT
UNITS/PEOPLE
 INTERGRATION
THE FOURTH PRINCIPLE OF COORDINATION CALLS FOR INTEGRATION OF EFFORTS FOR
ACHIEVING A COMMON PURPOSE. FOR THIS PUORPOSE , COORDINATION DEMANDS RECIPROCAL
RELATIONSHIPAMONG ALL THE CONCERNED
APPROACHES FOR ACHIEVING EFFECTIVE COORDINATION
DIFFERENT ORGANISATIONS ADOPT DIFFERENT MECHANISSMS FOR ACHIEVING EFFECTIVE COORDINATION . THERE IS NO SINGLE
METHOD OF COORDINATING THE MANAGERIAL ACTIVITIES THAT CAN BE UNIVERSALLY ACCEPTABLE . ALL OF THEM ARE INTEGRATIVE
MECHANISMS .EACH ONE OF THEM IS EXPLAINED BELOW
 INTERGRATION THROUGH STANDARDISATION
IT INVOLVES THE DEVELOPMENT OF STANDARD RULES AND PROCEDURES THROUGH WHICH THE JOB HOLDERS/DEPARTMENTS HAVE
TO DIRECT THEIR ACTIVITIES IN ORDER TO ENSURE CONSISTENCY IN OPERATIONS .
 PLANS AND SCHEDULES
SEPARATE PLANS SCHEDULES MAY BE PREPARED FOR EACH DEPARTMENTS OR UNITS .AT THE CORPORATE ,ALL PLANS ARE
MERGED AND INTEGRATED SO AS TO OBTAIN OPTIMUM RESULTS . COORDINATION BECOMES EASY SINCE DEPARTMENTAL PLANS ARE
FLEXIBLE THAN STANDARDS
 MUTAL ADJUSTMENTS
ACTIVITIES OF COMPANY ARE COORDINATED THROUGH MUTAL ADJUSTMENTS AMONG SISTER UNITS /DEPARTMENTS ON
CONTINGENCY BASIS. HERE COOPERATION IS ASSURED BETWEEN THE NEEDY UNITS FOR THE PURPOSE OF GETTING THE THINGS DONE
APPROACHES ( CONT’D)
IN TRADITIONAL ORGANIZATIONS COORDINATION IS SOUGHT TO BE ACHIEVED THROUGH
STANDARDIZATION AND PLANNING . THE USUAL METHODS FOLLOWED BY THE TRADITIONAL AND
BUREAUCRATIC ORGANISATIONS FOR ACHIEVING EFFECTIVE COORDINATION ARE LISTED BELOW .
1) DEVELOPING ELABORATE SYSTEM OF RULES AND PROCEDURE FOR SORTING OUT RECURRING
PROBLEMS .
2) NON-ROUTINE PROBLEMS ARE TO BE REFERRED TO HIGHER –UPS
3) WHERE DECISIONS RELATING TO NEW POLICY MATTERS HAVE TO BE TAKEN UP , THEY MAY BE
REFERRED TO SPECIAL COMMITTEES
CONCLUSION
AS STATED EARLIER , NO SINGLE APPROACH TO COORDINATION IS PROVED TO BE USEFUL TO ALL ORGANIZATIONS. THE
SUITABILITY OF A PARTICULAR APPROACH TO COORDINATION DEPENDS UPON FACTORS LIKE SIZE OF THE
ORGANIZATION , COMPLEXITY OF ITS WORK , NATURE OF WORK FORCE , CERTAINTY AND UNCERTAINTY CONDITIONS
DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY ETC. THE PROCESS OF COORDINATION BECOMES USEFUL AND MEANINGFUL ONLY WITH THE
DELEGATION OF APPROPRIATE AUTHORITY
COORDINATION PROCESS IS ESSENTIAL TO MAKE UNIFIED WHOLE OUT OF DIVERSIFIED FUNCTIONS ON SMOOTH LINES .
IT PERVADES ALL THE MANAGERIAL ACTIVITIES FROM PLANNING TO CONTROLS . BIG ORGANISATONS ARE NOW
CREATING SEPARATE DEPARTMENTS FOR COORDINATION AMONG DEPARTMENTS . NEW RULES AND PROCEDURES MAY
BE DEVELOPED TO MINIMIZE PROBLEMS LIKE RED-TAPISIM , OVERRIDING GOALS , BLIND LOYALTY AND FRICTION
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Coordination

  • 1.
