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Immobility & Body Mechanics
<ul><li>Refers to the ability to engage in activity and free movement, which includes walking, running, sitting, standing,...
<ul><li>Is a therapeutic intervention that achieves: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rest for client’s who are exhausted </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Metabolic: decrease in BMR r/t decreased energy requirements, which is directly r/t cellular 02 demands </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Orthostatic hypotension due to prolonged bed rest.  Drop of 15 mm Hg or more in systolic BP with position change <...
<ul><li>Increase activity slowly but progressively </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid crossing legs, pressure behind knee </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Decrease in lung expansion, generalized respiratory muscle weakness, and stasis of secretions </li></ul><ul><li>De...
<ul><li>Change of position q 1 – 2 hr which allows elastic recoil property of lungs and clears dependent lung secretions <...
<ul><li>Decrease in appetite, peristalsis, constipation </li></ul><ul><li>NI: high fiber foods, fluids to 3000 ml/24hr </l...
<ul><li>Muscle atrophy </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of strength and decreased endurance </li></ul><ul><li>Joint contractures </l...
<ul><li>Frequent ROM: active, passive, active assist q 4 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Develop an individualized progressive exe...
<ul><li>Urine formed by the kidney must enter the bladder against gravity due to recumbent position </li></ul><ul><li>Uret...
<ul><li>Position change q 1-2 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Position 30 degrees of higher to enhance gravitational forces requir...
<ul><li>Increase isolation, passive behavior, changes in sleep/wake cycles, stressors, sensory deprivation/overload </li><...
<ul><li>Anticipate changes-provide routine and informal socialization—interact with staff q 1-2 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Pl...
<ul><li>Increase in dependence </li></ul><ul><li>Regression in development </li></ul><ul><li>NI: care should stimulate cli...
<ul><li>Previously called: a decubitus ulcer </li></ul><ul><li>A pressure sore </li></ul><ul><li>A pressure ulcer </li></u...
<ul><li>Pressure ulcers is a wound caused by unrelieved pressure that damages underlying tissue.  </li></ul><ul><li>The pr...
<ul><li>AHCPR: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research establish guidelines to identify at-risk individuals needing pre...
<ul><li>Assesses sensory perception: ability to respond meaningfully to pressure-related discomfort </li></ul><ul><li>Mois...
<ul><li>Friction and Shear: </li></ul><ul><li>Each category measured from 1-4 with low score having most limitation </li><...
<ul><li>Tissue ischemia is localized absence of blood  or major reduction of resulting in mechanical obstruction.  The red...
<ul><li>only if there is no necrosis of tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Abnormal reactive hyperemia is an excessive vasodilatatio...
<ul><li>Shearing force: sliding down in bed </li></ul><ul><li>Friction: linens on the bed </li></ul><ul><li>Moisture: diap...
<ul><li>Non blanchable erythema of intact skin. </li></ul><ul><li>Does not resolve in 30 minutes but remains for longer th...
<ul><li>There is partial thickness loss </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure area appears as an abrasion, blister, or shallow crater...
<ul><li>Ulcer involves full-thickness tissue destruction involving subcutaneous tissue, as well as epidermis and dermis </...
<ul><li>Includes all of above changes, plus, extensive damage involving muscle, bone, or supporting structures such as ten...
<ul><li>Emphasis is on prevention !!! </li></ul><ul><li>Autolysis: uses body’s own enzymes and moisture to re-hydrate, sof...
<ul><li>Very selective, with no damage to surrounding skin </li></ul><ul><li>Safe, using the body’s own defense mechanisms...
<ul><li>Not as rapid as surgical debridement </li></ul><ul><li>Wound must be monitored closely for signs of infection </li...
<ul><li>Chemical enzymes are fast acting products that produce slough of necrotic tissue.  Some enzymatic debriders are se...
<ul><li>Fast acting </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal or no damage to healthy tissue with proper application </li></ul>
<ul><li>Expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Requires a prescription </li></ul><ul><li>Application must be performed carefully only...
