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Age of faith

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Reforms in the Church

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Age of faith

  1. 1. Chapter 10: Europe in theMiddle Ages: A.D. 1000-1500 Reforms in the Age of Faith
  2. 2. Religious Reforms
  3. 3. Religious Reforms!During the Early Middle Ages, the Church had acted as the preserver of civilization in western Europe
  4. 4. Religious Reforms!During the Early Middle Ages, the Church had acted as the preserver of civilization in western Europe!However, the Viking raids had plundered many monasteries, thus a decline in education
  5. 5. Religious Reforms!During the Early Middle Ages, the Church had acted as the preserver of civilization in western Europe!However, the Viking raids had plundered many monasteries, thus a decline in education!The Church also became a part of the feudal system & many officials became wealthy land owners
  6. 6. Religious Reforms..cont
  7. 7. Religious Reforms..cont! One of the first aspects of the Christian Church that underwent change was in the monasteries
  8. 8. Religious Reforms..cont! One of the first aspects of the Christian Church that underwent change was in the monasteries!Cluny: Monastery founded in France by the Duke of Aquitane
  9. 9. Religious Reforms..cont! One of the first aspects of the Christian Church that underwent change was in the monasteries!Cluny: Monastery founded in France by the Duke of Aquitane!Cluny, unlike many monasteries established by Cluny nobles, was subject only to the pope. acted as the headquarters
  10. 10. Religious Reform..cont
  11. 11. Religious Reform..cont! For some monks & nuns, the Benedictine rule no longer seemed strict enough for monastic life
  12. 12. Religious Reform..cont! For some monks & nuns, the Benedictine rule no longer seemed strict enough for monastic life! By 1000 A.D., new monastic orders formed that lived by even stricter rules
  13. 13. Religious Reform..cont! For some monks & nuns, the Benedictine rule no longer seemed strict enough for monastic life! By 1000 A.D., new monastic orders formed that lived by even stricter rules!Cistercians: Monastic order founded in 1098, vowed to only build their monasteries in the wilderness
  14. 14. Religious Reform..cont
  15. 15. Religious Reform..cont! Eventually, religious reformers hoped to purify the Church by freeing it from the control of nobles.
  16. 16. Religious Reform..cont! Eventually, religious reformers hoped to purify the Church by freeing it from the control of nobles.!Cardinals: Leadingbishops who would beresponsible for choosingthe new pope
  17. 17. Religious Reform..cont! Eventually, religious reformers hoped to purify the Church by freeing it from the control of nobles.!Cardinals: Leadingbishops who would beresponsible for choosingthe new pope!This took some power away from nobles and even kings & emperors
  18. 18. Religious reforms..cont
  19. 19. Religious reforms..cont! Reformers were also concerned with abolishing three conditions that were widespread in the Church in the Early Middle Ages
  20. 20. Religious reforms..cont! Reformers were also concerned with abolishing three conditions that were widespread in the Church in the Early Middle Ages!1. The Marriage of Priests
  21. 21. Religious reforms..cont! Reformers were also concerned with abolishing three conditions that were widespread in the Church in the Early Middle Ages!1. The Marriage of Priests!2. Simony: The buying & selling of Church offices
  22. 22. Religious reforms..cont! Reformers were also concerned with abolishing three conditions that were widespread in the Church in the Early Middle Ages!1. The Marriage of Priests!2. Simony: The buying & selling of Church offices!3. Lay Investiture: Receiving land from a noble whose not a church official
  23. 23. Religious Reform..cont
  24. 24. Religious Reform..cont!Gregory VII: Became Pope in 1073
  25. 25. Religious Reform..cont!Gregory VII: Became Pope in 1073!As Pope, Gregory ordered all married priests to abandon their wives & children
  26. 26. Religious Reform..cont!Gregory VII: Became Pope in 1073!As Pope, Gregory ordered all married priests to abandon their wives & children!In 1075, he banned lay investiture
  27. 27. Religious Reform..cont
  28. 28. Religious Reform..cont!Henry IV: German king who challenged Gregory VII
  29. 29. Religious Reform..cont!Henry IV: German king who challenged Gregory VII! Because of his actions, Pope Gregory VII had Henry IV excommunicated
