Knowledge Networks for Tourism Innovation in Destinations Oriol Miralbell [email_address] Dir. Dr. Agustí Canals Universit...
ATLAS 2007 Index Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in  destinations 1.  Networks 2.  Innovation 3.  Social capital...
ATLAS 2007 Networks Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in  destinations We live in a network society  (Castells, 19...
ATLAS 2007 Networks Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in  destinations
ATLAS 2007 Knowledge networks Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in  destinations <ul><li>Different ways to see net...
ATLAS 2007 Knowledge networks Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in  destinations “ Existing studies suggest that b...
ATLAS 2007 Tourism networks Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in  destinations Tourism is an information intensive...
ATLAS 2007 Tourism networks Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in  destinations Network in a destination
ATLAS 2007 Innovation Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in  destinations Innovation?
ATLAS 2007 Innovation Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in  destinations We can see Innovation “as an effort to cr...
ATLAS 2007 Innovation Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in  destinations <ul><li>Schumpeter  distinguished inventi...
ATLAS 2007 Innovation Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in  destinations Product vs Process Innovation in Tourism ...
ATLAS 2007 Innovation Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in  destinations Innovation in tourism is dificult and not...
ATLAS 2007 Social capital Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in  destinations Social capital What and why?
ATLAS 2007 Social capital Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in  destinations Social Capital: &quot;By analogy with...
ATLAS 2007 Social capital Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in  destinations Social Capital: Other authors have di...
ATLAS 2007 Social capital Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in  destinations A reason to investigate:   R. Burt st...
ATLAS 2007 Social capital Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in  destinations
ATLAS 2007 Research Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in  destinations Case Study A first step in the  PhD Research
ATLAS 2007 Research Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in  destinations Objective for PhD Thesis :  To study the th...
ATLAS 2007 Case study Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in  destinations Object of study: A network that has repre...
ATLAS 2007 Case Study Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in  destinations Hypothesis :  Networks of knowledge with ...
ATLAS 2007 Case study Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in  destinations Methodology: 1.  To draw the network A qu...
ATLAS 2007 Case study Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in  destinations <ul><li>Methodology: </li></ul><ul><li>2....
ATLAS 2007 Case study Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in  destinations <ul><li>Results: </li></ul><ul><li>1.  Fr...
ATLAS 2007 Case study Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in  destinations Relational graph
ATLAS 2007 Case study Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in  destinations Votes for innovation The thickness of the...
ATLAS 2007 Case study Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in  destinations <ul><li>Results: </li></ul><ul><li>2 .  F...
ATLAS 2007 Case study Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in  destinations <ul><li>We can conclude that APTALC </li>...
ATLAS 2007 Case study Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in  destinations <ul><li>Further research: </li></ul><ul><...
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Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations

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Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations

  1. 1. Knowledge Networks for Tourism Innovation in Destinations Oriol Miralbell [email_address] Dir. Dr. Agustí Canals Universitat Oberta de Catalunya Rbla. Poble Nou, 156 08018 Barcelona www.uoc.edu ATLAS annual conference 2007 Destinations Revisited Perspectives on developing and managing tourist areas
  2. 2. ATLAS 2007 Index Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations 1. Networks 2. Innovation 3. Social capital 4. Case study : testing the network of the experts
  3. 3. ATLAS 2007 Networks Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations We live in a network society (Castells, 1997)‏ Network analysis helps to understand our society - Internet - Communications - Neural networks (biological, artificial) - Criminal networks - and .... knowledge networks
  4. 4. ATLAS 2007 Networks Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations
  5. 5. ATLAS 2007 Knowledge networks Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations <ul><li>Different ways to see networks: </li></ul><ul><li>Ego-networks – one central node </li></ul><ul><li>Social-networks – many with many </li></ul><ul><li>Different ways to approach the study: </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative analysis </li></ul>
  6. 6. ATLAS 2007 Knowledge networks Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations “ Existing studies suggest that because knowledge is becoming more widely distributed innovation increasingly needs to occur at the interstices' of collaborating groups and organizations. Networked innovation processes are therefore emphasized over more hierarchical or market-based forms as having distinct advantages for the creation and integration of knowledge.” (J. Swan & H. Scarborough, 2005) ‏
  7. 7. ATLAS 2007 Tourism networks Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations Tourism is an information intensive industry (Poon, 1993)‏ Information, knowledge and business activity uses networks in tourism. Network in the air transportation
  8. 8. ATLAS 2007 Tourism networks Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations Network in a destination
  9. 9. ATLAS 2007 Innovation Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations Innovation?
  10. 10. ATLAS 2007 Innovation Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations We can see Innovation “as an effort to create purposeful, focused change in an enterprise's economic or social potential” and also “ ... new modes of social and economic action either derived from the invention of a physical product or process, or from the redefinition of interrelationships between actors. ” (Drucker, 1998)‏
  11. 11. ATLAS 2007 Innovation Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations <ul><li>Schumpeter distinguished inventions from the entrepreneur's innovations . </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation: not just figuring out how to use inventions, but also </li></ul><ul><ul><li>introducing new means of production, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>new products, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>new forms of organization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Innovation leads to “creative distruction” </li></ul>
  12. 12. ATLAS 2007 Innovation Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations Product vs Process Innovation in Tourism Weiermair, 2004
  13. 13. ATLAS 2007 Innovation Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations Innovation in tourism is dificult and not frequent. The structure (mainly SmeS) and the characteristics (services not products) of the industry don't make it easy. Thus: “Innovation policies sould [therefore] either target or specifically include the trade system, the technology system, the infrastructural system and the regulation system, possibly in collaboration with the primary tourism operators.” (Hjalager, 2001)‏
  14. 14. ATLAS 2007 Social capital Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations Social capital What and why?
  15. 15. ATLAS 2007 Social capital Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations Social Capital: &quot;By analogy with physical capital and human capital - tools and training that enhance human productivity - the core idea of social capital theory is that social networks have value . Just as a screwdriver (physical capital) or a college education (human capital) can increase productivity (both individual and collective), so too social contacts affect the productivity of individuals and groups &quot; (Putnam, 2000)‏
  16. 16. ATLAS 2007 Social capital Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations Social Capital: Other authors have discussed on Social Capital (Burt, Coleman, Brudieu..) but they all agree on the critical role of social capital inside organizations in fostering internal dynamics that can help to create and sthrengteh new values, like knowledge sharing.
  17. 17. ATLAS 2007 Social capital Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations A reason to investigate: R. Burt states “[t]hat research and theory will better cumulate across studies if we focus on the network mechanisms responsible for social capital effects rather than trying to integrate across metaphors of social capital loosely tied to distant empirical indicators.” (2000)‏ “ The two mechanisms most often cited are protection within closed networks and brokerage across structural holes,..” (Burt, 2000)‏ Putnam (1995) calls them, bondind and bridging (also known as brokering )‏
  18. 18. ATLAS 2007 Social capital Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations
  19. 19. ATLAS 2007 Research Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations Case Study A first step in the PhD Research
  20. 20. ATLAS 2007 Research Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations Objective for PhD Thesis : To study the the impact of social capital mechanisms of tourism networks to foster innovation in destinations.
  21. 21. ATLAS 2007 Case study Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations Object of study: A network that has representatives of different clusters (destinations), that use network as a value in their relations. APTALC : Catalan Association of Professionals working in Local Tourism Administration Leaders & experts in their destination Aptalc started in 2004 Have 173 members Representativeness over region: 70%
  22. 22. ATLAS 2007 Case Study Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations Hypothesis : Networks of knowledge with strong social capital mechanisms are good instruments for the difussion of innovation done in tourism destinations.
  23. 23. ATLAS 2007 Case study Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations Methodology: 1. To draw the network A questionnaire to 13 members of APTALC, (the most frequently related members). The questionnaire was tested with some colleagues and after that, I've tried to draw some possible networks to test if the questions could help to draw a structure that could explain the relations between the members and the innovation.
  24. 24. ATLAS 2007 Case study Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations <ul><li>Methodology: </li></ul><ul><li>2. To evaluate the social capital </li></ul><ul><li>In depth personal interview with 3 leaders of APTALC </li></ul><ul><li>I used the ASCAT model, by Krishna and Shrader on Social Capital Assessment Tool, and built a guided interview with specific questions on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The origins and the evolution of APTALC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The characteristics of members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The institutional capacities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The institutional relation /links </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. ATLAS 2007 Case study Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations <ul><li>Results: </li></ul><ul><li>1. From network relations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is a frequent communcation (70% once a week) inside the group. (density)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They know very well the professional skills of the other members and exchange knowledge frequently (more than 60% of contacts are for professional counseling). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The most influent leaders (4) are also the board members. (data obtained from the relationship). Essential for diffusion of I. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Members distinguish clearly between leadership and knowledge. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The most voted professional achievments come not from the leaders. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. ATLAS 2007 Case study Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations Relational graph
  27. 27. ATLAS 2007 Case study Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations Votes for innovation The thickness of the lines describes the weight of the evaluation given by each node or member to the other one, and the arrows show the origin and target of each vote. The most voted innovators are: D – 4 votes C, N, and Q, with 3 votes.
  28. 28. ATLAS 2007 Case study Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations <ul><li>Results: </li></ul><ul><li>2 . From social capital analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Members have a strong self esteem and high valuation of the mission and the role of APTALC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong voluntary involvement in helping functionality of the association </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very cohesive and cooperative relation between members of steering committee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There has been refreshment in the leadership: shows sufficient existance of leaders inside APTALC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They feel in general a weak organizational culture among the majority of the members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They show strong capacity for their mission as experts. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. ATLAS 2007 Case study Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations <ul><li>We can conclude that APTALC </li></ul><ul><li>Is a network with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a discrete cohesion, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a strong homogeneity of membership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a high level of interpersonal trust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a well structured leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is a group where members have the purpose to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>create, expand and exchange knowledge and develop individual capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>be informed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>do self selection based on expertise or passion for a topic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>have an intense dialog, interaction and knowledge exchange among the members of the Steering Committee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to network </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. ATLAS 2007 Case study Knowledge networks for Tourism Innovation in destinations <ul><li>Further research: </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate with questionnaires and interviews the networks inside a group of selected “destinations” that are linked to the APTALC through one of their members (bridging). </li></ul><ul><li>Than: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate the results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extract the differences between destinations </li></ul></ul>

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