<ul><li>Uses force to remove necrotic tissue, for example wet-to-dry, whirlpool treatment, or wound irrigation devices </l...
<ul><li>Cost of the actual material is low </li></ul>
<ul><li>May traumatize healthy or healing tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Time consuming </li></ul><ul><li>Can be painful </li></...
<ul><li>Cutting dead tissue away from the wound </li></ul><ul><li>Considered the fastest and most effective type of debrid...
<ul><li>Wounds with a large amount of necrotic tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Used in conjunction with infected tissue </li></ul...
<ul><li>Painful </li></ul><ul><li>Costly, esp if operating room is required </li></ul><ul><li>Requires transport of client...
<ul><li>Maggot larvae placed in wound and ingests the microorganisms </li></ul><ul><li>Used extensively in Europe and is g...
<ul><li>Develop and post a turning schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Use a pressure-reducing devices </li></ul><ul><li>Assess pre...
<ul><li>Proper diet: good protein intake, Vitamin C, supplements between meals if necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Use lift she...
<ul><li>Coordinated effort of the musculoskeletal system to maintain posture, balance, and body alignment during lifting, ...
<ul><li>Refers to the relationship of body parts to one another. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Reduces muscle strain </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains muscle tone </li></ul><ul><li>Contributes to balance </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Directly related to alignment and achieved when: </li></ul><ul><li>COG is low </li></ul><ul><li>Stable (wide) base...
<ul><li>Imaginary vertical line which goes thru center of body </li></ul>
<ul><li>Point at which all of the mass of an object is centered; in the adult, who is in a standing position it is in the ...
<ul><li>Foundation of an object </li></ul><ul><li>To stabilize:  lower your center of gravity and broaden your base of sup...
<ul><li>Force exerted by gravity on the body. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Force that occurs in a direction to oppose movement. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Reduce surface area  </li></ul><ul><li>Passive object produces more friction </li></ul><ul><li>Lift rather than pu...
<ul><li>Use wide base of support </li></ul><ul><li>Keep COG low </li></ul><ul><li>Keep line of gravity passing through bas...
<ul><li>Roll, pull, push objects rather than lift </li></ul><ul><li>Use largest & strongest muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Keep...
<ul><li>Move object on flat level, smooth surface </li></ul>
<ul><li>Bed: Deep breath, neck rolls, knees to chest, pelvic tilts, head raising, leg lifts, foot dorsi and planter flex, ...
<ul><li>Refers to the presence of a blood clot in one of the veins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Risks: prescribed bedrest </li></...
<ul><li>Anti embolic hose: TED are effective in providing support to vasculature while client is in bed </li></ul><ul><li>...
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Nurs1510 immobility and bodymechanics

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Nurs1510 immobility and bodymechanics

  1. 1. Immobility & Body Mechanics
  2. 2. <ul><li>Refers to the ability to engage in activity and free movement, which includes walking, running, sitting, standing, lifting, pushing, pulling and performing ADLs (Activities of Daily Living) </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Is a therapeutic intervention that achieves: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rest for client’s who are exhausted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreases body’s O2 consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces pain and discomfort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To reverse effects of gravity-abdominal hernia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After 48 hr of bed rest-structural changes in joints and shorten muscles occur </li></ul><ul><li>7 days are needed to restore function lost after 1 day of bed rest (Eliopoulos, 1999) </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Metabolic: decrease in BMR r/t decreased energy requirements, which is directly r/t cellular 02 demands </li></ul><ul><li>Results in > % body fat & loss of lean body mass </li></ul><ul><li>Altered carbohydrates ,proteins, fats metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid and electrolyte imbalances </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Orthostatic hypotension due to prolonged bed rest. Drop of 15 mm Hg or more in systolic BP with position change </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease circulating volume, pooling of blood in lower extremities(edema), decreased autonomic response results in decrease in venous return, central venous pressure, stroke volume, increase in HR=>>>cardiac workload,02 demand </li></ul><ul><li>Due to stasis >>> risk thrombus formation </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Increase activity slowly but progressively </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid crossing legs, pressure behind knee </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage antiembolic leg exercises q 2 hours, other isometric exercises </li></ul><ul><li>Ant embolic hose </li></ul><ul><li>Gradually raise client