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Cem BALÇIKANLI Gazi University, Faculty of Education,  English Language Teaching Department  E-mail:  [email_address] The ...
<ul><li>The term ‘speech act ’ has been defined as a minimal unit  </li></ul><ul><li>of discourse by Searle (1969) and as ...
In order to achieve approximate native-speaker levels of pragmatic competence, learners need to acquire the rules of polit...
<ul><li>REFUSALS   can be a  </li></ul><ul><li>tricky speech act to perform linguistically  </li></ul><ul><li>and psycholo...
<ul><li>At a summit meeting between  President Nixon and the late Prime Minister Sato of Japan in 1969 , Nixon asked Sato ...
<ul><li>Sample, Instrumentation, and procedures </li></ul>
Aim <ul><li>to investigate refusals of English learners in Turkey and in Czech Republic </li></ul>
Sample  <ul><li>forty-two Turkish learners  in Turkey and  thirty-five Czech learners  in Czech Republic  </li></ul>
Instrument <ul><li>DCTs  are written questionnaires  </li></ul><ul><li>including a number of brief situational description...
<ul><li>! A big thank you to Czech and Turkish </li></ul><ul><li>colleagues and student teachers....  </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Ercetin, N. G.  (1995). “Pragmatic transfer in the realization of apologies:  </li></ul><ul><li>The case of Turkis...
SITUATIONS
<ul><li>SITUATION 1:  </li></ul><ul><li>You are the owner of a bookstore. One of  </li></ul><ul><li>your best workers asks...
<ul><li>SITUATION 2: </li></ul><ul><li>You are a junior in college. You attend classes  </li></ul><ul><li>regularly   and ...
<ul><li>SITUATION 12: </li></ul><ul><li>You are at the office in a meeting with your boss. It  </li></ul><ul><li>is gettin...
REFUSAL OF REQUEST  <ul><li>Situation 1:  Refusing  a lower  status person’s request </li></ul><ul><li>Situation 2:  Refus...
Some refusals... <ul><li>TURKISH LEARNERS </li></ul><ul><li>S1: I pay you more than other  </li></ul><ul><li>bosses! </li>...
<ul><li>SITUATION 3: </li></ul><ul><li>You are the president of a big printing company. A  </li></ul><ul><li>salesman from...
<ul><li>SITUATION 4: </li></ul><ul><li>You are an executive at a very large software </li></ul><ul><li>company. One day th...
<ul><li>SITUATION 10:   </li></ul><ul><li>A friend invites you to dinner, but you </li></ul><ul><li>really don’t like this...
REFUSAL OF INVITATION Situation 3:  Refusing  a lower   status person’s invitation Situation 4:  Refusing  a  higher   sta...
Some refusals... <ul><li>TURKISH LEARNERS </li></ul><ul><li>S3: I’m afraid it is my daughter’s  </li></ul><ul><li>today an...
<ul><li>SITUATION 5:   </li></ul><ul><li>You are at a friend’s house watching TV. Your  </li></ul><ul><li>friend offers yo...
<ul><li>SITUATION 6: </li></ul><ul><li>Your boss just asked you to bring a report to him.  </li></ul><ul><li>You can’t fin...
<ul><li>SITUATION 8: </li></ul><ul><li>You teach English at a university. It is just about  </li></ul><ul><li>the middle o...
REFUSAL OF SUGGESTION Situation 5:  Refusing  an equal  status person’s suggestion Situation 6:  Refusing  a higher   stat...
Some refusals... <ul><li>TURKISH LEARNERS </li></ul><ul><li>S5: Oh, thanks. But, you know I  </li></ul><ul><li>have an all...
<ul><li>SITUATION 7: </li></ul><ul><li>You arrive home and notice that your cleaning lady  </li></ul><ul><li>is extremely ...
<ul><li>SITUATION 9: </li></ul><ul><li>You are at a friend’s house for lunch.  </li></ul><ul><li>Friend:  How about anothe...
