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A proposed mentoring program for youth ages 13 to 20 years old.

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  1. 1. “The Winds beneath Youth’s Wings: A Proposed Mentoring Program of Humility and Humanity” Jon Dunnemann, B.A., Michael Poutaine, Ph.D. & Nancy Hansen-Zuschlog, M.A. Imagine a map drawn from your memory instead of from the atlas. It is made of strong places stitched together by the vivid threads of transforming journeys. It contains all the things you learned from the land and shows where you learned them. Think of this map as a living thing, not a chart but a tissue of stories that grows half-consciously with each experience. It tells where and who you are with respect to the earth, and in times of stress or disorientation, it gives you the bearings you need in order to move on. We all carry such maps within us as sentient and reflective beings, and we depend upon them unthinkingly, as we do upon language or thought and, it is part of wisdom, to consider this ecological aspect of our identity. – John Tallmadge, Meeting the Tree of Life (1997: IX) Abstract The mission of “The Winds beneath Youth’s Wings: A Mentoring Program of Humility and Humanity” is to “create a life space” of nurturing by building a caring, cohesive, harmonious, moral, trustworthy atmosphere of warm and communicative relationships, and positive emotions, (e.g. bliss, contentment, gratitude, humor, joy, love, pleasure, serenity). In addition, we encourage an outlook of optimism, to facilitate social connection, to promote personal goal setting and strong follow—thru, and deep and insightful reflection among all participating youth. Individuals with Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties (EBD), that have fallen off-track, learn how to engage in the reappraisal of their environmental mastery, self-acceptance, and identity formation. Through personalized and flexible guidance, youth become equipped at identifying a clear purpose for their life, thereby achieving a greater sense of autonomy, effectively building better and more enduring relationships with others and developing a flourishing sense of spirituality and overall wellbeing. These tasks take place by facilitating and supporting youth in finding the positive meaning and long-term benefit within their best, worst and seemingly ordinary experiences each day. A study conducted by Barbara L. Frederickson, Director of the Positive Emotions and Psychological Laboratory at the University of Michigan revealed that positive emotions help broaden people’s mindsets. This leads to the discovery of novel ideas, and can undo the lingering effects of negative emotions (e.g., anger, contempt. defensiveness, disgust, embarrassment, fear, frustration, guilt, sadness and worry) consequently changing how one thinks and behaves (2003). However, the achievement of favorable long-term outcomes are dependent on youth having the opportunity to be active participants in their environment, to share their feelings, to build and experience bonding relationships, within which they can learn to utilize a much broader thought-action repertoire for day-to-day coping and problem solving. Introduction “Our past is not our potential” ~Unknown~ When there is past wrongdoing involved, youth must be able to play a major role in addressing their wrong and making things right. This takes place by offering those who have fallen off-track the value-added opportunity to “learn to engage in a process of cognitive, emotional, behavioral, social and “What <can> emerge from religion is individual worth of character.” -- Alfred North Whitehead
  2. 2. spiritual self-assessment and motivation through which one learns to regulate destructive reactivity, refine perceptions of self, others, and life; and heal the traumatic psychological wounds” which left unattended to are likely to fester (Kass, 2007). As a resource for thoughtful, resilient, and prosocial responses to the chain of pain, and the inherent crises of worldly existence, spiritual insight and transformation can be a real “game-changer” in the lives of individuals and communities (Kass, 2007). Youth who believe that they can achieve a desired outcome of self-organizing, self-reflective, and self-regulative actions are likely to find that they can also live more self-fulfilling lives and do better psychosocially and academically. The “can do” attitude that they manifest mirrors a kind of “mindfulness” over one’s environment. This type of adaptive action, regardless of ones faith or cultural context, generates well-rooted inner optimism, a level of confidence, mental toughness, and an overall commitment that fosters the sense that one truly has “what it takes” to effectively deal with daily stressors, life issues, and problems. On the other hand, a low sense of self-efficacy is typically associated with insecurity, depression, anxiety and learned helplessness (Scholz, Bebincio, Shonali, & Ralf, 2002). Persons with low self-efficacy also have a correspondingly low self-esteem, and they tend to harbor pessimistic thoughts about their accomplishments and personal development (Scholz, Bebincio, Shonali, & Ralf, 2002). In addition, negative emotions may generate cognitive confusion, often leading to the selection of some of the worst possible solutions to current problems. What is spiritual transformation? What is envisaged, is not merely on the cognitive level, but on that of the self and being… a progress which causes us to be more fully, and makes us better… a conversion which raises the individual from an inauthentic condition of life, darkened by unconsciousness and harassed by worry, to… inner peace and freedom. One has to renounce the true values of wealth, honors, and pleasure, and turn towards the true values of virtue, contemplation, a simple life-style, and the simple happiness of existing. ~Pierre Hadot~ Transformation occurs, when the sense of self along with changes to the nature of one’s habitual mental states and spiritual practices changes and one’s sense of self-direction over them changes as opposed to one being under their control. Individuals then feel themselves transformed at the level of the self-concept, because what the individual perceives as self, its content has overwhelmingly changed. “We ‘‘‘NNN GGGooooooddd CCCooompppaaannnyyy ––– AAA ssspppiiirrriiitttuuuaaallllllyyy eeemeeerrrgggiiinnnggg eeennnttteeerrrppprrriiissseee Page 2
  3. 3. believe that spirituality may foster an integrated moral and civic identity within a young person and lead the individual along a path to becoming an adult contributing integratively to self, family, community, and civil society (Lerner, R.M. et al, 2005)” In addition to exploring spiritual transformation within the context of the Protestant, “born-again” experience, wherein the passage in 2 Corinthians 5:17 tells us that this change is indeed a spiritual ‘rebirth’: “The old has passed away, behold the new has come.” Spiritual transformation is included in other religious traditions also resulting in a profound change in the self. “This change is radical in its consequences – indicated by such constructs as a new centering of concern, interest, and behaviors [or practice]. For example, in Islam God in the Koran also “turns” in mercy and forgiveness toward those who “repent” taba, meaning turn to God. In Judaism, and rabbinic literature a ba’al teshuva is a “master of return” or “master of repentance”. In Buddhism, transformation occurs as improved psychological functioning in human relations. Buddhism is not only a set of doctrine and beliefs. It is not simply a ritual or a set of rules to follow. Rather, it acts as a spiritual force that becomes visibly operational in ones daily life. In early Buddhism, there are stories of people who encountered the Buddha and suddenly attained the "spotless eye of truth." They came to realize the truth of Buddhism in their hearts and minds and became followers of Buddha. Enlightenment in principle means transformation, bodhi or awakening. We waken to the truth. We wake up from ignorance, delusions, greed, hatreds and prejudices. It means to go beyond the petty, superficial misunderstandings that cause discrimination against others. The awakening brought about in Buddhism helps us to deal with our anxieties and our unhappiness. Indeed, one objective of this proposed program and initial empirical study is to identify whether there exists a cluster of universal affective traits that are common to all spiritually transforming experiences, regardless of denomination or a particularly religious orientation (Schwartz, 2000) that can motivate and substantiate changes in human behavior (Piedmont, 2004). Although Judaism, Islam and Buddhism do not use the term ”born again,” these traditions clearly recognize the reality of spiritually transforming experiences that can be witnessed through behavior constructs or ‘mechanisms’ (Shapiro, 2006). Abraham was a shepherd and an architect. Lao Tzu was an archivist. Mahavira and Siddhartha Guatama were both princes. Confucius was a government worker. Socrates was a decorated soldier. ‘‘‘NNN GGGooooooddd CCCooompppaaannnyyy ––– AAA ssspppiiirrriiitttuuuaaallllllyyy eeemeeerrrgggiiinnnggg eeennnttteeerrrppprrriiissseee Page 3
