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Control Of Body Processes Through The Endocrine System


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..A study which tackles about the functions of endocrine system in our body,- as it regulates our body system

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Control Of Body Processes Through The Endocrine System

  4. 4. <ul><li>DUCT GLAND </li></ul><ul><li>-fine tubes present in all glands through which their secretion pass. </li></ul><ul><li>DUCTLESS GLANDS </li></ul><ul><li>- another group of glands in the body are which don’t have ducts. </li></ul><ul><li>- they go directly into the blood streams </li></ul><ul><li>- the secretions diffuse from the secreting cells through the walls of the blood vessels into the blood. </li></ul>
  5. 5. THYROXIN ® <ul><ul><li>A hormone produced by the thyroid gland to regulate the growth of the body and oxidation in the cells. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It produces a very important component in the body which is iodine. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothyroidism – a disease caused by the lacking of production of thyroxin in the body. This disorder is characterized b slow beating of the heart and low metabolic rate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> – the prefix hypo- means abnormal deficiency. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Hyperthyroidism – it is caused by the overproduction of thyroxin or overactivity of the thyroid gland. </li></ul><ul><li> – the prefix hyper- means abnormal excess. </li></ul><ul><li>Effects of Hyperthyroidism </li></ul><ul><li>High metabolic rate </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen is used up at a fast rate to cope with the high rate of chemical reaction in the cells. </li></ul><ul><li>The heart beat fast </li></ul><ul><li>Highly nervous and irritable </li></ul><ul><li>Bulging of the eye balls (a case of exophthalmic goiter) </li></ul>
  7. 7. SENSITIVE IMAGES <ul><li>CAUTION: </li></ul>
  8. 11. PARATHORMONE ® <ul><li>A hormone produced by the parathyroid glands which regulates the amount of calcium and phosphorus in the blood. </li></ul><ul><li>It controls the deposition of calcium salts in the bones and teeth. </li></ul>
  9. 12. <ul><li>Hyperparathyroidism </li></ul><ul><li>An overactivity of the parathyroid glands resulting in excess production of parathyroid hormones (PTH). The parathyroid hormone regulates calcium and phosphate levels and helps to maintain these levels. Overactivity of one or more of the parathyroid glands causes high calcium levels and low levels of phosphate in the blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypoparathyroidism In medicine, hypoparathyroidism is decreased function of the parathyroid glands, leading to decreased levels of parathyroid hormones (PTH). The consequence, hypocalcemia , is a serious medical condition. </li></ul>
  10. 13. Signs and symptoms (Hypoparathyroidism )‏ <ul><li>Tingling lips, fingers, and toes </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle cramps </li></ul><ul><li>Pain in the face, legs, and feet </li></ul><ul><li>Abdominal pain </li></ul><ul><li>Dry hair </li></ul><ul><li>Brittle nails </li></ul><ul><li>Dry, scaly skin </li></ul><ul><li>Cataracts </li></ul><ul><li>Weakened tooth enamel (in children) </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle spasms called tetany (can lead to spasms of the larynx, causing breathing difficulties) </li></ul><ul><li>Convulsions (seizures) </li></ul><ul><li>Additional symptoms that may be associated with this disease include: </li></ul><ul><li>Painful menstruation </li></ul><ul><li>Hand or foot spasms </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>Delayed or absent tooth formation </li></ul>
  12. 15. v
  13. 16. <ul><li>INSULIN ® </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A hormone secreted by a group of cells in the pancreas known as the Islets of Langerhans. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It controls the transformation of the simple sugar glucose into glycogen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lowers the amount of sugar in the blood. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DIABETES </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- The condition when the body does not have enough insulin, the blood sugar increases, and glucose appears even in the urine. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 17. <ul><li>GLUCAGON ® </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Another hormone produced by the pancreas. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It tends to raise the amount of sugar in the blood by changing liver glycogen into glucose that is more energy is needed by the cells. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 19. HORMONES OF MAN Regulates sodium, calcium and water balance of the blood Maintains carbohyadrates, fat and protein metabolism, and promotes health of connective tissues. Influence development of secondary sex characteristics. Cortin Cortisone Sex hormones <ul><li>Adrenal </li></ul><ul><li>CORTEX </li></ul>Regulates amount of calcium in the blood. Parathormone Parathyroid Controls metabolic rate, physical and mental growth. Thyroxin Thyroid FUNCTION HORMONE GLAND