<ul><li>SITUATION 11: </li></ul><ul><li>You’ve been working in advertising company now  </li></ul><ul><li>for some time. T...
REFUSAL OF OFFER Situation 7:  Refusing  a lower   status person Situation 9:  Refusing  an equal  s tatus person Situatio...
Some refusals... <ul><li>TURKISH LEARNERS </li></ul><ul><li>S7: No, no, no, Don’t feel bad. It’s  </li></ul><ul><li>not im...
Concluding remarks  <ul><li>Unless learners pay conscious attention to the relevant  </li></ul><ul><li>social factors in a...
Are You Deaf I’Ve Said “No, No, No”
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Are You Deaf I’Ve Said “No, No, No”

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A study on refusals!

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Are You Deaf I’Ve Said “No, No, No”

  1. 1. Cem BALÇIKANLI Gazi University, Faculty of Education, English Language Teaching Department E-mail: [email_address] The 8th International Language, Literature and Stylistics Symposium İzmir University of Economics May, 2008 Are you deaf? I’ve said “No, No, No”
  2. 2. <ul><li>The term ‘speech act ’ has been defined as a minimal unit </li></ul><ul><li>of discourse by Searle (1969) and as a basic and a </li></ul><ul><li>Functional unit of communication by Cohen (1996). </li></ul><ul><li>We perform speech acts when we offer an apology, </li></ul><ul><li>g reeting,request, complaint, invitation, compliment, or </li></ul><ul><li>refusal . </li></ul>What speech act?
  3. 3. In order to achieve approximate native-speaker levels of pragmatic competence, learners need to acquire the rules of politeness of the target culture and to develop interaction skills, knowing who may or may not speak in certain settings, how they should talk to people of different statuses and roles, what nonverbal behaviors are appropriate for them to use in various contexts, what routines they should use for turn taking in conversation, and how to perform and comprehend speech acts such as requesting, apologizing or REFUSING ( Saville-Troike, 1996). Why speech acts?
  4. 4. <ul><li>REFUSALS can be a </li></ul><ul><li>tricky speech act to perform linguistically </li></ul><ul><li>and psychologically since the possibility of </li></ul><ul><li>offending the interlocutor is inherent in the </li></ul><ul><li>act itself (Kwon, 2004:340). </li></ul>Why refusals?
  5. 5. <ul><li>At a summit meeting between President Nixon and the late Prime Minister Sato of Japan in 1969 , Nixon asked Sato whether he would agree to curtail Japan’s fabric exports to the United States in exchange for the return of Okinawa. Sato answered, “ Zensho shimasu ”, which was literally translated into English as “ I’ll take a proper step ”, but in Japanese is usually understood as a rejection. Nixon thought he had received a commitment and was furious when Sato failed to take any effective action. But in fact, Sato did not feel that he had made any commitment, as this kind of statement in Japanese culture is a polite way of refusing (Beebe and Takahashi, 1990). </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Sample, Instrumentation, and procedures </li></ul>
  7. 7. Aim <ul><li>to investigate refusals of English learners in Turkey and in Czech Republic </li></ul>
  8. 8. Sample <ul><li>forty-two Turkish learners in Turkey and thirty-five Czech learners in Czech Republic </li></ul>
  9. 9. Instrument <ul><li>DCTs are written questionnaires </li></ul><ul><li>including a number of brief situational descriptions, followed by a short dialog with an empty slot for the speech act (Kasper and Dahl, 1991). </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>! A big thank you to Czech and Turkish </li></ul><ul><li>colleagues and student teachers....  </li></ul><ul><li>! “I’m sorry. I wish I could come to the party </li></ul><ul><li>with you but I’ve lots of homework to do”. </li></ul><ul><li>* I’m sorry ............  Statement of regret </li></ul><ul><li>* I wish I could... ..  Wish </li></ul><ul><li>* But I ’ve a... .......  Excuse </li></ul>Data Collection & Analysis