  4. 4. Jesus Nazareth was a carpenter and Muhammad a tradesman. Nanak was the manager of a store. Martin Luther was a monk, Gandhi a lawyer, Mother Teresa a nun and Henry David Thoreau was a Harvard graduate. All of these people were wise but at first glance, it seems that they have very little in common. Yet, as we move deeper into an understanding of these individuals, we come to discover a number of similarities (Dunn, 2005). Whenever they became engaged with others in dialogue, they all acted 1) “On purpose” or intention, 2) “Paying attention” or intention, and 3) “in a particular way” or attitude (mindfulness qualities). Shauna Shapiro & et al., in their article that appeared in the Journal of Clinical Psychology, refer to these three components as “The Axioms” of Mindfulness (Shapiro, Carlson, Astin & Freedman, 2006). Spiritual transformation can be tremendously valuable. “No one can define for us exactly what our path should be. Instead, we must allow the mystery and beauty of this question to resonate within our being. Then, somewhere within us, an answer will come and understanding will arise. If we are still and listen deeply, even for a moment, we will know if we are following a path with heart.” ~Jack Kornfield~ In a famous quote, F. Scott Fitzgerald once said that there are no second acts in American lives; but Fitzgerald could not have been more wrong. From the time of the Puritan settlements to the present day, Americans have reveled in stories of self-transformation. The self-proclaimed land of opportunity, America has been imagined as a place where people can start over, pursue a new dream, and make a life whose many scenes spell out second and third acts and even more. Americans have been reinventing themselves ever since Benjamin Franklin (in 1771) showed them how he did it in his Autobiography (McAdams, 2006). To respond to life’s ever-changing conditions with inner-peace and compassion for the other, may require disciplined, contemplative practice that transforms our fundamental perceptions of life, others, and self (Kass, 2008). According to Ralph Piedmont (2004), “each of us must construct some sense of purpose and meaning in life”. For example, we might ask ourselves, “Why am I here? What purpose does my life serve? Why should I do the things I do? Our responses to these questions set the tempo, tone, and direction for our lives. The answers to these questions “help to pull together the many disparate ‘‘‘NNN GGGooooooddd CCCooompppaaannnyyy ––– AAA ssspppiiirrriiitttuuuaaallllllyyy eeemeeerrrgggiiinnnggg eeennnttteeerrrppprrriiissseee Page 4
  5. 5. threads of existence into a more meaningful coherence that gives us the will to live productively (Frankl, 1996)”. Pargament (1997) posits that while most of the scientific research and theory in recent years has focused on the conservational nature of religion, “religion has the transformative power to create radical personal change.” Almost one hundred years ago William James captured the essence of this transformation when he wrote: “To say a man is ‘converted’ means that religious ideas, peripheral to his consciousness, now take a central place, and that religious aims form the habitual center of his energy (1902:276, emphasis added). Although individuals must take full responsibility for their actions and lives, they can derive meaning from the experience of relationship with life’s spiritual core. Tillich and Frankl suggest that a primary cause of an individual’s most fundamental experience of anxiety is the perception that life lacks intrinsic meaning (Frankl, 1959; Frankl, 1969; Tillich, 1952). In addition, they have suggested that a primary source of psychological strength is through a relationship with the transcendent reality (Frankl, 1966; Tillich, 1952). Thus, meaning in life can be experienced, not simply as a functional derivative of one’s personal goals or work, but as an ontological attribute of life itself. In this worldview, individuals are fundamentally not alone. While they are still personally responsible for determining the meaning in their lives, lasting meaning comes about through a relationship with the sacred aspect of life. In the article, “Finding the Wise People”, Dr Jeff Myers says, “it occurred to me some time ago that the wisest people I know all have something in common: they voraciously seek wisdom! This quest for wisdom, truth, and a personal relationship with the One, is by far the most common trait amongst the wise. The Vision Quest helps the seeker to realize his/her oneness with all life and that all creation is his own relative (Dunn, 2005). According to Jared Kass, “experiences of the ‘spiritual core’ [are] part of normal developmental growth, rather than beliefs [which] are imparted through a theological system. Consequently, I began to conceptualize ‘experiences of the spiritual core’ as a naturally occurring, inherent perceptual capacity of individuals. In addition, I begin to view them as part of a ‘‘‘NNN GGGooooooddd CCCooompppaaannnyyy ––– AAA ssspppiiirrriiitttuuuaaallllllyyy eeemeeerrrgggiiinnnggg eeennnttteeerrrppprrriiissseee Page 5
  6. 6. development process in which individuals become increasingly self-empowered in their actions, and increasingly able to affirm the deepest aspects of their identities (Kass, 1995). The central question that together we seek to examine though is how does faith and spirituality positively affect the emotional and social behavior (self-regulation and control) of adolescent and young adults facing difficulties in their lives on a regular basis (i.e. at a minimum weekly)? Roger Walsh, M.D., & Ph.D., is the author of Essential Spirituality: The seven central practices. He informs his readers that "Comparison across traditions suggests that there are seven practices that are widely regarded as central and essential for effective transpersonal development; 1) an ethical lifestyle, 2) redirecting motivation, 3) transforming emotions, 4) training attention, 5) refining awareness, 6) fostering wisdom, and 7) practicing service to others (1999). Transitional youth It is radically empowering to say that suffering is caused by human Maladaptation to the way things are, and that it can thus be eliminated by a psychological adjustment—by evolving our understanding and learning to respond differently. ~Andrew Olendzki~ The time of transition from adolescence to young adulthood is a critical period that can shape the adult life span. As we know from research in cognitive therapy, the cognitive schema through which we respond to this stress has a telling effect on our wellbeing and the wellbeing of others (Davis & Stoep, 1997). Youth are in need of empathic services that will assist them in their successful crossing over from adolescence to young adult behavior and functioning in the community. The Winds beneath Youth’s Wings: A Mentoring Program of Humility and Humanity targets youth between the ages of 13 to 20 years old, who have experienced alcohol abuse, anxiety, depression, frequent disciplinary problems, hostility, impulsivity, juvenile crime, loss, social isolation, and trauma, or may have hurt someone through their inappropriate behavior. Others may have reacted negatively and or have even contemplated suicide. Acknowledging responsibility for past wrong doings, they have quietly endured the consequences of their actions. These youth now seek understanding, forgiveness, grace, love, mercy, meaning in life, personal growth and effectiveness, positive influences, reconciliation, regeneration, and sound teaching of core ‘‘‘NNN GGGooooooddd CCCooompppaaannnyyy ––– AAA ssspppiiirrriiitttuuuaaallllllyyy eeemeeerrrgggiiinnnggg eeennnttteeerrrppprrriiissseee Page 6
  7. 7. morals and personal values that will equip them to overcome a divided self, transform their past attitudes, feelings and behaviors, enabling them to better weight their available options, and attain greater wisdom in the process. In many ways, these youth can potentially have a constructive and profound impact on the lives of their peers and younger youth as their on-going self-awareness, transformation, the internal management of their behavior, their social problem solving competencies, and an ability to maintain close friendships and overall well-being increases over time. An expected outcome through ones involvement in The Winds beneath Youth’s Wings program is that youth will become better able to anticipate, recognize, and understand the negative consequences of specific actions before taking action. This will result in intentional, positive outcomes, and far fewer negative consequences and experiences. Kabat-Zinn writes, “Your intentions set the stage for what is possible. They remind you from moment to moment of why you are practicing in the first place (Kabat-Zinn, 1990).” In Matthew 4:1-2, Jesus begins his Vision Quest by being, “led out into the wilderness by the Holy Spirit to be tempted there by Satan. For forty days and forty nights, he ate nothing and became very hungry. Around 610 AD Muhammad sought spiritual asylum in the mountain caves near Mecca. Having spent months in solitude, Muhammad was visited by the archangel Gabriel, the same angel that had visited Christ’s Mother, Mary, and told Muhammad to proclaim the Oneness of God. Mahvira, one of the great founders of Jainism, spent thirteen years wandering in India. “He lived without clothing or a house and went without food for weeks at a time. He endured insults, injuries, and insect bites without complaint. In one story, some herdsman set fire to Mahriva’s feet and drive nails into his ears as he meditated, but he did not flinch (Dunn, 2005).” In all of these examples, the individual maintained a strong and consistent commitment to their defined purpose or intentions. They did not allow themselves, no matter the circumstances, to become distracted or defeated in the midst of their trying ordeals or in the complete fulfillment of their goals. Many cultures have adopted this Vision Quest as an intrinsic part of life. In the Hindu tradition of Ashrams, ‘The Four Stages’ of an ideal path of life is set forth. This code of living, developed in the 1st century BC by Manu, stated that men should live as hermits and holy wanderers during their life. Possibly ‘‘‘NNN GGGooooooddd CCCooompppaaannnyyy ––– AAA ssspppiiirrriiitttuuuaaallllllyyy eeemeeerrrgggiiinnnggg eeennnttteeerrrppprrriiissseee Page 7
