Ways of separating components of a mixture

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Ways of separating components of a mixture

  1. 1.  When two or more materials or substances are mixed together but do not chemically combine.  This means they retain their original properties.  This means they can be separated by physical means.
  2. 2.  Magnetism  Simple Distillation  Hand separation  Filtration  Sifting or sieving  Evaporation  Chromatography
  3. 3.  If one component of the mixture has magnetic properties, you could use a magnet to separate the mixture. Iron, nickel, and cobalt are all materials that are magnetic.  Not all metals are magnetic: gold, silver, and aluminum are examples of metals that are not magnetic.
  4. 4.  Using a magnet to separate nails from wood chips.
  5. 5. The process by which a mixture is separated by heating a solution and condensing using a cooling tube. The liquid collected is the distillate.
  6. 6. “It is the process whereby distilled water is produced and accessible in the market” “Rain water is a product of distillation” “Some medicine that has fish oil ingredients passes through double distillation”. Gasoline, kerosene, fuel oil, and lubricating oil are produced from petroleum by distillation.
  7. 7. Figure 2.14: The solution is boiled and steam is driven off.
  8. 8. Figure 2.14: Salt remains after all water is boiled off.
  9. 9. Saltwater solution (homogeneous mixture) Distillation (physical method) Salt Pure water
  10. 10.  Separating the parts of a mixture by hand.  Only useful when the particles are large enough to be seen clearly.  Useful for: separating parts of a salad.
  11. 11.  Using your fork to separate tomatoes, lettuce, cucumber, onions, etc. in your salad.
  12. 12. Filtration  Used when separating a solid substance from a fluid (a liquid or a gas) by passing a mixture through a porous material such as a type of filter.  Works by letting the fluid pass through but not the solid.  Examples of filters: coffee filter, cloth, oil filter, even sand!
  13. 13. Example of filtration:  Using a coffee filter to separate the coffee flavor from the coffee beans.
  14. 14. separates a liquid from a solid Mixture of solid and liquid Stirring rod Filtrate (liquid component of the mixture) Filter paper traps solid Funnel
  15. 15. Sifting or sieving  Used to separate a dry mixture which contains substances of different sizes by passing it through a sieve, a device containing tiny holes.
  16. 16. Example of sifting/sieving:  Using a sieve to separate sand from pebbles.
  17. 17.  Allowing the liquid to evaporate, leaving the soluble solid behind.  Example: heating sugar water. The water evaporates and the sugar crystals are left behind.
  18. 18. Figure 2.17: Separation of a sand-saltwater mixture.
  19. 19. Iron stand Beaker Wire gauze Ring Bunsen burner E V A P O R A T I O N
  20. 20. Chromatography  Tie-dye t-shirt  Black pen ink  DNA testing  Tomb of Unknown Soldiers  Crime scene  Paternity testing
  21. 21. Paper Chromatography
  22. 22. Separation by Chromatography sample mixture a chromatographic column stationary phase selectively absorbs components mobile phase sweeps sample down column detector http://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/matter/slides/sld006.htm
  23. 23. Separation by Chromatography sample mixture a chromatographic column stationary phase selectively absorbs components mobile phase sweeps sample down column detector http://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/matter/slides/sld006.htm
  24. 24. Chromatography  Used to separate dissolved substances in a solution from each other. Mixture Components Separation Stationary Phase Mobile Phase
  25. 25. Example of chromatography:  Using chromatography paper to separate ink into it’s original components.

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