  11. 11. <ul><li>Ercetin, N. G. (1995). “Pragmatic transfer in the realization of apologies: </li></ul><ul><li>The case of Turkish EFL learners”. </li></ul><ul><li>Dogancay-Aktuna, S. and Kamıslı, S. (1997). “Pragmatic transfer in </li></ul><ul><li>interlanguage development: A case study of advanced EFL learners”. </li></ul><ul><li>Bulut, D. (2000) “A Cross-cultural study of refusals in American English </li></ul><ul><li>and Turkish.” </li></ul><ul><li>Karatepe, Ç. (2001) “ Pragmalinguistic Awareness in EFL Teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Training”. </li></ul><ul><li>Demir, S. (2003). “ Bidirectional pragmatic transfer: An investigation on </li></ul><ul><li>refusal strategies of Turkish users of English”. </li></ul><ul><li>Madak, M. (2004). “Gender differences in the use of requests by Turkish </li></ul><ul><li>EFL learners”. </li></ul><ul><li>Kal Ünal, F. (2004). “ Requests in English and in Turkish in the language </li></ul><ul><li>of Turkish student teachers: A comparative study”. </li></ul><ul><li>Tekyıldız, Ö. (2006). “A comparative study on the use of refusals by </li></ul><ul><li>Turkish learners of English and Native speakers of English in urban and </li></ul><ul><li>rural areas”. </li></ul>Some Studies
  12. 12. SITUATIONS
  13. 13. <ul><li>SITUATION 1: </li></ul><ul><li>You are the owner of a bookstore. One of </li></ul><ul><li>your best workers asks to speak to you in </li></ul><ul><li>private. </li></ul><ul><li>Worker: As you know, I’ve been here just </li></ul><ul><li>a little over a year now, and I know you’ve </li></ul><ul><li>b een pleased wit h my work. I really enjoy </li></ul><ul><li>working here, but to be quite honest I really </li></ul><ul><li>need an increase in pay </li></ul><ul><li>YOU: ............................................................... </li></ul><ul><li>Worker: Well...then I guess I’ll have to l ook </li></ul><ul><li>for another job. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>SITUATION 2: </li></ul><ul><li>You are a junior in college. You attend classes </li></ul><ul><li>regularly and take good notes. Your classmate </li></ul><ul><li>often misses class and asks you for the lecture </li></ul><ul><li>notes. </li></ul><ul><li>Classmate: Oh God! We have an exam tomorrow </li></ul><ul><li>but I don’t have notes from last week. I am sorry to </li></ul><ul><li>ask you this, but could you please lend me your </li></ul><ul><li>notes once again? </li></ul><ul><li>YOU : .................................................................. </li></ul><ul><li>Classmate: Well, then. I guess I’ll have to ask </li></ul><ul><li>someone else. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>SITUATION 12: </li></ul><ul><li>You are at the office in a meeting with your boss. It </li></ul><ul><li>is getting close to the end of the day and you want </li></ul><ul><li>to leave the office. </li></ul><ul><li>Boss: If it’s okay with you, I’d like to spend an </li></ul><ul><li>extra hour or two tonight so that we can finish up </li></ul><ul><li>with this work. Can you stay little longer at the </li></ul><ul><li>office? </li></ul><ul><li>YOU: ................................................................... </li></ul><ul><li>Boss: Well, that’s too bad…I was hoping you </li></ul><ul><li>could stay. </li></ul>
  16. 16. REFUSAL OF REQUEST <ul><li>Situation 1: Refusing a lower status person’s request </li></ul><ul><li>Situation 2: Refusing an equal status person’s request </li></ul><ul><li>Situation 12: Refusing a higher status person’s request </li></ul>
  17. 17.