  8. 8. the most recognized culture that incorporates the Vision Quest into their lives is that of Native Americans. Black Elk, a famous Oglala Lakota Medicine Man [or Holy Man], says this of the Vision Quest; “Every man can cry for a vision, or “lament”; and in the old days we all -- men and women – “lamented” all the time. What is received through the ‘lamenting’ is determined in part by the character of the person who does this...” Since time, immemorial people have gone to the wilderness to seek guidance, renewal, to let their old lives and old selves die, to find the conditions where spirit may be rekindled, reborn within them (Dunn, 2005). Youth (and adults) become stronger when they find “transpersonal” connection to something bigger and deeply more meaningful than just satisfying themselves, “for example, the furtherance of some great cause, union with a power beyond the self, and or service to others as an expression of identification beyond the personal ego (Rivers, 2006)”. By our nature, every person must eventually search for their truth, freedom, integrity, meaning and purpose (i.e. why one is practicing (Bishop et al., 2004). A good place to begin this is by embracing family and social responsibilities, promoting common causes through teamwork, initiating healthy relationships, doing volunteer work that addresses the unmet needs of others in the community, while simultaneously growing into healthier individuals of realized and satisfied self-acceptance, and personal worth and spiritual maturity. Empathy is the psychological means by which we become part of other people’s lives and share meaningful experiences. The very notion of transcendence means to reach beyond oneself, to participate with and belong to larger communities, embedding oneself in complex webs of meaning (Rifkin, 2009). To honor all things, in relativity to the definition of wisdom, is to recognize the oneness of all things (Dunn, 2005). “Beauty is not within one’s skin nor is justice or order.” (Maslow, 1969) According to Arlen Wolpert (2006), “The aim is to find an uncompromising balance between one’s inner or religious life and one’s life in the world. This is what it means to ‘walk the razors edge’ (Katha Upanishads III:14; Mathew7:13-14).” How does one become aware of their attachment to life’s spiritual core? “Look at every path closely and deliberately. Try it as many times as you think necessary. Then ask yourself and yourself alone one question. This question is one that only a very old man asks. My benefactor told me about it once when I was young and my blood was too vigorous for me to understand ‘‘‘NNN GGGooooooddd CCCooompppaaannnyyy ––– AAA ssspppiiirrriiitttuuuaaallllllyyy eeemeeerrrgggiiinnnggg eeennnttteeerrrppprrriiissseee Page 8
  9. 9. it. Now I do understand it. I will tell you what it is: Does this path have a heart? If it does, the path is good. If it doesn’t, it is of no use.” ~C. Castaneda~ When we understand that every human being on this planet is interrelated to every other person through our shared connection to life’s spiritual core, we recognize why it is necessary to learn to love ‘the other’ as our self. This profound state of moral and spiritual awareness, central to the teachings in all spiritual traditions, is often missing in North American society, partly because we do not recognize secure existential attachment as a developmental possibility. Yet the capacity for connective awareness (the perception of intrinsic attachment between self, others, and the universe) is a developmental potential within every human being. When we treat this developmental stage as an idyllic, unrealistic concept, rather than a state of awareness that can be nurtured and achieved, we undermine our efforts to create a society that is peaceful and just (Kass, 2001, 2008). This is especially relevant from the context of the current international focus on positive psychology, which aims to “create a science of human strength whose mission will be to understand and learn how to foster these virtues in young people” (Seligman & Csikzentmihalyi,2000). Furthermore, it appears that a holistic approach to “healing”, therapy, health and wellbeing, focusing on the integration of mind, body, and soul, is currently infiltrating the field of psychology. As Kabat-Zinn (1990, as cited in Shapiro & Schwartz, 2000:131) points out, “science is searching for more comprehensive models that are truer to our understanding of the interconnectedness of space and time, mass and energy, mind and body, even consciousness and the universe”. The concept of ‘mindfulness,’ is especially pertinent within this context, and shows potential promise as one such model. Gaining greater insight about how adolescents experience mindfulness may generate further understanding or research into the applicability of mindfulness [practice] to an important section of the population, within the context of current trends and movements towards a positive psychology and integrated holistic approaches to health and wellbeing (Dellbridge, 2009). A New Kind of Religious Inquiry Those experiences—voices and visions, responses to prayer, changes of heart, and deliverances from fear, and assurances of support—are the primary constituents of religious life. The meaning of the term “God” is those experiences. ‘‘‘NNN GGGooooooddd CCCooompppaaannnyyy ––– AAA ssspppiiirrriiitttuuuaaallllllyyy eeemeeerrrgggiiinnnggg eeennnttteeerrrppprrriiissseee Page 9
  10. 10. ~William James~ We put forth our first theory, that the combination of exemplary mentor facilitated dialogue, deliberate critical thinking, loving kindness meditation, used to illuminate the nature and value of positive emotions in building and broadening self-understanding and resiliency, and person-centered action planning represents a formidable and integral set of resources for the support of youth with emotional and behavioral difficulties (EBD). The second theory we wish to present here, is that the aforementioned tools favorably contribute to the development of personal effectiveness, social responsibility, self-management of one’s behavior, social problem solving, additional competencies, maintenance of important friendships and relationships, and active coaching, maintenance coaching, and follow along support that is done and decisions that are made in total partnership with youth. Spiritual experience enhances emotional intelligence. Spiritual education, therefore, implies the existence of an emotional relationship with the divine or personal object of one’s worship and devotions called God, Allah, Yahweh, Unknowable Essence, Heaven, Tao, etc. The Divine luminaries of the human civilization such as Moses, Jesus, Muhammad, Buddha, Krishna, The Bab and Bahu’u’llah have been the perfect mirrors of this personal relationship and its transforming influence. Mothers, beginning with conception, are the first educators of human spiritual nature through their emotional shared experience with their offspring. Prayer is an emotional engagement and relations process. More research is needed into the physical, mental, and spiritual powers of prayer and meditation. Abdu’ l-Baha writes: “Meditation is the key for opening the doors of mysteries.” Although the power of meditation is a mystery to man, its impact in self-mastery and regulation, creativity and discoveries is as old as man. The Winds Beneath Youth’s Wings: A Mentoring Program of Humility and Humanity responsibly teaches youth to look at new experiences and opportunities that will help to increase their understanding of transcendence, personal relationships, codes to live by and specific spiritual values; honesty, courage, patience, tolerance, compassion, kindness, forgiveness, generosity, joy, hope, and above all love. All of these factors help in creating meaning in one’s life. It consists of exegetical and pedagogical practices that promote a humanity of higher values (and attitude of mind) of a cooperative vision for what is just, peaceful, and unites humanity throughout the world. Life changes when we find ourselves filled with a sense of wonder. ‘‘‘NNN GGGooooooddd CCCooompppaaannnyyy ––– AAA ssspppiiirrriiitttuuuaaallllllyyy eeemeeerrrgggiiinnnggg eeennnttteeerrrppprrriiissseee Page 10
  11. 11. There is no place in schools for the emotional experience of divine love. Communities that thrive and prosper in the future will do so because they will acknowledge the spiritual dimension of human nature and make the integrated moral, emotional, physical, and intellectual development of the individual, a central priority in their education programs. ~ Center for Global Integrated Education (CGIE) ~ Our societal response to intra-religious degradation and disintegration and polarization between religion and science has resulted in the banning of a shared emotional attraction and experience from the centers of learning. Schools are mainly a place for the cognitive experience provided by science. This very shortsighted solution has led to the segregation of the two wings of human mind: knowing and loving. To partake of the spiritual, the cohesive sense of shared values and emotionally bonding experience in learning, children only have their parents and the limits of their segregated religious community to turn to. The message is that the school is off limits to the emotional expressions of shared values, the emotional context of learning right from wrong. Spiritual love, which is unique to the human spirit and vital to its growth, is banned from the centers of learning while all other forms of love which have to do with the lower nature and its appetites, such as love of power, money, status, comfort, etc., are ushered in to fill up the vacuum. The result is that the student’s heart ends up robbed by these lower loyalties and identities. Herein, rests the seed of the epidemic of emotional problems and behavioral difficulties in our youth (Geula, 2004). The 2001 Religious Influences on Life Attitudes and Self-Images Report reveals that for “31 percent of all 12th graders who attend religious services weekly and the 30 percent of high school seniors for whom religion is very important they are significantly more likely than non-attendees and the non-religious to; • have positive attitudes toward themselves • enjoy life as much as anyone • feel like their lives are useful • feel hopeful about their futures • feel satisfied with their lives ‘‘‘NNN GGGooooooddd CCCooompppaaannnyyy ––– AAA ssspppiiirrriiitttuuuaaallllllyyy eeemeeerrrgggiiinnnggg eeennnttteeerrrppprrriiissseee Page 11
  12. 12. • feel like they have something of which to be proud • feel good to be alive • feel like life is meaningful • enjoy being in school Religious teens tend to have a brighter outlook on the future. Most 12th graders feel hopeful about their futures; 71 percent said they at least mostly disagree with the statement, “The future often seems hopeless.” The picture is even brighter for weekly religious services attendees, those for whom religion is important and those who have participated in religious youth groups for six or more years. These teens are significantly less likely to feel hopeless about their futures than non-attendees, those for whom religion is not important and those who have never participated in a religious youth group. Baptists, Catholics and Mormons are also less likely to feel hopeless than non-religious teens. These relationships are statistically significant, controlling for race, age, sex, rural/urban residence, region, parent, education, number of siblings, whether or not the mother works and if the presence of a father/male guardian in the household exists. (Smith & Farris, 2002) Education without emotional context struggles to bear its ultimate fruit. "We can either smother the divine fire of youth, or we may feed it". ~Jane Addams (1860-1935) ~ The segregation of the expression of universal love towards the one and only Unifier of humanity has also backfired in further alienating hearts from one another and undermining the global emotional benefits of a shared sense of values and universal emotional experience and attachment. If schools teach moral education, it is mostly through an unemotional, cognitive, culturally centered approach, further undermining the progressive laws of the oneness and equality of all humanity. The process of moral education through the explanation of the natural and logical consequence of good and bad behavior, in ‘‘‘NNN GGGooooooddd CCCooompppaaannnyyy ––– AAA ssspppiiirrriiitttuuuaaallllllyyy eeemeeerrrgggiiinnnggg eeennnttteeerrrppprrriiissseee Page 12
  13. 13. the global context of cultural relativism, does not go deep enough to produce individual behavior change backed by the shared emotional support of a universal code of ethics or “matters of the soul”. Daniel Goleman observes, “The beliefs of the rational mind are tentative; new evidence can disconfirm one belief and replace it with a new one—it reasons by objective evidence. The emotional mind, however, takes its beliefs to be absolutely true and so discounts any evidence to the contrary. Consequently, it has become so hard to reason with someone who is emotionally upset: no matter the soundness of your argument from a logical point of view, it carries no weight if it is out of keeping with the emotional conviction of the moment. Feelings are self-justifying with a set of perceptions and ‘proofs’ all of their own.” (Goleman, 1995. P. 295). In the age of an abundance of information, the missing wing is the love that must lift the spirit mobilizing one’s will towards self-regulation and self-discipline. Knowledge requires accompaniment by self-motivation to lead into self-regulating actions (Geula, 2004). Dialogue and critical thinking “I have learned so much from God that I can no longer call myself a Christian, a Hindu, a Muslim, a Buddhist, a Jew.” ~Sufi Hafiz~ Dialogue is a communicative and investigative process engaged in by two or more persons (or more persons (or communities) with differing beliefs, wherein each attempts to gain an increased understanding of the other’s beliefs and the reasons for those beliefs. The primary goal in dialogue should be understanding the other, rather than expressing one’s self, though self-expression is obviously also essential to dialogue. The benefits of dialogue are many; among the most obvious are increased self-understanding, improved understanding of others, better relations with others, and broad based ideological research. Dialogue between equal parties should be beneficial to all involved. It is not essential to dialogue for one to give up belief in the truth of one’s own system. It is essential for one to give up the view that one has a “corner on the truth,” if one holds such a view. One must be open to the possibility that some of one’s beliefs may be in error and that the beliefs of the ‘‘‘NNN GGGooooooddd CCCooompppaaannnyyy ––– AAA ssspppiiirrriiitttuuuaaallllllyyy eeemeeerrrgggiiinnnggg eeennnttteeerrrppprrriiissseee Page 13
  14. 14. dialogue partner may be correct – or at least more correct than one’s own. (p. 379-380, Jones, 1999) As Leonard Swidler has observed: Religions and ideologies describe and prescribe for the whole of life; they are holistic, all encompassing, and therefore tend to blot out, that is, either convert or condemn, outsiders even more than other institutions that are not holistic. Thus, the need for modesty in truth claims and for acknowledging, complementary or particular views of truth is most intense in the field of religion (1990). Genuine dialogue on human rights and freedom of religion or belief calls for respectful discourse, discussion of taboos and clarity by persons of diverse beliefs. Inclusive dialogue includes people of theistic, non-theistic and atheistic beliefs, as well as the right not to profess any religion or belief ( In these times, careful instruction on etiquette for dialogue has never been more apparent and necessary as hardened boundaries continue to be forged in the public sands of differing perspectives, positions, politics, and worldviews. In the past, “before the nineteenth century in Europe truth, that is, a statement about reality, was conceived in quite absolute, static, exclusivistic either-or manner” (Swidler, 1996). If something was true at one time, it was always true; not only empirical facts but also the meaning of things of the oughtness that was said to flow from them were thought of in this way. For example, if it was true for the Pauline writer to say in the first century that women should keep silence in the church, then it was always true that women should keep silence in the church; or if it was true for Pope Boniface VIII to state in 1302, “we declare, state, and define that it is absolutely necessary for the salvation of all human beings that they submit to the Roman Pontiff,” then it was always true that they need do so. At bottom, the notion of truth was based exclusively on the Aristotelian principle of contradiction: a thing could not be true and not true in the same way at the same time. Truth was defined by way of exclusion; A was A because it could be shown ‘‘‘NNN GGGooooooddd CCCooompppaaannnyyy ––– AAA ssspppiiirrriiitttuuuaaallllllyyy eeemeeerrrgggiiinnnggg eeennnttteeerrrppprrriiissseee Page 14
  15. 15. not to be not-A. Truth, was thus, understood to be absolute, static, exclusivistic either-or. This is a classicist or absolutist view of truth (Swidler, 1996). Loving-kindness meditation “No forest, no moon, no ocean, no field, can be labeled “Buddhist” or Jewish” or “Muslim” or Christian.” “Promoting a prosocial orientation has long been at the core of some Eastern philosophies, however. In particular, Buddhist traditions have emphasized the importance of cultivating connection and love towards others through techniques such as loving-kindness meditation (LKM). This practice in which one directs compassion and wishes for well-being toward real or imagined others, is designed to create changes in emotion, motivation, and behavior in order to promote positive feelings and kindness toward self and others (Salzberg, 1995) (Hutcherson, Seppala, & Gross, 2008).” Loving-kindness meditation is a standardized form of meditation used for centuries by the Buddhist tradition to develop love and transform anger into compassion. The role of unchecked anger and resentment is significant when it blisters into hatred, prejudice and various forms of abuse or violence. Loving-kindness meditation can serve as a positive emotion-oriented strategy in reducing feelings of depression, pain, and suffering. It helps in the release of ‘negative emotions’ toward a loved one, toward oneself, toward a neutral person, toward someone who has caused harm, and lastly, toward all living beings. “Often, the focus of loving-kindness meditation is on expanding compassion and care to larger social groups, or even to disliked others (Hutcherson, et al 2008). The rationale for testing loving-kindness meditation with the specific ‘transitional youth’ population that we have an interest in serving is that it is one technique that may help produce an affective shift from more negative emotions to more positive emotions. Clinical observations do suggest that the frequent practice of loving-kindness meditation very often is accompanied by a shift toward greater predominance of positive emotions, such as feelings of calm and joy, and a corresponding decrease in negative emotions like anger, anxiety, disgust, fear and sadness (Carson, Carson, Gil, & Baucom in press; Salzberg, 1995). ‘‘‘NNN GGGooooooddd CCCooompppaaannnyyy ––– AAA ssspppiiirrriiitttuuuaaallllllyyy eeemeeerrrgggiiinnnggg eeennnttteeerrrppprrriiissseee Page 15