  16. 20. Controls male secondary sex characteristics. Androgen Testis Controls female secondary sex characteristics. Estrogen Ovary Controls transformation of blood glucose into liver glycogen. Insulin Beta Cells of Islets of Langerhans Controls transformation of liver glycogen into blood glucose. Glucagon Pancreas Islets of Langerhans Hastens release of glucose into blood, increase rate of heartbeat, increases blood pressures. Controls blood vessels. Adrenaline Noradrenaline <ul><li>MEDULLA </li></ul>
  17. 21. Controls elimination of water by the kidneys. Controls contraction of smooth muscles of uterus. Vasoressin Oxytocin II. NEURO PHYPO- PHYSIS Regulates growth of skeleton. Regulates activity of thyroid. Regulates follicle formation in ovary and sperm-formation in testis. Stimulates mammary glands to secrete milk. Regulates activity to adrenal cortex. Growth hormone Thyrotropic hormone Follicle-Stimulating hormone (FSH)‏ Prolactin Adrenocorticortropic hormone (ACTCH)‏ Hypophysis I. ADENOHYPOPHYSIS
  18. 22. Stimulates secretion of pancreatic juice by pancreatic glands. Secretin Stimulates secretion of gastric juice by gastric glands. Gastrin Stomach Upper Intestine Controls formation of andtibodies. Thymus hormone Thymus
  19. 23. Homeostasis <ul><li>The ability or tendency of an organism or cell to maintain internal equilibrium by adjusting its physiological processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Any self-regulating process by which a biological or mechanical system maintains stability while adjusting to changing conditions. Systems in dynamic equilibrium reach a balance in which internal change continuously compensates for external change in a feedback control process to keep conditions relatively uniform. An example is temperature regulation — mechanically in a room by a thermostat or biologically in the body by a complex system controlled by the hypothalamus , which adjusts breathing and metabolic rates, blood-vessel dilation, and blood-sugar level in response to changes caused by factors including ambient temperature, hormones, and disease. </li></ul>
  20. 24. <ul><li>The following discussion illustrates homeostasis involving the sugar level in the blood. The normal level is about 90 mg glucose per 100 mL of blood. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suppose a student plays a basketball during the noon break and incidentally misses his lunch. What may happen inside his body as a result? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The level of his blood glucose may drop below normal. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The hypothalamus detects the situation and sends out appropriate signals. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The pancreas is stimulated to release glucagon directly into the blood. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The liver transforms glycogen into glucose and releases it into the blood. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 25. <ul><ul><ul><li>The blood glucose level rises to normal; the pancreas stops releasing glucagon. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suppose a student chooses for snacks a serving of spaghetti, cake, ice cream and a bottle of softdrink. What may happen inside her a body as a result? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The level of her blood glucose may rise beyond normal. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The hypothalamus detects the situation and sends out appropriate signals. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The pancreas is stimulated to release insulin into the bloodstream. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The liver transforms glucose into glycogen and strores it in its tissues, while the muslcdes and </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 26. <ul><li>other body tissues also take up additional glucose. </li></ul><ul><li>5) The blood glucose level goes down to normal; the pancreas stops releasing extra insulin. </li></ul><ul><li>What happens when the body is not healthy? For instance, what happens when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin for one reason or another, or when the body cells do not take in glucose as efficiently or as fast as they should? </li></ul>
  23. 27. Thank You For Listening
  24. 28. REPORTED BY: VILLOTE, JOMAR K. <ul><li>The End </li></ul>