noting BP, HR, assess dizziness/lightheadedness </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Decrease in lung expansion, generalized respiratory muscle weakness, and stasis of secretions </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased hemoglobin levels </li></ul><ul><li>Atelectasis --collapse of alveoli resulting in decrease of 02 / C02 exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Hypostatic pneumonia– inflammation of the lung from stasis or pooling of secretions </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Change of position q 1 – 2 hr which allows elastic recoil property of lungs and clears dependent lung secretions </li></ul><ul><li>Cough and deep breath q 2 hr, incentive spirometry, chest physiotherapy </li></ul><ul><li>Fluids to 3000 ml / 24 h to thin secretions </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Decrease in appetite, peristalsis, constipation </li></ul><ul><li>NI: high fiber foods, fluids to 3000 ml/24hr </li></ul><ul><li>Small frequent foods of choice </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor bowel sounds q shift </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor bowel patterns 24 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Stool softeners daily as ordered </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Muscle atrophy </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of strength and decreased endurance </li></ul><ul><li>Joint contractures </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased stability or balance </li></ul><ul><li>Disuse osteoporosis, a disorder characterized by bone reabsorption-results from impaired calcium metabolism </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Frequent ROM: active, passive, active assist q 4 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Develop an individualized progressive exercise program </li></ul><ul><li>Isometric and isotonic exercises q 4 hours </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Urine formed by the kidney must enter the bladder against gravity due to recumbent position </li></ul><ul><li>Ureters insufficient to overcome gravity, renal pelvis may fill with urine-urinary stasis which increases risk for UTI & renal calculi </li></ul><ul><li>Renal calculi-calcium stones lodged in in renal pelvis and pass through ureters </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Position change q 1-2 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Position 30 degrees of higher to enhance gravitational forces required for normal urine flow through kidney, ureters, bladder </li></ul><ul><li>I & O q 8 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Fluids to 3000 ml 24 hours </li></ul><ul><li>RD for diet plan r/t calcium intake </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Increase isolation, passive behavior, changes in sleep/wake cycles, stressors, sensory deprivation/overload </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease in self-identity, self-esteem, coping strategies </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Anticipate changes-provide routine and informal socialization—interact with staff q 1-2 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Place in room with others </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage family and friends to visit-space </li></ul><ul><li>Activity and recreational consult </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule nursing cares from 10pm-7am to minimize interruptions </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Increase in dependence </li></ul><ul><li>Regression in development </li></ul><ul><li>NI: care should stimulate client mentally, focus on activities that promote cognitive awareness, allow client to make care decisions, allow to be as independent as condition permits </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Previously called: a decubitus ulcer </li></ul><ul><li>A pressure sore </li></ul><ul><li>A pressure ulcer </li></ul><ul><li>A bedsore </li></ul><ul><li>is a wound caused by unrelieved pressure that damages underlying tissue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jury still out: caused by external pressure transmitted inward or from the bone and proceeds outward </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Pressure ulcers is a wound caused by unrelieved pressure that damages underlying tissue. </li></ul><ul><li>The pressure interferes with the tissue blood supply, leading to vascular compromise, tissue anoxia, and cell death </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to be located over bony prominences: *elbows, posterior calf, *sacrum/coccyx ischial tuberosities, trochanter, lateral malleous, *heel, lateral edge of foot also: ears, occiput, great toe region </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>AHCPR: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research establish guidelines to identify at-risk individuals needing prevention and the specific factors placing them at risk </li></ul><ul><li>Risk assessment tool: Braden Scale or Norton Scale are most commonly used. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Assesses sensory perception: ability to respond meaningfully to pressure-related discomfort </li></ul><ul><li>Moisture: degree to which skin is exposed to moisture </li></ul><ul><li>Activity: degree of physical activity </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility: ability to change and control body position </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition: usual intake pattern </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Friction and Shear: </li></ul><ul><li>Each category measured from 1-4 with low score having most limitation </li></ul><ul><li>Overall score: Maximum of 23, little or no risk A score of 16 or < indicates ‘at risk” A score of 9 or < indicates ‘high risk” </li></ul><ul><li>Implement preventive measures for ‘at risk’ and ‘high risk’ clients </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Tissue ischemia is localized absence of blood or major reduction of resulting in mechanical obstruction. The reduction of blood floe caused blanching (to become pale-blotchy) </li></ul><ul><li>When obstruction of blood flow is removed normally there will be reactive hyperemia, the blood vessels dilate and skin is red </li></ul><ul><li>Will last for less than 1 hr and is effective </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>only if there is no necrosis of tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Abnormal reactive hyperemia is an excessive vasodilatation and induration in response to pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>Skin appears bright pink and there is localized edema under the skin—may last up to 2 weeks after pressure is removed </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Shearing force: sliding down in bed </li></ul><ul><li>Friction: linens on the bed </li></ul><ul><li>Moisture: diaphoresis urine, wounds, feces </li></ul><ul><li>Poor nutrition: neg nitrogen balance </li></ul><ul><li>Anemia: < 02 carrying capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Obesity: poor vascular supply, weight </li></ul><ul><li>Age: epidermis thins with age, < blood flow </li></ul><ul><li>LOC: drowsy, sedated, comatose=1position </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Non blanchable erythema of intact skin. </li></ul><ul><li>Does not resolve in 30 minutes but remains for longer than 2 hours after pressure is relieved </li></ul><ul><li>This occurs as an acute inflammatory response involving the epidermis </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>There is partial thickness loss </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure area appears as an abrasion, blister, or shallow crater surrounded by erythema and induration </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Ulcer involves full-thickness tissue destruction involving subcutaneous tissue, as well as epidermis and dermis </li></ul><ul><li>The muscle layer is in tact </li></ul><ul><li>Requires Wound Nurse consult, may require surgical intervention </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Includes all of above changes, plus, extensive damage involving muscle, bone, or supporting structures such as tendons or joint capsule </li></ul><ul><li>Requires Wound Nurse consult and surgical intervention </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Emphasis is on prevention !!! </li></ul><ul><li>Autolysis: uses body’s own enzymes and moisture to re-hydrate, soften and liquefy necrotic tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Use occlusive or semi-occlusive dressings: hydrocolloids, hydrogels, transparent films </li></ul><ul><li>Used with wounds with little drainage and uninfected </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Very selective, with no damage to surrounding skin </li></ul><ul><li>Safe, using the body’s own defense mechanisms to clean the wound of necrotic tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Effective, versatile and easy to perform </li></ul><ul><li>Little or no pain for the client </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Not as rapid as surgical debridement </li></ul><ul><li>Wound must be monitored closely for signs of infection </li></ul><ul><li>May promote anaerobic growth if an occlusive hydrocolloidal is used </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Chemical enzymes are fast acting products that produce slough of necrotic tissue. Some enzymatic debriders are selective, while some are not. </li></ul><ul><li>Best uses: on any wound with a large amount of necrotic tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Escar formation </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Fast acting </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal or no damage to healthy tissue with proper application </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Requires a prescription </li></ul><ul><li>Application must be performed carefully only to necrotic tissue </li></ul><ul><li>May require secondary dressing </li></ul><ul><li>Inflammation or discomfort may occur </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Uses force to remove necrotic tissue, for example wet-to-dry, whirlpool treatment, or wound irrigation devices </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>Cost of the actual material is low </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>May traumatize healthy or healing tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Time consuming </li></ul><ul><li>Can be painful </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrotherapy can cause tissue maceration and water borne pathogens may cause contamination or infection </li></ul><ul><li>Disinfecting additives may harm health tissues </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>Cutting dead