  16. 16. Positive emotions Science suggests that when we experience genuine, heartfelt positive emotions in a 3-to-1 ratio with negative emotions, we cross a psychological tipping point on the other side of which we function at our very best. ~Barbara L. Fredrickson~ Negative emotions are “all about me”. In contrast, positive emotions free the self from itself (Vailliant, 2008). Mentors when properly trained can help to create very specific interpersonal conditions – empathy, congruence, hope, unconditional positive regard and respect. As a direct outgrowth, the learning community becomes an environment in which youth can become more empowered, self-expressive, and creative. As their locus of evaluation and control becomes increasingly internal, they experience their own ‘inner self’ as a trustworthy source of guidance, value, and action (Rogers, 1980; Bowen, Justyn, Kass, Miller, Rogers, & Wood, 1978). Helping youth with emotional and behavioral difficulties begins with understanding ourselves as coaches, examples, helpers and mentors, particularly our own emotional processes that occur in the midst of conflict. Although psychological soundness and effective interpersonal skills are essential characteristics for teachers who work with this population (Kaufman, 1997; Webber, Anderson, & Otey, 1991), certain students can provoke even the most concerned, reasonable, and dedicated teachers to act in impulsive, acrimonious, and rejecting ways (Long,1996a). Awareness of our primary emotional triggers improves our chances of making rational decisions based on conscious choice, rather than unconscious emotional conditioning. The ten (10) principles that will guide this mentoring program of humility and humanity consist of an ongoing commitment to doing the following: 1. Teach freedom of religious and spiritual expression and the rights of all individuals and peoples as set forth in international law. (United Religions Initiative URI CHARTER, 2003) ‘‘‘NNN GGGooooooddd CCCooompppaaannnyyy ––– AAA ssspppiiirrriiitttuuuaaallllllyyy eeemeeerrrgggiiinnnggg eeennnttteeerrrppprrriiissseee Page 16
  17. 17. 2. Affirm the importance of meaningful dialogue and how it can be created with science and other areas of modern knowledge and global concern such as contemplative education, ecology, morality, the peace movement, human rights and holistic psychology; (Laurence Freeman OSB, 2002) 3. Review how to avoid ‘advocacy tendencies’ in order to engage fully in inquiry modes of relationship; When balancing advocacy and inquiry, we lay out our reasoning and thinking, and then encourage others to challenge us. Here is my view and here is how I have arrived at it. How does it sound to you? What makes sense to you, and what does not? Do you see any ways in which we can make improvement? Dialogue provides a way to test the truth of alternative theses by allowing the participants the opportunity to test their fit within each participant's thought system. (Knitter, 1985, p.219) 4. Model building blocks of behaviors and actions that can lead to authentic, bold, empowering, respectful and committed relationships that open the mind, open the heart and serve to establish community; 5. Demonstrate effective and attentive listening skills to; a) self; b) others, c) Inner Guidance and d) Outer Community Guidance; 6. Investigate the idea that inner change presumes outer changes: i.e., seek to change oneself before wanting or expecting to change others; (Fr. Greg Boyle) 7. Honor a simple ground rule: “no fixing, no saving, no advising, and no setting-straight”; (Palmer, 2004) 8. Present the idea of a spiritual presence that does no harm to the dignity and preciousness of others. Organize a Sacred Text Reading Group for multi-layered conversation between the participants and the texts. (United Communities of Spirit: World Scripture A Comparative Anthology of Sacred Texts Dr. Andrew Wilson, Editor International Religious Foundation, 1991) 9. Equip youth to describe and support their visions of the purpose of human existence, ultimate reasons for leading a moral life. Assist youth experiences and understanding of how religious ‘‘‘NNN GGGooooooddd CCCooompppaaannnyyy ––– AAA ssspppiiirrriiitttuuuaaallllllyyy eeemeeerrrgggiiinnnggg eeennnttteeerrrppprrriiissseee Page 17
  18. 18. history, traditions and rituals, sacred images, authentic speech and the honoring of others integrate into the fabric of personhood, family, community, culture, and national and global living. 10. Explore the spiritual dimensions of constructive and fair conflict negotiation and resolution. Dialogue has become a real necessity in order to be able to coexist peacefully and to cooperate effectively in areas of shared economic and political interest. (Jones, 1999, p.381) Self-understanding and resiliency “To see the Divine in all things is to begin to live, to begin to be awake and aware.” How can a person become more spiritual and what is the result? Comparing biblical affirmations, the views of Trappist monk Thomas Merton, of psychologists Han de Wit and Stanislav Grof, together with those of Jane Loevinger and Robert Kegan, we see striking commonalities: (1) developing spirituality is a lengthy, difficult process; (2) it leads to more humanness, to increased clarity of mind, to a transformation of the self. Others gain importance in one’s own eyes, and one self becomes less important, yet one understands oneself better. One acquires greater realism with respect to oneself and the environment strengthens their willingness to be more open to self-examination. There is an increasing recognition of other’s needs, the readiness to contribute to their satisfaction even if that means to change and engage oneself more in a larger cause of a religious or a ‘nonreligious’ nature which involves a non-egocentric enlargement of personal identity (Reich, 2001). As evangelicals of transformational “life ways”, we are committed to providing programming designed for and dedicated to youth with emotional and behavioral difficulties from all Faith-Oriented Spiritual Practices, Eastern Spiritual Practices, New Age Spiritual Practices and Indigenous Spiritual Practices around the globe. The support requirements to accomplish our mission are resource-intensive, (they must also be diverse, accessible and respectful and sensitive towards others) involve multiple modalities, and are largely relationship-based. Most significant of all, the benefits and lasting changes in the well-being of the program recipients occur over a long period during which youth will have the ‘‘‘NNN GGGooooooddd CCCooompppaaannnyyy ––– AAA ssspppiiirrriiitttuuuaaallllllyyy eeemeeerrrgggiiinnnggg eeennnttteeerrrppprrriiissseee Page 18
  19. 19. opportunity to form their religious and moral values, worldviews, and become exposed to different experiences. How do we practice and reflect on our actions and behaviors? The process of personal devotions, prayerful meditation and religious fervor and experience also utilizes the same attachment elements that help create new neural pathways responsible for emotional modulation and mastery (Siegel, 1999). Self-regulation, which is seen as fundamentally emotion regulation, is the essence of spiritual development. “Emotional communication whether with one’s parents or the object of one’s devotions in prayer is the fundamental manner in which one mind connects with another” (Siegel, 1999). Meditating, yoga, fasting, walking a prayer circle, making a pilgrimage, taking the sacraments, singing with a choir, going on a weekend retreat, listening to the words of inspired speakers, lighting Advent or Hanukkah candles, saying daily prayers, and contemplating a sunset or a mountaintop view are all examples of religious or spiritual practices. Many of us use these practices in our daily lives, at special seasons of the year, or maybe just once in a lifetime. Some practices begin early in life and stretch back to our childhoods, while still others emerge in adolescence and young adulthood, representing new paths. What all of these practices have in common, however, is the way in which they integrate different aspects of our human experience – our emotions with our intellect or our minds with our bodies – while also connecting us with others who share similar beliefs. We seek out these experiences, which are special and set us distinctly apart from our mundane and ordinary daily lives. These experiences lift us up out of our narrow selves and give us a glimpse – if only temporary – of another way to view things as a part, however small, of a larger picture. Religious and spiritual practices help us integrate the body, mind, and spirit. Beginning with adolescence, we find that rituals or rites of passage practiced by many of the major world religions play an important role in assisting individuals in successfully passing from one phase of life into the next. Most of these transitions – baptisms, circumcisions, confirmations, coming-of-age rituals, and marriages – occur early in life. However, what makes these religious traditions relevant to health, especially in adolescence and early adulthood, is that they provide rules for living. For example, some religions have very particular rules about diet and alcohol use, and most faiths have beliefs about ‘‘‘NNN GGGooooooddd CCCooompppaaannnyyy ––– AAA ssspppiiirrriiitttuuuaaallllllyyy eeemeeerrrgggiiinnnggg eeennnttteeerrrppprrriiissseee Page 19
  20. 20. maintaining the purity of the body as the vessel of the soul. In general, religious faiths discourage self-indulgent behaviors and promote “moderation in all things,” if not actual asceticism. Many spiritual and religious practices, in fact, involve the temporary and intermittent, or in some cases, lifelong denial of behaviors that are considered pleasurable by most people, such as drinking, eating meat, or having sex (Spirituality in Higher Education Newsletter February 2008 Volume 4, Issue 2 Page 2). Spiritual and religious practices predominantly represent highly constructive, virtuous pursuits, and accepted preferences and values. They most favorably contribute to right behavior, social harmony, and the collective ordering of family and community life. Researchers from the University of Michigan analyzed data from an annual survey of high school seniors from 135 schools in 48 states in a study called ‘Monitoring the Future’ (Wallace and Forman, 1998). The study findings show religious involvement to have had a large impact on the lifestyles of the students in the study. Especially in late adolescence: Students who say that religion is important in their lives and attend religious services frequently, have lower rates of cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and marijuana use, higher rates of seat belt use, eating fruits, vegetables, and breakfast, and lower rates of carrying weapons, getting into fights, and driving while drinking. This is one of the few studies that have examined religiousness, spirituality, and health-related practices in adolescence. More importantly, these findings demonstrate the origins of a healthy adult lifestyle. Not smoking in adolescence, for example, dramatically reduces the likelihood that one will ever smoke; it also reduces the exposure to related risk factors that cause heart disease, cancer, and stroke, which all are major causes of death in our society. In general, The Winds beneath Youth’s Wings program participating youth, their parents, mentors, program instructors, and administrative staff alike are all expected to make a strong effort to include the following practices in their daily lives: 1. Dialogue with others visiting each other’s sacred sites (i.e., mosques, synagogues, churches and temples), simply meditating together, working together in the cause of reconciliation and peace; (Freeman, OSB, 2002) 2. Learn to read, write and recite Hebrew, Hindu, Greek, Sanskrit, Arabic, and other sacred texts ‘‘‘NNN GGGooooooddd CCCooompppaaannnyyy ––– AAA ssspppiiirrriiitttuuuaaallllllyyy eeemeeerrrgggiiinnnggg eeennnttteeerrrppprrriiissseee Page 20
  21. 21. 3. Welcome the spiritual education of the heart; Individuals do not simply conform their consciousness and action to moral orders like chameleons changing color to match their environment. Rather human beings internalize moral directives and orders in their subjective inner worlds of identity, belief, loyalties, convictions, perceptions, interests, emotions, and desires (Smith, 2003). 4. Become detectives for the presence of divinity (Anderson & Reese, 1999); 5. Set youth self awareness marks high, the higher the aim the higher they’ll reach; 6. Learn perseverance in your spiritual development and in your gaining of wisdom; 7. Gain an understanding about any past errors and sorrows; 8. Become the change that you wish to see in the world (Mahatma Gandhi); 9. Participate in inter-religious encounters as a celebration in the oneness of the “Holy Spirit”; 10. Work on interfaith projects locally, nationwide and internationally and thereby increase the strength of the ties that bind us together; Train in contemplative education, authentic leadership, interfaith dialogue, and the World Café´ conversational process for evoking collective intelligence, and creating actionable results. (Co-founders Juanita Brown and David Isaacs); and Become familiar with best practice to bring oneself into a harmonious or responsive relationship with others. What are the benefits of spiritual development? It is possible to hold oneself in this very world, with all its challenges, in such a way that we are neither seduced into addiction by pleasure nor frightened into loathing by pain, and all mental states are characterized by an attitude of generosity, kindness, compassion, joy for the well-being of others, and a deep, penetrating wisdom that sees all things just as they are. ~Andrew Olendzki~ ‘If there is a God,’ says Pascal, he is infinitely beyond our comprehension … and hence we are incapable of knowing either what he is or whether he is. And since reason cannot settle the matter, we have to make a practical choice, a choice on which our ultimate happiness depends. ~John Cottingham~ In the United States, highly religious people tend to live longer, have fewer health and mental problems, steal less, volunteer more time, and give away more money than others. Even when other ‘‘‘NNN GGGooooooddd CCCooompppaaannnyyy ––– AAA ssspppiiirrriiitttuuuaaallllllyyy eeemeeerrrgggiiinnnggg eeennnttteeerrrppprrriiissseee Page 21
  22. 22. relevant factors are controlled for statistically, these differences persist. Moreover, in many cases the religiosity of the community influences these factors as much as the religiosity of individuals. Thus, there seems to be a communal product that goes beyond individual religiosity (Woodberry, 2003). According to Laurence Iannacone (1990), “just as the production of house hold commodities was enhanced by the skills known as human capital, the production of religious practice and religious satisfaction was enhanced by religious human capital. He defined religious human capital as skills and experiences specific to ones religion, including religious knowledge, familiarity with church ritual and doctrine and friendships with fellow worshippers (Finke, 2003).” Religious organizations are repositories of financial, human, social and cultural capital, but they are also sources of moral teachings and religious experiences that may motivate, channel, and strengthen the people to reach particular ends (Finke, 2003). The Winds beneath Youth’s Wings: A Mentoring Program of Humility and Humanity aims to establish the following common set of universal meta-consciousness perspectives, spiritual activities, emotional awareness and behavioral discipline, and practices widely known for their ability to enhance human consciousness, spiritual growth, bio-psychosocial maturity and transformation. 1. Right View is the cognitive aspect of wisdom. It is simply to see things as they really are. However, until we have completed all the steps, we do not have ‘Right View’. This makes forming Right View extremely hard. Right View requires more than a simple knowledge. It requires us to see through the confusion, to understand. To do so, we must begin with a sense of unknowing (Varey, 2005). 2. Recognition of the need for and the value of having a moral operating system; Right Intention is the purposive and volitional aspect of wisdom. It involves letting go of desire, deciding to have a positive intention and intending to do no harm. (Varey, 2005) 3. Understanding that spirituality develops across the lifespan, Right Speech is the first of the moral discipline steps. Right Speech recognizes that our words can cause harm, to ourselves and to others. This can occur even if our intention is good. While we must avoid voicing slanderous, ‘‘‘NNN GGGooooooddd CCCooompppaaannnyyy ––– AAA ssspppiiirrriiitttuuuaaallllllyyy eeemeeerrrgggiiinnnggg eeennnttteeerrrppprrriiissseee Page 22
  23. 23. harsh or idle opinions, to have Right Speech, we must also abstain from false speech. (Varey, 2005) 4. Define an individually constructed, culturally based cognitive system that focuses ones choice of activities and goals, and endows their life with a sense of purpose, personal worth, and fulfillment from a variety of sources; achievement, dialogue, relationship, religion, self-transcendence, self-acceptance, intimacy, and fair treatment; Right Action is the moral discipline that reflects that thought is made visible by deed. Right action involves not taking that which is not given and is therefore not yours to take. Right actions lead to the right results, without unintended consequences. (Varey, 2005) 5. Establish relationships with others and connectedness to something that youth can look to for support in dealing with many of the tough issues that they will face; Right Livelihood is the third moral discipline. It recognizes that a livelihood should be obtained, but not as to violate the principles of Right Speech (deceit) or Right Action (illegality). Right Livelihood should not cause suffering to others. (Varey, 2005) 6. Identify substantive personal beliefs and strategies that have relevancy in youth’s day-to-day living and hold generative principles that are common to all spiritual, transforming experiences, regardless of denomination or a particular religious faith; Right Effort is the first of the three concentration paths. Right Effort is the mental discipline of applying yourself to the things that matter most and avoiding the things that distract. It requires us to work with unflagging perseverance. Quick results although easily gained are easily lost. Focus and diligence are boring. They are however, necessary if we are not to adopt a false view too soon. (Varey, 2005) 7. Commitment to being accountable, responsible to the needs of others and in discerning what is the loving and or right thing to do in most situations; and when unsure to have the self-confidence, trust and determination to seek wise counsel from others; Right Mindedness is the second of the mental disciplines. It is when we become conscious of our own mental processes. The insight within us is ours to discover when we do not accept the authority or faith of others and ‘‘‘NNN GGGooooooddd CCCooompppaaannnyyy ––– AAA ssspppiiirrriiitttuuuaaallllllyyy eeemeeerrrgggiiinnnggg eeennnttteeerrrppprrriiissseee Page 23
