Ch 4


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Ch 4

  2. 2. VERBAL COMMUNICATION Verbal means by using words and languages, both written and oral. The effectiveness of verbal communication depends on a person’s skill in the use of language i.e. rich vocabulary, command of a variety of sentence structures, clarity in thinking, and focus on the audience.
  3. 3. Verbal Communication Skills: Skills of verbal communication are writing and speaking, reading and listening. Formal education focuses on writing and reading. However a manager needs the skill of speaking, and even more, the skill of listening.
  4. 4.  Language is a system of symbols which humans use to communicate and it is more capable of expressing complex and difficult concepts. So it can be used for a large variety of human ideas and emotions. Written communication can greatly extend the field and powers of oral communication. Written communication have to wait for the attention of receiver while speech requires immediate attention.
  5. 5. Characteristics of oral communication & written communication:1. Speed2. Record3. Precision & accuracy4. Length5. Expense6. Body language7. Feedback
  6. 6. 1) Speed: Written communication is slower as compared to oral communication to convey as well as to receive the message.2) Record: Written communication serves as a record and can be used for future reference. It is a documentary proof as well as legal evidence. Oral communication may be taped which is authenticity of the voice can be questioned. In short, it is not reliable.
  7. 7. 3) Precision & accuracy: Written communication is more precise and accurate than oral communication. Precise words are used in the written communication. The writer has time to look for suitable words phrases in the written communication. Accuracy is necessary in written communication because the receiver is not present to ask for clarification. But in oral communication precision and accuracy is not possible because receiver needs immediate feedback. Oral communication has support of gestures,
  8. 8. 4) Length: A written message is always shorter than an oral communication. The situation for oral communication requires some preliminary and closing remarks, while in case of written messages there are standard formats for opening and closing which can keep the message short.
  9. 9. 5) Expense: Written communication requires stationery, preparation and transmission. In oral communication both the parties should be present, and getting together costs money. Modern technology like teleconferencing, videoconferencing has been used in oral communication.
  10. 10. 6) Body language: Oral communication is supported by the speaker’s body language and paralanguage. The speaker can control the style of delivery, giving meaning to words, facial expressions, gestures etc. In written communication is separated from the writer’s bodily presence and is more in the control of the reader.
  11. 11. 7) Feedback : In oral commn allows immediate feedback and listener’s face gives some feedback and the speaker can modify the message on the spot. In written communication, the feedback is delayed, the reader’s facial expressions cannot be seen by the writer. The reader’s response is known to the writer only when reader replies.
  12. 12. NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION Non-verbal communication includes gestures, postures, facial expressions, graphics etc. it is independent from words. An understanding of the role of non-verbal symbols in communication helps a person to improve oral and written presentation by using the methods and by gaining control over body language.
  14. 14. NON-VERBAL SYMBOLS IN WRITTENCOMMUNICATION The appearance and feel of a document are non-verbal symbols that convey impressions about the status of the sender.1. Appearance2. Color3. Pictures4. Diagrams, graphs and charts5. Maps6. Signs & signals7. Auditory symbols
  15. 15. BODY LANGUAGE Body language means the changes that occur in the body position and movements that show what the person is feeling or thinking.
  16. 16. 1) Appearance: Two factors contribute to appearance i.e. grooming and personal hygiene.2) Clothing & accessories:3) Posture: The way one hold, the way we stand or sit. Stiff posture shows tension; comfortably leaning back conveys a relaxed mood; eagerly leaning forward shows the listener’s interest.4) Facial expression: In oral communication, facial expressions change continuously and are closely interpreted and responded to by the other
  17. 17. 5) Smile6) Eye-contact: Eye movements are also one part of the facial behavior. The comfort level for eye-contact is three seconds; if eye-contact is held longer than three seconds, it cause discomfort to the other person. Avoiding eye-contact indicates that the speaker is lying and it also indicates the lack of confidence.
  18. 18. 7) Gestures: Gestures are movements of hands/head/body.8) Energy:9) Space:10) Time:
  20. 20. PARALANGUAGE The non-verbal aspects of the spoken words are known as paralanguage. It includes the quality of voice, the way we use our voice, uttering words.
  21. 21. 1) Pronunciation:2) Accent: Pronounces the sounds of the language.3) Tone: Quality of voice.4) Volume: Loudness or softness which can be adjusted to the number of persons.5) Pitch: Pitch is the high or low note on the scale. A frightened and stressed person usually speaks in a high pitched voice.
  22. 22. 6) Speed: Speed is an indicative factor of speech. Rapid speech indicates excitement and when we telling the story, we reduce speed to explain a difficult idea.7) Intonation: Intonation is the sound pattern of sentences. E.g. learning new language. It is way a speaker’s voice rises and falls.
  23. 23. 8) Stress: A particular word in a sentences can change the meaning and implication. e.g. were you there last night?9) Vocal fillers: Vocal fillers are sounds like “Ah” “Er-er”.10) Silence: