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Philippine history

philippine history
the struggle continues

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Philippine history

  1. 1. )
  2. 2. Governor General primo de Rivera’s success in the battlefield of Cavite over Aguinaldo’s forces could have been ended the Revolution. Some Filipinos, in fact continued to engage the Spanish forces and established a temporary government like the Makabulos “Republic” in Tarlac. Even before the Filipinos could recover from the battles of 1896. General Emilio Aguinaldo, as the recognized leader of the Filipinos in exile in Hongkong and at home. But the United States misled Aguinaldo to believe that the Americans came as an ally of the Filipinos in their fight to end the Spanish rule in the country.
  3. 3. Governor General Primo de Rivera’s success in stopping the bloodshed was highly praised in Spain. When armed hostilities occured in mid-February 1898, many Spaniards blamed the Filipinos for violating the Truce og Biak-na-Bato. It sent General Basilio Augustin as a Governor General to succeed Primo de Rivera. He wanted to continue as a governor so that he could make plans for the future. Primo De Rivera knew the Philippines very well because he had served previously as governor of the country from 1880-1883. The newly-appointed Governor General Augustine had never been To the philippines and did not know the problems confronting the country. But the new Spanish General Augustine arrived in manila and the following day primo de rivera turned over the reins of government to him.
  4. 4. The relationship between Spain and the Unitedwas becoming sour. The Cuban revolution had won the sympathy of the Americans. Some Influential Americans, like Theodore Roosevelt, wanted war with Spain so that the American navy could expand. It was who conceived the idea of takng Manila in case war with Spain would declare. On February 25, 1898, Roosevelt told Dewey to make Hongkong which was very near to Manila, as his base of operations. Spain did not imagine a war with the United States, because the United States was starting to develop into a rich and powerful country. These conflict were very expensive for Spain and were draining its resources . On February 15,1898, the American battleship USS Maine exploded at Havana Harbor in Cuba. More than 200 sailors and officers died.
  5. 5. Dewey ordered his fleet to sail for Manila Bay. Quietly, his fleet entered the bay in the early morning hours of May 1, 1898. The Spanish batteries in corregidor were too late in detecting the passage of the fleet. The Spanish squadron, commanded by Admiral Patricio Montojo, was waiting near Sangley Point, Cavite. Standing in the bridge of the Flagship USS Olympia, Dewey estimated the distancebetween two fleets.the signal for firing was given and the guns of all the Americans ship burst with fire . The Battle of Manila Bay was one sided. The Spaniards hoisted a white in Cavite as a sign of surrender. Most American thought it was a part of China. It was said that the whole Americans nation was heard opening geography books to locate the Philippines on the map.
  6. 6. It was early April of 1898 when rumors had already reached Manila that war between Spain and the U.S was to be declared any time. They felt that in case of war, it would be a good opportunity fir the Filipinos to oust the Spaniards from the Philippines. Aguinaldo did not want the money to be divided because he was thinking of using it to buy arms and ammunition with which to fight the Spaniards. To avoid scandal, Aguinaldo was adviced by Felipe Agoncillo to leave Hongkong. This was the strategy of the Spanish Embassy. But with the departure of Aguinaldo for Singapore, Artacho’s court suit did not materialize.
  7. 7. Aguinaldo with companions arrived in Singapore on April 23, 1898. this was surprised visit because Aguinaldo came to Singapore incognito and he thought, nobody knew about his arrival. The Philippines was very far from the United States, so how could the U.S have any interest in colonizing the Philippines? In other words, Pratt assured Aguinaldo that the U.S had no intention of making Philippines a colony. Aguinaldo then agreed to return to the Philippines to renew a hostilities againts the Spaniards. Pratt made all the arrangements for Aguinaldo’s return to Hongkong.
  8. 8. On April 26, 1898, Aguinaldo and his companions sailed for Hongkong. Dewey had already left for Manila when Aguinaldo arrived in British colony. Wildman later told Aguinaldo to established a dictatorial government in the Philippines so that he could easily take steps to continue the revolution againts Spain. Having beenwon over by Wildman’s Frankness, Aguinaldo entrusted him to purchase rifles and ammunition to be used by the Filipino army. For this purpose, he gave Wildman the sum of 50,000 Later he gave Wildman 67,000 pesos was never realized.
  9. 9. When Dewey won the battle of Manila Bay and news about it reached all parts of the world, the Filipinos patriots in Hongkong met to discuss the steps to be taken to take over the Philippines. When Aguinaldo arrived at the meeting place, everybody embraced him. He told the Hongkong Junta about his interview with Pratt and Wildman. Aguinaldo told to the Junta that the situation in the Philippines was very serious and sought their opinions over the matter. There was an exchange of point of view and the Junta unanimously decided that Aguinaldo should return to the Philippines. He would lead the Filipinos once more againts the Spaniards.
  10. 10. Aguinaldo accepted the Junta’s decision, for he had faith and confidence in it’s members. On May 17, 1898, Aguinaldo boarded the American revenue cutter McCulloch, which was bound for Manila. Immediately, he was transferred to Dewey’s flagship, the Olympia. Dewey assured him that the U.S did not need colonies. Dewey would later deny having made any promise to Aguinaldo and that his relations the Filipino leader was purely personal, not official.
  11. 11. When Aguinaldo had finished disembarking the war equipment which were purchased in Hongkong, the Filipino rebels came to pay him a visit. These Proclamations urged the people to rise in arms once more and to continue the struggle againts the Spanish oppressors. On May 21, Aguinaldo issued a proclamation saying that “ Everything appears favorable for attaining independence... I urge that we strive to unite our efforts , and let us fire our hearts with the idea of vindicating our country. Many nations are on our side.”
  12. 12. The defeat of Spanish Fleet discouraged the Spanish officials in the city. Added to this was the further desertion of many Filipino soldiers from the Spanish armed forces. He appointed prominent Spanish mestizos to the consultative Assembly for the purpose of winning over to the Spanish side all the wealthy and influential Filipinos and thus, make it Appear that he had welfare of the Filipinos at heart
  13. 13. Dewey did not besiege the city because he did not have enough forces to do it. They landed in Paranaque and encamped south of Pasay. But Dewey thought that he could make the Spaniards surrender without a fight. Jaudanes believed that the Spanish position was very weak, but he could not surrender without losing face .
  14. 14. August 13, 1898. the day was dreary; there was a down pour because the rainy season had arrived. On the other hand, Aguinaldo’s generals suspected that the Americans were not being faithful to them. Why were Americans soldier’s positioned to enter the battle? When the firing Started, the Filipino soldiers advanced. General Merritt ordered General Francis V. Greene to stop the Filipinos.
  15. 15. At 5 o’clock in the afternoo of August 13, the Spanish governor general agreed to sign the surrender document. In line wuth the terms of surrender, the Spaniards including the Filipino volunteers under the payroll of the Spanish Army inside the City , to agreed to admit defeat.