  • 2. CONTENTS MEANING CHARACTERISTICS NEED FOR COORDINATION TYPES OF COORDINATION PRINCIPLES OF COORDINATION APPROACHESFOR ACHIEVING EFFECTIVE COORDINATION CONCLUSION
  • 3. MEANING •ACCORDING TO E.F.L.BRECH,” COORDINATION IS BALANCING AND KEEPING TOGETHER THE TEAM BY ENSURING SUITABLE ALLOCATION OF TASK TO THE VARIOUS MEMBERS AND SEEING THAT THE TASKS ARE PERFORMED WITH DUE HARMONY AMONG THE MEMBERS THEMSELVES “
  • 4. CHARACTERISTICS THE ABOVE OBSERVATIONS REVEAL THE FOLLOWING FEATURES OF COORDINATION COORDINATION IS NOT A DISTINCT FUNCTION .BUT , REPRESENTS THE ESSENCE OF MANAGEMENT.  THE OUTCOME OF THE COORDINATION IS TO ATTAIN THE COMMON PURPOSE. COORDINATION IS ESSENTIAL IN ALL WORK SITUATIONS WHERE PEOPLE WORK TOGETHER COORDINATION IS A CONTINUOUS AND AN ON GOING PROCESS COORDINATION DOES NOT ARISE SPONTANEOUSLY OR BY FORCE . IT IS THE RESULT OF CONCERTED ACTION COORDINATION IS REQUIRED IN GROUP EFFORTS BUT NOT IN INDIVIDUAL EFFORTS
  • 6. NEED FOR COORDINATION ( CONT’D) PERSONAL CONFLICTS BETWEEN EMPLOYEES EMPLOYEESARE HUMAN BEINGS . PERSONAL RIVALRIES ,JEALOUSIES AND POLITICS IN THE WORK SITUATION ARE BOUND TO CREATE PROBLEMS TO THE MANAGEMENT SUBORDINATION OF INDIVIDUAL INTEREST TO THAT OF ORGANISATIONAL INTEREST INDIVIDUAL INTERESTS ARE IMPORTANT FOR DEVELOPING LOYALTY, INTEGRITY ,HARD WORK , INITIATION AND MOTIVATION . ORGANISATIONAL INTERESTS ARE MUCH MORE IMPORTANT THAN INDIVIDUAL INTERESTS . FOR ACHIEVING THIS , SUBORDINATION OF INDIVIDUAL NEEDS TO THAT OF ORGANISATIONAL GOALS IS A MUST. THE PURPOSE OF COORDINATION IS TO ATTAIN THIS DESIRED END
  • 7. TYPES OF COORDINATION DEPENDING UPON THE NATURE AND COVERAGE , COORDINATION MAY BE STUDIED UNDER DIFFERENT TYPES .THEY ARE AS FOLLOWS INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL COORDINATION COORDINATION BETWEEN UNITS OF THE SAME ORGANIZATION IS TERMED AS INTERNAL COORDINATION. IT SUMMARISES THE ACTIVITIES OF DIFFERENT UNITS SO AS TO MAKE THE ORGANISATIONMORE EFFECTIVE . ORGANISATIONS ARENOT FREE FROM THE INFLUENCE OF EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT . HENCE, ESTABLISHING A CLOSE LINK BETWEEN ORGANISATIONS AND EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT IS A MUST EITHER TO SURVIVE OR SURPASS THE GROWING COMPETITION. EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT INCLUDES TECHNOLOGY ,COMPETITION, MARKET FORCES, CUSTOMERS,GOVERNMENT POLICY ETC., EXTERNAL CO-ORDINATION TRIES TO COORDINATE ALL THESE FORCES UPTO THE ADVANTAGE OF AN ORGANIZATION
  • 8. TYPES (CONT’D) VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL COORDINATION COORDINATION BETWEEN DIFFERENT LEVELS OF HIERARCHY DOWN THE LINE IS TERMED AS “VERTICAL COORDINATION”.IT ENSURES THAT ALL LEVELS OF PEOPLE ,FROM TOP TO THE BOTTOM, WORK IN HARMONY .IT IS GREATLY FACILITATED BY A TECHNIQUE LIKE DELIGATIONOF AUTHORITY TO THE LOWER LEVELS OF HIERARCHY. COORDINATION BETWEEN PEOPLEOF THE SAME CADRE AND BETWEEN DIFFERENT DEPARTMENTS AT THE SAME LEVEL IS TERMED AS “HORIZONTAL COORDINATION” PROCEDURAL AND SUBSTANTIVE COORDINATION PROCEDURAL COORDINATION IMPLIES THE SPECIFICATIONS OF DIFFERENT UNITS IN THE SAME ORGANIZATION. ON THE OTHER HAND, SUBSTANTIVE COORDINATION IS CONCERNED WITH THE CONTENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL ACTIVITIES.
  • 9. PRINCIPLES OF COORDINATION MARY PARKERFOLLET HAS LAID DOWN THE FOLLOWING FOUR PRINCIPLES FOR EFFECTIVE COORDINATION .THESE PRINCIPLES HELP EVERY MANAGER IN DISCHARGING HIS FUNCTIONS . EARLY START THINKING FUNCTION OF THE MANAGEMENT PRECEDES THE DOING FUNCTION . THE TASK OF COORDINATIONBECOMES RELATIVELY IF IT STARTS AT PLANNING STAGE . DIRECT PERSONAL CONTACT IT STRESSES THE IMPORTANCE OF DIRECT CONTACT IN REMOVING CONFLICTS AND MISUNDERSTANDING. EFFECTIVE COORDINATION IS BEST ACHIEVED THROUGH DIRECT PERSONAL CONTACT.
  • 10. PRINCIPLES (CONT’D) CONTINUITY COORDINATION IS AN UNENDING PROCESS . IT CANNOT BE LEFT TO CHANCE . THE MANAGEMENT HAS TO CONTINUOUSLY STRIVE HARD TO MAINTAIN PERFECT BALANCE AMONG DIFFERENT UNITS/PEOPLE  INTERGRATION THE FOURTH PRINCIPLE OF COORDINATION CALLS FOR INTEGRATION OF EFFORTS FOR ACHIEVING A COMMON PURPOSE. FOR THIS PUORPOSE , COORDINATION DEMANDS RECIPROCAL RELATIONSHIPAMONG ALL THE CONCERNED
  • 11. APPROACHES FOR ACHIEVING EFFECTIVE COORDINATION DIFFERENT ORGANISATIONS ADOPT DIFFERENT MECHANISSMS FOR ACHIEVING EFFECTIVE COORDINATION . THERE IS NO SINGLE METHOD OF COORDINATING THE MANAGERIAL ACTIVITIES THAT CAN BE UNIVERSALLY ACCEPTABLE . ALL OF THEM ARE INTEGRATIVE MECHANISMS .EACH ONE OF THEM IS EXPLAINED BELOW  INTERGRATION THROUGH STANDARDISATION IT INVOLVES THE DEVELOPMENT OF STANDARD RULES AND PROCEDURES THROUGH WHICH THE JOB HOLDERS/DEPARTMENTS HAVE TO DIRECT THEIR ACTIVITIES IN ORDER TO ENSURE CONSISTENCY IN OPERATIONS .  PLANS AND SCHEDULES SEPARATE PLANS SCHEDULES MAY BE PREPARED FOR EACH DEPARTMENTS OR UNITS .AT THE CORPORATE ,ALL PLANS ARE MERGED AND INTEGRATED SO AS TO OBTAIN OPTIMUM RESULTS . COORDINATION BECOMES EASY SINCE DEPARTMENTAL PLANS ARE FLEXIBLE THAN STANDARDS  MUTAL ADJUSTMENTS ACTIVITIES OF COMPANY ARE COORDINATED THROUGH MUTAL ADJUSTMENTS AMONG SISTER UNITS /DEPARTMENTS ON CONTINGENCY BASIS. HERE COOPERATION IS ASSURED BETWEEN THE NEEDY UNITS FOR THE PURPOSE OF GETTING THE THINGS DONE
  • 12. APPROACHES ( CONT’D) IN TRADITIONAL ORGANIZATIONS COORDINATION IS SOUGHT TO BE ACHIEVED THROUGH STANDARDIZATION AND PLANNING . THE USUAL METHODS FOLLOWED BY THE TRADITIONAL AND BUREAUCRATIC ORGANISATIONS FOR ACHIEVING EFFECTIVE COORDINATION ARE LISTED BELOW . 1) DEVELOPING ELABORATE SYSTEM OF RULES AND PROCEDURE FOR SORTING OUT RECURRING PROBLEMS . 2) NON-ROUTINE PROBLEMS ARE TO BE REFERRED TO HIGHER –UPS 3) WHERE DECISIONS RELATING TO NEW POLICY MATTERS HAVE TO BE TAKEN UP , THEY MAY BE REFERRED TO SPECIAL COMMITTEES
  • 13. CONCLUSION AS STATED EARLIER , NO SINGLE APPROACH TO COORDINATION IS PROVED TO BE USEFUL TO ALL ORGANIZATIONS. THE SUITABILITY OF A PARTICULAR APPROACH TO COORDINATION DEPENDS UPON FACTORS LIKE SIZE OF THE ORGANIZATION , COMPLEXITY OF ITS WORK , NATURE OF WORK FORCE , CERTAINTY AND UNCERTAINTY CONDITIONS DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY ETC. THE PROCESS OF COORDINATION BECOMES USEFUL AND MEANINGFUL ONLY WITH THE DELEGATION OF APPROPRIATE AUTHORITY COORDINATION PROCESS IS ESSENTIAL TO MAKE UNIFIED WHOLE OUT OF DIVERSIFIED FUNCTIONS ON SMOOTH LINES . IT PERVADES ALL THE MANAGERIAL ACTIVITIES FROM PLANNING TO CONTROLS . BIG ORGANISATONS ARE NOW CREATING SEPARATE DEPARTMENTS FOR COORDINATION AMONG DEPARTMENTS . NEW RULES AND PROCEDURES MAY BE DEVELOPED TO MINIMIZE PROBLEMS LIKE RED-TAPISIM , OVERRIDING GOALS , BLIND LOYALTY AND FRICTION