  18. 18. Some refusals... <ul><li>TURKISH LEARNERS </li></ul><ul><li>S1: I pay you more than other </li></ul><ul><li>bosses! </li></ul><ul><li>S1: I have pleased with your work </li></ul><ul><li>but that doesn’t mean “I will </li></ul><ul><li>increase in your pay. </li></ul><ul><li>S2: I’m sorry, but I’m not a slave </li></ul><ul><li>who always have to attend the </li></ul><ul><li>class all the time while you’re </li></ul><ul><li>having fun. </li></ul><ul><li>S2: If you had attended your </li></ul><ul><li>lectures regularly, I would have </li></ul><ul><li>given the notes, but I’m not a </li></ul><ul><li>green or a jerk. </li></ul><ul><li>S12: It’s not possible because my </li></ul><ul><li>mom is sick. I have to go home </li></ul><ul><li>S12: I wish I could but my </li></ul><ul><li>husband’s waiting for me at home. </li></ul>CZECH LEARNERS S1: Unfortunately, we have no budget for this although I’m very satisfied with your work. S1: I’m sorry but I can’t afford it. S2: Sorry man, I just left my notes at home by accident. S2: I’m sorry but do you think that I should? I regularly attend and you do not. S12: I’m really sorry but my husband and I will celebrate our anniversary, and we have already booked a place in the French restaurant. S12: I’m so sorry, but my wife has prepared delicious food for me, so I can’t disappoint her. Sorry again.
  19. 19. <ul><li>SITUATION 3: </li></ul><ul><li>You are the president of a big printing company. A </li></ul><ul><li>salesman from a printing machine company invites </li></ul><ul><li>you to one of the most expensive restaurants, </li></ul><ul><li>Lutece, in New York. </li></ul><ul><li>Salesman: You have met several times now, and </li></ul><ul><li>I’m hoping you will buy my company’s printing </li></ul><ul><li>machine. Would you like to have dinner with me at </li></ul><ul><li>Lutece to sign the contract? </li></ul><ul><li>YOU: ........................................................................ </li></ul><ul><li>Salesman: Well…maybe we can meet another </li></ul><ul><li>time. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>SITUATION 4: </li></ul><ul><li>You are an executive at a very large software </li></ul><ul><li>company. One day the boss calls you into his </li></ul><ul><li>office. </li></ul><ul><li>Boss: Next Sunday my wife and I are having a </li></ul><ul><li>little party at my house. I know it’s sudden.. but I’m </li></ul><ul><li>hoping all my executives will be there with their </li></ul><ul><li>views/husbands. Will you come to the party? </li></ul><ul><li>YOU: ..................................................................... </li></ul><ul><li>Boss: Well, that’s too bad.. I was hoping everyone </li></ul><ul><li>would be there. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>SITUATION 10: </li></ul><ul><li>A friend invites you to dinner, but you </li></ul><ul><li>really don’t like this friend’s husband/wife. </li></ul><ul><li>Friend: How about coming to my house Sunday </li></ul><ul><li>night? We’re having a small dinner party. </li></ul><ul><li>YOU: ............................................................. </li></ul><ul><li>Friend: Well…maybe next time. </li></ul>
  22. 22. REFUSAL OF INVITATION Situation 3: Refusing a lower status person’s invitation Situation 4: Refusing a higher status person’s invitation Situation 10: Refusing an equal status person’s invitation
  23. 23.
