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Hundred years war


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Hundred years war

  1. 1. Chapter 10: Europe in the Middle Ages: A.D. 1000-1500 The Hundred Years War & Political Events
  2. 2. Intro to the War• Hundred Years War: Name Given to a Series of Wars Fought Between England and France from 1337-1453• Fought Primarily on French Soil• Transition out of the Middle Ages• Divided into three Major Wars
  3. 3. Edwardian War: 1337-1360* Edward III invades France to Claim His Right to The Throne• Battle of Crecy (1346): First major battle of the Edwardian War• English Longbow Superior to French Crossbow and Heavily Armored French Calvary• Introduction of the Cannon
  4. 4. Edwardian War..cont• Edward of Wales: Son of Edward III, known as the Black Prince• The Black Prince captured the French king John II• Peace of Bretigny: Treaty that ended the Edwardian War in 1360• The French were forced to cede all of the southwestern region of Aquitaine
  5. 5. Caroline War: 1364-1380* Charles V of France Regains lost French Territory• Charles Creates a Professional Standing Army in France• Charles Captures All English Possessions In France Except for a Few Cities on the Coast
  6. 6. Caroline War..cont• The French also benefited from an outside ally• Castile: Spanish kingdom that pledged support to the French during the Caroline War• The French & Castlian navies were able to defeat the English navy and take control of the English Channel in 1377
  7. 7. Lancastrian War: 1397-1435* England Invades France once More Under Henry V• Battle of Agincourt (October 1415): First major battle of the Lancastrian War, English massacre French• Reinforces Fact that Medieval Warfare is Outdated
  8. 8. Lancastrian War cont…• English Success at Agincourt Leaves France virtually Defenseless• 1420 Paris Falls to English who are aided by Philip the Good• Treaty of Troyes: End of Hostilities through the Marriage of Catherine and Henry V• Establishes Henry’s Offspring as Heir Apparent in France
  9. 9. Lancastrian War cont…• Dauphin- Title Given to Eldest Son of French Kings (Heir to French Throne)• Most of France rejects Treaty of Troyes, and Supports French Dauphin Charles VII• England Reacts By Invading Middle France
  10. 10. Lancastrian War cont…• Joan of Arc: Peasant Girl inspired by God to Save France & lift the English Siege on Orleans• Leads Charles VII to Reims Where He is Officially Crowned King of France
  11. 11. Lancastrian War cont…• 1430 Joan is Captured and Put on Trial for Heresy• Executed in 1431• Inspiration for French Nationalism• Nationalism: Feeling of Loyalty to One’s own Land and People
  12. 12. Effects of the Hundred Years War• Kingdoms Develop into Nation States• End of Medieval Warfare• Monarchs Replace Feudal Kings – Broader Taxing Power – Professional Standing Armies – Professional Officials replace Nobility – Rise in the Power of the Middle Class
  13. 13. Monarchs Become Stronger• 1453 All of France Free From English Except Port City of Calais• Charles VII Initiates Two Taxes 1.Taille- tax on land 2.Gabelle- tax on salt
  14. 14. France• Louis XI:Son of Charles VII & heir to French throne, known as the Spider King• Strengthens Absolute monarchy in France• Expands French Territory• Promotes Industry and Trade
  15. 15. England• War of the Roses: (1455-1485) Series of dynastic civil wars fought in England• House of Lancaster »Vs. House of York
  16. 16. War of the Roses..cont• Battle of Bosworth Field: Ends the War of the Roses• Marks the beginning of the Tudor Dynasty• Henry VII: First Tudor King of England
  17. 17. Spain• Reconquista: Campaign by Christians to retake Spain from the Muslims• Isabella: Princess who was the heir to the Castilian throne• Ferdinand: Prince who was the heir to the Aragon throne
  18. 18. Spain• Granada: Stronghold of Moorish (Muslim) Spain• The Kingdom Falls to Isabella and Ferdinand in 1492• The Spanish Inquisition: Created to deal w/the problem of “insincere converts”
  19. 19. Spain• Inquisition has positive and negative effects• Unites Spain Under one Religion• Expulsion of Muslims and Jews Hurts the Spanish Economy (Trade)
  20. 20. Central & Eastern Europe• Habsburgs: Swiss/Austrian royal family that inherited the leadership of the Holy Roman Empire in 15 th Century
  21. 21. Central & Eastern Europe..cont• Fredrick III: First Habsburg to rule as Holy Roman Emperor• Habsburg rule the Holy Roman Empire until its end in the 17th Century
  22. 22. Central & Eastern Europe..cont• Ivan III: Grand Prince of Moscow; overthrows the Golden Horde in Russia in 1480• AKA “Ivan the Great”
  23. 23. Central & Eastern Europe..cont• Sudebnik: A legal code established by Ivan III that served as the basis of centralizing power in Russia