  24. 24. find it ourselves. Right Mindfulness is the presence of mind, attentiveness, and awareness allowing us to know our own mind before attempting to know that of another. (Varey, 2005) 8. Recognize and accept that spirituality is worth contemplating and discussing as a deep human concern, whether it is part of a specific faith tradition; Right concentration is the final step. Through a strong awareness, it directs us to the subject of our focus to fully cognize the object. Right Concentration is not simply about focus, it requires a wholesome focus that collects the dispersed and dissipated streams into unification at a higher level of awareness. It requires us by our concentration to shift our view. (Varey, 2005) 9. Willingness to help when help is needed and especially to look out for the physical safety of one another’s children, women, gay, lesbian, or transgender, and the disabled, poor and the elderly among us (Dunnemann, 2009) 10. Right Livelihood is the third moral discipline. It recognizes that a livelihood should be obtained, but not as to violate the principles of Right Speech (deceit) or Right Action (illegality). We are to obtain Right Livelihood in a way that does not cause suffering to others. (Varey, 2005) 11. Recognize and embrace the need to build a collaborative foundation, and creative partnership among families, practitioners, and researchers (Dunnemann, 2009). What are the selected measurement tools for data gathering and analysis? Over the long term, what experiences and pathways lead to positive outcomes? The Winds beneath Youth’s Wings program researchers will investigate whether or not youth program participation produces the abovementioned outcomes, contributes to improved spiritual health and well-being, and moves one towards a more integrated worldview through use of one or more of the following Strengths-Based Assessment Instruments. 1. The Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue): The Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue) is an integral part of the scientific research program on trait emotional intelligence. The TEIQue LF is a self-report inventory that covers the sampling domain of trait EI ‘‘‘NNN GGGooooooddd CCCooompppaaannnyyy ––– AAA ssspppiiirrriiitttuuuaaallllllyyy eeemeeerrrgggiiinnnggg eeennnttteeerrrppprrriiissseee Page 24
  25. 25. comprehensively. It comprises 153 items, measuring 15 distinct facets, 4 factors, and global trait EI (Petrides, & Furnham, 2003). 2. The Spirituality and Resilience Assessment (SRA) Packet: The Spirituality and Resilience Assessment Packet (SRA) provides a simple, structured method for adults, teenagers, and families to identify resilient and self-defeating aspects of their worldview whether their spirituality contributes to their resilience the potential value of spiritual and psychological growth. It is an excellent tool for generating concrete conversations about these complex topics. Most often, clergy, health professionals, and educators use the SRA as a psycho-educational aid during counseling with individuals, families, and groups. However, individuals and families who are engaged in a process of psychological and spiritual growth can use the SRA by themselves. The SRA has a self-scoring format. This empowers individuals to assess their own strengths and weaknesses, and to engage in self-directed learning. 3. The Review of Personal Effectiveness and Locus of Control (ROPELIC) Instrument: ROPELIC is a comprehensive instrument for reviewing life effectiveness. ROPELIC items are self-perceptions but are expressed and interpreted in terms of behaviors. The ROPELIC has 14 scales; including personal habits and beliefs (Self-Confidence, Self-Efficacy, Stress Management, Open Thinking), social abilities (Social Effectiveness, Cooperative Teamwork, Leadership Ability), organizational skills (Time Management, Quality Seeking, Coping with Change) and ‘energy’ scale called Active Involvement and a measure of overall effectiveness in all aspects of life. 4. Assessment of Spirituality and Religious Sentiments (ASPIRES): The ASPIRES is available in both a self-report and observer-rating forms. Each scale contains 12 items relating to Religious Sentiments and 23 items concerning Spiritual Transcendence. There are also short form versions of these two instruments. The short form contains 9 transcendence items and 4 religiosity items. The scale has received extensive evaluations of psychometric robustness in a wide range of samples, including college students, adults, medical patients, and treatment seeking substance abusers and gamblers. The scale has been used in cross-cultural samples (India, Mexico, and the Philippines). The ASPIRES is also the only spiritual inventory that has a validated observer ‘‘‘NNN GGGooooooddd CCCooompppaaannnyyy ––– AAA ssspppiiirrriiitttuuuaaallllllyyy eeemeeerrrgggiiinnnggg eeennnttteeerrrppprrriiissseee Page 25
  26. 26. form. 5. Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS): The DERS is a brief, 36-item, self-report questionnaire designed to assess multiple aspects of emotion dysregulation. The measure yields a total score as well as scores on six scales derived through factor analysis: 1. Nonacceptance of emotional responses (NONACCEPTANCE) 2. Difficulties engaging in goal directed behavior (GOALS) 3. Impulse control difficulties (IMPULSE) 4. Lack of emotional awareness (AWARENESS) 5. Limited access to emotion regulation strategies (STRATEGIES) 6. Lack of emotional clarity (CLARITY) What challenges lie ahead? The peril that earth finds herself in today is enough to motivate all of us as individuals and all of our communities of faith to lament our ways and transform our hearts and actions (Fox, 2000). At every level of society, particular situations make or break the lives of children, adolescents and young adults: situations of violence, loss, indifference and hatred. (Titus, 2002) Youth today find themselves challenged by consumerism, cruelty, lack of integrity and respect, greed, homophobia, ecological degradation and environmental vandalism resulting from the “looking out for me 1st” syndrome. In the corporate world, the conscious less interest in profit maximization and achievement of the highest return to shareholders, paid-out bonuses, general insensitivity, injustice, materialism, broken promises and the recurrence of brutal wars negatively affects everyone on some level. Education has to face up to this problem now more than ever before as a world society struggles painfully to be born. Education is at the heart of both personal and community development; its mission is to enable each of us, without exception, to develop all our talents to the full and to realize our creative potential, including responsibility for our own lives and achievement of our personal aims (UNESCO, 2009). ‘‘‘NNN GGGooooooddd CCCooompppaaannnyyy ––– AAA ssspppiiirrriiitttuuuaaallllllyyy eeemeeerrrgggiiinnnggg eeennnttteeerrrppprrriiissseee Page 26
  27. 27. This aim transcends all others. Its achievement, though long and difficult, will be an essential contribution to the search for a more just world, a better world to live in (UNESCO, 2009). The Winds beneath Youth’s Wings: A Mentoring Program of Humility and Humanity aims to strengthen youth’s resilience in three domains; first, to cope with hardship; second, to resist the possible deformation of the competencies and integrity of one’s community, family and self; and third, to achieve a new proficiency out of their unfavorable experiences. Resilience outcomes indicate to us how developmental and resilience tutors (aids that promote resilience) require, more often than not, growth through affective, intellectual and spiritual trials. They involve keeping in contact with our larger goals, while grappling with intermediate ones (Titus, 2002). Listed below are just some of the more widely publicized negative outcomes that today’s youth encounter at various levels. National Level • Disregard for decency • Domestic violence against women and children • Growth in hate crimes and cynicism • Media portrayal of sex and violence • Low neighborhood attachment and community disorganization • Neglectfulness in providing spiritual and civil ethics/guidance • Acceptance of extreme anti-social and co-dependent dynamics Family Level • Family conflict, discord and failure • Disconnected relationships, lack of meaning and joy • Persistent anti-social and co-dependent dynamics within families School Level • Early and persistent anti-social behavior • Academic failure beginning in the late elementary school • Lack of commitment to school and low expectations ‘‘‘NNN GGGooooooddd CCCooompppaaannnyyy ––– AAA ssspppiiirrriiitttuuuaaallllllyyy eeemeeerrrgggiiinnnggg eeennnttteeerrrppprrriiissseee Page 27
  28. 28. Individual/Peer Level • Alienation, physical aggression, and rebelliousness • Poor self-image and lack of self-esteem • Withdrawal from social engagement and polarization The Winds beneath Youth’s Wings mentors receive 100 hours of formal training over the course of 10 weeks on how to engage youth in the establishment of their personal hopes, concerns, wishes, experiences and priorities, and worldview. Conclusion Martin Seligman, a University of Pennsylvania psychologist, proposed: “For the last thirty of forty years we’ve seen the ascendance of individualism and a waning of larger belief in religion, and in supports from the community and extended family. To the extent [that] you see a failure as something that is lasting and which you magnify to taint everything in your life, you are prone to let a momentary defeat become a lasting source of hopelessness. But if you have a larger perspective, like belief in God and in afterlife, and you lose your job, it’s just a temporary defeat.” (Goleman, 1995, p.241). Adolescence is often a stressful period during development because it involves a pivotal transition from childhood dependency to adulthood interdependency and self-sufficiency (Smith, Cowie, & Blades, 1998). One major challenge that adolescents encounter during their teenage years involves acquiring a sense of personal agency in what often seems to be a recalcitrant world. Personal agency refers to one’s capability to originate and direct actions for given purposes. Generally, this centers on the belief in one’s effectiveness in performing specific tasks, which is termed self-efficacy, as well as by one’s actual skill (Pajares, & Urdan, 2006). People with high self-efficacy choose to perform challenging tasks. They set themselves higher goals and tend to stick to them. The Winds beneath Youth’s Wings helps adolescents in crossing over from adolescence to young adulthood through an outcome oriented process that encompasses a broad array of methods for reflection, open discussions, journaling and poetry, studio art, performing arts and film, music and nature where together we are able to explore the distinctive characteristics of religion and spirituality. Our intention is to provide strong framework for the process of internal transformation, personal improvement, spiritual practice (“praxis”), and successful transition of youth with EBD who have previously fallen off track so that they can grab a firm hold, regain their footing, and more effectively step into their chosen field of desired living. ‘‘‘NNN GGGooooooddd CCCooompppaaannnyyy ––– AAA ssspppiiirrriiitttuuuaaallllllyyy eeemeeerrrgggiiinnnggg eeennnttteeerrrppprrriiissseee Page 28
  29. 29. The value of a religious experience is independent of whether it is given a naturalistic or theistic explanation. That value is to be ascertained by looking at its consequences. Similiarly,…, despite what they might say, people don’t judge a religious doctrine, practice, or experience by its origin, but by its fruits. The consequences of a belief or practice include not only what we might ordinarily call practical consequences, but also its fruitfulness for contributing to an understanding of the world. ~William James~ Clearly, it is possible to create learning communities of adolescents and young adults from diverse religious and cultural backgrounds and explore the potential value of spiritual transformation in their lives. The Winds beneath Youth’s Wings is committed to enriching such a community by establishing an individualized, developmentally appropriate process to foster dialogue, healthy relationships, unify ‘spirit’, and promote positive emotions and religious ‘praxis’ (Cottingham, 2005) and observance within youth with EBD. The spirituality education methods that will be used include the following: i. Case presentation and discussion ii. Essay reflective writing or discussion or story-telling iii. Experiential exercises on spiritual practice and well-being iv. Panel of invited discussants for question/answer sessions v. Self-study (readings) vi. Shadowing a mentor or spiritual practitioner vii. Small group discussion/seminar viii. Retreat ix. Taking a spiritual history on oneself x. Watching a video on a person giving their spiritual history ‘‘‘NNN GGGooooooddd CCCooompppaaannnyyy ––– AAA ssspppiiirrriiitttuuuaaallllllyyy eeemeeerrrgggiiinnnggg eeennnttteeerrrppprrriiissseee Page 29
  30. 30. “Given sufficient support humans can defy the odds and become agents of history” (Ramphele, 2002, p.123) References Books Frankl, V. E. (2006). Man’s Search for Meaning. Massachusetts: Beacon Press. Fromm, E. (2006). The Art of Loving. Harper Perennial Modern Classics Goleman, D., Small, G., Braden, G., Lipton, B. & McTaggert, L. (2008). Measuring the Immeasurable: The Scientific Case for Spirituality. Colorado: Sounds True Incorporated. James, W., (2004). The Varieties of Religious Experience. New York: Barnes and Noble Classics. Kornfield, J. (1995). The Eightfold Path for the Householder. Berkeley, CA: Buddha Dharma Education Association Inc. Lerner, R.M., Alberts, A.E., Anderson, P.M., & Dowling, E.M. (2006). The Handbook of Spiritual Development in Childhood and Adolescence – On Making Humans Human: Spirituality and the Promotion of Positive Youth Development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. Niebuhr, G. (2008). Beyond Tolerance: How People Across America Are Building Bridges Between Faiths. New York: Penguin Books. Rodgers, C. R. (1989). On Becoming A Person: A Therapist’s View of Psychotherapy. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. Tallmadge, J (1997). Meeting the Tree of Life – A Teacher’s Path. Utah: University of Utah Press, Whitehead, A.N. (1996). Religion in the Making. New York: Fordham University Press. Walsh, R. (1999). Essential spirituality: The 7 central practices to awaken heart and mind. New York: Wiley & Sons. Journal Articles Chandler, C. K., Holden, J. M. & Kolander, C. A. (1992) Counseling for Spiritual Wellness: Theory and Practice. Journal of Counseling and Development Volume 71, 168-175. Cottingham, J. (2005). The Spiritual Dimension: Religion, Philosophy and Human Value. Cambridge University Press p. 1-6. Dunn, T. (2005) Living Wisdom. Ellis, A. (2000). Can Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) Be Effectively Used With People Who Have Devout Beliefs in God and Religion? Albert Ellis Albert Ellis Institute for Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy, Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. American Psychological Association, Inc. Vol. 31, No. 1, 29-33. ‘‘‘NNN GGGooooooddd CCCooompppaaannnyyy ––– AAA ssspppiiirrriiitttuuuaaallllllyyy eeemeeerrrgggiiinnnggg eeennnttteeerrrppprrriiissseee Page 30
  31. 31. Gross, J. J., Richards, J. M., & John, O. P. (2006). Emotion regulation in everyday life. In D.K. Synder, J. A. Simpson, & H. N. Hughes (eds.). Emotion regulation in families: Pathways to dysfunction and health. Washington DC: American Psychological Association. Hartelius, G. and Friedman, H. (2009). Perspectives in Spirituality: Introduction to Special Topic Section. International Journal of Transpersonal Studies. Institute of Transpersonal Psychology, Volume 28(1), 65-67 Hill, P.C., and Pargament, K. I (2003) Advances in the Conceptualization and Measurement of Religion and Spirituality: Implications for Physical and Mental Health Research. Rosemead School of Psychology. American Psychologist, American Psychological Association, Inc. Vol. 58, No. 1, 64–74. Hutcherson, C. A., Seppala, E.M., & Gross, J.J. (2008). Loving-Kindeness Meditation Increases Social Connectedness. Emotion, American Psychological Association, Vol. 8, No. 5, 720-724. Idler, E., (2008). The Psychological and Physical Benefits of Spiritual/Religious Practices. Rutgers University: Spirituality in Higher Education Newsletter, Volume 4, Issue 2, 1-5. Fredrickson, B. L. (2001) The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and- build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, American Psychological Association, Inc. Vol.56, 218-226. Kass, J. D. (2007) Spiritual Maturation: A Developmental Resource for Resilience, Well- Being, and Peace. Journal of Pedagogy, Pluralism, and Practice Issue 12, 1-18. Krippner, S. (2004) All Mind? No Matter: The Self-Regulation Paradigm. The International Journal of Transpersonal Studies, Volume 23, 46-50. McAdams, D. P. (2006) The Redemptive Self: Generativity and the Stories Americans Live By. Research in Human Development, 3(2&3). 81-100, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. McCullough, M. E. and Willoughby, L. B. (2009) Religion, Self-Regulation, and Self-Control: Associations, Explanations, and Implications. Psychological Bulletin Vol. 135, No 1, 69-93. Piedmont, R., Werdel, M. B., & Fernando, M. (2009) RUNNING HEAD: The ASPIRES in Sri Lanka - The Utility Of The Assessment Of Spirituality And Religious Sentiments (Aspires) Scale With Christians And Buddhists In Sri Lanka. Ph.D., Department of Pastoral Counseling, Loyola College in Maryland, 8890 McGaw Road, Suite 380, Columbia, MD 21045, USA. Or viae-mail at Richardson, B. G., and Shupe, M. J. (2003). The Importance of Teacher Self-Awareness in Working With students With Emotional and Behavioral Disorders. Teaching Exceptional Children. Vol 36, No. 2, pp 8-13. Shapiro, S.L., Carlson, L.E., Astin, J.A., & Freedman, B., (2006). Mechanisms of Mindfulness. Journal of Clinical Psychology Wiley Periodicals, Inc., P. 1-14. Varey, W. (1959, 1962, 1965, 1966, 1970, 1971, 1973, 1974, 1981, 2000, 2002, 2005) Clare W. Graves: The Eightfold Path By Will Varey (Principal) ( ‘‘‘NNN GGGooooooddd CCCooompppaaannnyyy ––– AAA ssspppiiirrriiitttuuuaaallllllyyy eeemeeerrrgggiiinnnggg eeennnttteeerrrppprrriiissseee Page 31
  32. 32. Wallace, B. A. and Shapiro, S. L. (2006) Mental Balance and Well-Being: Building Bridges Between Buddhism and Western Psychology. American Psychological Association Vol. 61, No. 7, 690–701. Thesis and Dissertations: Dellbridge, C., (2008). AN ADOLESCENT’S SUBJECTIVE EXPERIENCES OF MINDFULNESS. Dissertation presented by Carey-Ann Dellbridge in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree MAGISTER EDUCATIONIS (EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY) in the Department of Educational Psychology Faculty of Education University of Pretoria SUPERVISOR: Dr Carien Lubbe-De Beer. ‘‘‘NNN GGGooooooddd CCCooompppaaannnyyy ––– AAA ssspppiiirrriiitttuuuaaallllllyyy eeemeeerrrgggiiinnnggg eeennnttteeerrrppprrriiissseee Page 32