  24. 24. Some refusals... <ul><li>TURKISH LEARNERS </li></ul><ul><li>S3: I’m afraid it is my daughter’s </li></ul><ul><li>today and I believe that being a </li></ul><ul><li>big businessman first of all </li></ul><ul><li>requires to have a big heart for </li></ul><ul><li>your family. </li></ul><ul><li>S3: I’ll meet my lover at that time. </li></ul><ul><li>S4: Sorry, but my wife and I </li></ul><ul><li>broke up. </li></ul><ul><li>S4: I feel proud of myself since </li></ul><ul><li>you’re so kind to invite me, but </li></ul><ul><li>I’m afraid I can’t. </li></ul><ul><li>S10: Thank you, but I’ve </li></ul><ul><li>promised my wife to go to her </li></ul><ul><li>parents. </li></ul><ul><li>S10: I don’t like parties. </li></ul>CZECH LEARNERS S3: I would like to have a dinner with you but, I have no time right now. Maybe later. S3: Sorry, I don’t have time for this. S4: Sorry, I can’t come. My husband is in a hospital and I’ll have to take care of my children. S4: I’m sorry but, we are invited to my sister’s engagement. S10: I’m sorry I can't. My husband is mentally ill, so we can’t visit any friends now. S10: I’m sorry but I’ve already been invited to another one.
  25. 25. <ul><li>SITUATION 5: </li></ul><ul><li>You are at a friend’s house watching TV. Your </li></ul><ul><li>friend offers you a snack. </li></ul><ul><li>You: Thanks, but no thanks. I’ve been eating like a </li></ul><ul><li>pig and I feel just terrible. My clothes don’t even fit </li></ul><ul><li>me. </li></ul><ul><li>Friend: Hey, why don’t you try this new diet I’ve </li></ul><ul><li>been telling you about? </li></ul><ul><li>YOU: ........................................................................ </li></ul><ul><li>Friend: Well…you should try it anyway. </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>SITUATION 6: </li></ul><ul><li>Your boss just asked you to bring a report to him. </li></ul><ul><li>You can’t find the report on your desk because </li></ul><ul><li>your desk is very disorganized. Your boss walks </li></ul><ul><li>over. </li></ul><ul><li>Boss: You know, maybe you should try to </li></ul><ul><li>organize yourself better. I always write things </li></ul><ul><li>down a piece of paper so I don’t forget them. Why </li></ul><ul><li>don’t you try it? </li></ul><ul><li>YOU: (However, you don’t like the boss’ </li></ul><ul><li>suggestion) ......................................................... </li></ul><ul><li>Boss: Well…it was only an idea anyway. </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>SITUATION 8: </li></ul><ul><li>You teach English at a university. It is just about </li></ul><ul><li>the middle of the semester now. One of your </li></ul><ul><li>students asks to speak to you. </li></ul><ul><li>Student: Ah, excuse me, some of the students </li></ul><ul><li>were talking after class yesterday. We feel that the class would be better if you could give us more practice in conversation and less on grammar. </li></ul><ul><li>YOU: ..................................................................... </li></ul><ul><li>Student: Well…it was only a suggestion. </li></ul>
  28. 28. REFUSAL OF SUGGESTION Situation 5: Refusing an equal status person’s suggestion Situation 6: Refusing a higher status person’s suggestion Situation 8: Refusing a lower status person’s suggestion
  29. 29.
  30. 30. Some refusals... <ul><li>TURKISH LEARNERS </li></ul><ul><li>S5: Oh, thanks. But, you know I </li></ul><ul><li>have an allergy about diets. </li></ul><ul><li>S5: No, thank you. I don’t think I </li></ul><ul><li>need a new diet. </li></ul><ul><li>S6: Thank you for your suggestion. </li></ul><ul><li>S6: Sir, sorry, but it is not my </li></ul><ul><li>style. </li></ul><ul><li>S8: Yes, it would be wonderful, </li></ul><ul><li>but I’m sorry because I have no </li></ul><ul><li>time, but If I have time, I can help </li></ul><ul><li>you. </li></ul><ul><li>S8: We don’t have enough time </li></ul><ul><li>to do that. Maybe later. </li></ul>CZECH LEARNERS S5: You know, I don’t believe in diets. S5: I have my own diet, thank you. S6: That’s a good idea, but I have a good memory. I should rather tidy the mess on my desk. S6: I have my own system about how to organize my things. But thank you for your advice. S8: I’m teaching English grammar, not the English conversation. S8: If you feel so, we can discuss it, but your grammar and practice is balanced acoording to your needs.
  31. 31. <ul><li>SITUATION 7: </li></ul><ul><li>You arrive home and notice that your cleaning lady </li></ul><ul><li>is extremely upset. She comes rushing up to you. </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaning lady: Oh God, I’m sorry! I had a terrible </li></ul><ul><li>accident. While I was cleaning, I bumped into the </li></ul><ul><li>table and your china vase fell and broke. I feel very </li></ul><ul><li>bad about it. I’ll pay for it. </li></ul><ul><li>YOU: (Knowing that the cleaning lady is </li></ul><ul><li>supporting t hree children) ....................................... </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaning lady: No, I’d feel better if I paid for it. </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>SITUATION 9: </li></ul><ul><li>You are at a friend’s house for lunch. </li></ul><ul><li>Friend: How about another piece of cake? </li></ul><ul><li>YOU: ............................................................ </li></ul><ul><li>Friend: Come on, just a little piece? </li></ul><ul><li>YOU: ............................................................ </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>SITUATION 11: </li></ul><ul><li>You’ve been working in advertising company now </li></ul><ul><li>for some time. The boss offers you an increase in </li></ul><ul><li>salary and a better position, but you have to move </li></ul><ul><li>to another town. You don’t want to go. Today, the </li></ul><ul><li>boss calls you into his office. </li></ul><ul><li>Boss: I’d like to offer you an executive position in </li></ul><ul><li>our new office in Hicktown. It’s a great town- only 3 </li></ul><ul><li>hours from here by airplane. </li></ul><ul><li>YOU: .................................................................. </li></ul><ul><li>Boss: Well…maybe you should think about it </li></ul><ul><li>some more before declining. </li></ul>
  34. 34. REFUSAL OF OFFER Situation 7: Refusing a lower status person Situation 9: Refusing an equal s tatus person Situation 11 : Refusing a higher status person
  35. 35.
  36. 36. Some refusals... <ul><li>TURKISH LEARNERS </li></ul><ul><li>S7: No, no, no, Don’t feel bad. It’s </li></ul><ul><li>not important. Forget it. </li></ul><ul><li>S7: It is not important. In fact, I </li></ul><ul><li>didn’t like it very much. </li></ul><ul><li>S9: Thank you very much, it look </li></ul><ul><li>wonderful but I’m on a diet ok, but </li></ul><ul><li>just a little piece. </li></ul><ul><li>S9: No, thanks. Are you deaf? I’ve </li></ul><ul><li>said “no, no, no, no” </li></ul><ul><li>S11: You make me happy with </li></ul><ul><li>you offering but I’m sorry. </li></ul><ul><li>S11: Sir, to be honest. I don’t </li></ul><ul><li>want to go another town. I think I’ll </li></ul><ul><li>be more efficient if I continue to </li></ul><ul><li>work this company. </li></ul>CZECH LEARNERS S7: No, you don’t have to pay for it.You do a good job in here. Such things happen. S7: Oh, it’s OK. I didn’t really like it all. S9: Not really, I feel like a pig. S9: No, thank you. I said NO! S11: My mother-in-law would kill me if I moved somewhere else. S11: No, I don’t want to move. Does it sound clear to you?
  37. 37. Concluding remarks <ul><li>Unless learners pay conscious attention to the relevant </li></ul><ul><li>social factors in a particular context, they are likely to </li></ul><ul><li>lapse automatically into the norms of their native </li></ul><ul><li>language and culture and may thereby cause </li></ul><ul><li>unintended offense’. </li></ul><ul><li>With sensitivity and awareness of </li></ul><ul><li>sociolinguistic rules involved in the target </li></ul><ul><li>language, Korean learners of English may avoid the </li></ul><ul><li>occurrences of cross-cultural miscommunication as a </li></ul><ul><li>result of inappropriate refusals </li></ul><ul><li>(Holmes and Brown,1987: 535). </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>

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