tissue away from the wound </li></ul><ul><li>Considered the fastest and most effective type of debridement </li></ul><ul><li>Can be done at bedside, surgical suite, or in an outpatient setting </li></ul><ul><li>Should be considered when infection such as cellulitis or sepsis suspected </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>Wounds with a large amount of necrotic tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Used in conjunction with infected tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Fast and selective </li></ul><ul><li>Cant be extremely effective </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>Painful </li></ul><ul><li>Costly, esp if operating room is required </li></ul><ul><li>Requires transport of client to OR </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>Maggot larvae placed in wound and ingests the microorganisms </li></ul><ul><li>Used extensively in Europe and is gaining popularity in the US </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>Develop and post a turning schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Use a pressure-reducing devices </li></ul><ul><li>Assess pressure points daily </li></ul><ul><li>After urinating or stooling cleanse, rinse, dry </li></ul><ul><li>Establish a bowel/bladder program </li></ul><ul><li>barrier </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor intake and output q 8 hr </li></ul><ul><li>Use trapeze and foot boards </li></ul><ul><li>Protect friction-prone areas </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>Proper diet: good protein intake, Vitamin C, supplements between meals if necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Use lift sheets, hoyer lift, smooth roller </li></ul><ul><li>Personal hygiene measures—keep clean dry and linens wrinkle free. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid use of alkaline and deodorant soaps due to dryness. Use emollients to preserve natural state of skin moisture </li></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>Coordinated effort of the musculoskeletal system to maintain posture, balance, and body alignment during lifting, bending, etc. </li></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>Refers to the relationship of body parts to one another. </li></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>Reduces muscle strain </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains muscle tone </li></ul><ul><li>Contributes to balance </li></ul><ul><li>Contributes to “system” functioning </li></ul>
  47. 47. <ul><li>Directly related to alignment and achieved when: </li></ul><ul><li>COG is low </li></ul><ul><li>Stable (wide) base of support </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical line from COG thru base of support </li></ul>
  48. 48. <ul><li>Imaginary vertical line which goes thru center of body </li></ul>
  49. 49. <ul><li>Point at which all of the mass of an object is centered; in the adult, who is in a standing position it is in the pelvis; </li></ul>
  50. 50. <ul><li>Foundation of an object </li></ul><ul><li>To stabilize: lower your center of gravity and broaden your base of support </li></ul>
  51. 51. <ul><li>Force exerted by gravity on the body. </li></ul>
  52. 52. <ul><li>Force that occurs in a direction to oppose movement. </li></ul>
  53. 53. <ul><li>Reduce surface area </li></ul><ul><li>Passive object produces more friction </li></ul><ul><li>Lift rather than pull object </li></ul>
  54. 54. <ul><li>Use wide base of support </li></ul><ul><li>Keep COG low </li></ul><ul><li>Keep line of gravity passing through base of support </li></ul><ul><li>Face direction of movement when possible </li></ul>
  55. 55. <ul><li>Roll, pull, push objects rather than lift </li></ul><ul><li>Use largest & strongest muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Keep object close to COG </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce area of contact </li></ul>
  56. 56. <ul><li>Move object on flat level, smooth surface </li></ul>
  57. 57. <ul><li>Bed: Deep breath, neck rolls, knees to chest, pelvic tilts, head raising, leg lifts, foot dorsi and planter flex, ankle rotations, rolling, arms over head, side to side, palms up and rotate </li></ul><ul><li>Chair: deep breathing, head rolls, knee to chest, head to knees, shoulder rolls, hands on head, leg lifts, ankle rotation, push down of legs, lean forward, lift up. </li></ul><ul><li>Use Thera bands handball </li></ul>
  58. 58. <ul><li>Refers to the presence of a blood clot in one of the veins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Risks: prescribed bedrest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General anesthesia for client’s > 40 years of age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leg trauma resulting in immobilization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Previous venous insufficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obesity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral contraceptives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Malignancy </li></ul></ul>
  59. 59. <ul><li>Anti embolic hose: TED are effective in providing support to vasculature while client is in bed </li></ul><ul><li>Compression Hose: JOBST are effective in providing support to vasculature while client is ambulatory—ALWAYS apply BEFORE client gets out of bed in the AM. Often removed at HS.` </li></ul>

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