  30. 30. Religious Reform..cont!Henry IV: German king who challenged Gregory VII! Because of his actions, Pope Gregory VII had Henry IV excommunicated!Canossa: Italian town where Henry IV went to seek the Pope’s forgiveness
  31. 31. Religious Reform..cont!Henry IV: German king who challenged Gregory VII! Because of his actions, Pope Gregory VII had Henry IV excommunicated!Canossa: Italian town where Henry IV went to seek the Pope’s forgiveness!This gave the Pope the upper-hand
  32. 32. Religious Reform..cont
  33. 33. Religious Reform..cont!Concordat of Worms: An agreement between the Church & the Holy Roman Empire that stated the Church alone would grant a bishop his office
  34. 34. Religious Reform..cont!Concordat of Worms: An agreement between the Church & the Holy Roman Empire that stated the Church alone would grant a bishop his office!However, the emperor kept the power to grant the bishop lands that went with his office
  35. 35. Religious Reform..cont
  36. 36. Religious Reform..cont!Interdict: Stated no church ceremonies could be performed in an offending ruler’s lands
  37. 37. Religious Reform..cont!Interdict: Stated no church ceremonies could be performed in an offending ruler’s lands!Curia: The Pope’s advisory staff
  38. 38. Religious Reform..cont!Interdict: Stated no church ceremonies could be performed in an offending ruler’s lands!Curia: The Pope’s advisory staff!Legates: Papal diplomats who dealt with Bishops & Kings
  39. 39. Religious Reform..cont
  40. 40. Religious Reform..cont!Canon Law: The law of the Church
  41. 41. Religious Reform..cont!Canon Law: The law of the Church!Tithe: A yearly tax the church collected from individuals. One-tenth of a person’s yearly income
  42. 42. Religious Reform..cont!Canon Law: The law of the Church!Tithe: A yearly tax the church collected from individuals. One-tenth of a person’s yearly income! According to canon law, Bishops were to use at least one fourth of all tithes to care for the sick & poor
  43. 43. Religious Reform..cont!Canon Law: The law of the Church!Tithe: A yearly tax the church collected from individuals. One-tenth of a person’s yearly income! According to canon law, Bishops were to use at least one fourth of all tithes to care for the sick & poor! Most hospitals & orphanages were ran by the Church
  44. 44. Religious Reform..cont
  45. 45. Religious Reform..cont!The Inquisition: Church organization of experts whose job was to find & judge heretics
  46. 46. Religious Reform..cont!The Inquisition: Church organization of experts whose job was to find & judge heretics!A person who was suspected of heresy might be held & questioned for weeks
  47. 47. Religious Reform..cont!The Inquisition: Church organization of experts whose job was to find & judge heretics!A person who was suspected of heresy might be held & questioned for weeks!Torture was a common tool in extracting a confession
  48. 48. Religious Reform..cont
  49. 49. Religious Reform..cont!Friars: Wandering preachers who traveled place to place to carry the Church’s ideas more widely
  50. 50. Religious Reform..cont!Friars: Wandering preachers who traveled place to place to carry the Church’s ideas more widely!A major goal of the friars was to win back heretics to the Church
  51. 51. Religious Reform..cont!Friars: Wandering preachers who traveled place to place to carry the Church’s ideas more widely!A major goal of the friars was to win back heretics to the Church!Like monks, friars took vows of chastity, poverty, & obedience. Unlike monks they lived among the poor in towns
  52. 52. Religious Reform..cont
  53. 53. Religious Reform..cont!Dominicans: The first order of friars
  54. 54. Religious Reform..cont!Dominicans: The first order of friars!Named after Dominic, a Spanish-priest
  55. 55. Religious Reform..cont!Dominicans: The first order of friars!Named after Dominic, a Spanish-priest!The Dominicans emphasized learning
  56. 56. Religious Reform..cont!Dominicans: The first order of friars!Named after Dominic, a Spanish-priest!The Dominicans emphasized learning!Franciscans: Second largest friar order
  57. 57. Religious Reform..cont!Dominicans: The first order of friars!Named after Dominic, a Spanish-priest!The Dominicans emphasized learning!Franciscans: Second largest friar order!Francis of Assisi: Founded the order
  58. 58. Religious Reforms..cont!Hildegard of Bingin:German Abbess who isconsidered one of theimportant scholars ofthe Catholic Church
  59. 59. Religious Reform
  60. 60. Religious Reform!While the friars lived in poverty, evidence of the Church’s wealth could be seen everywhere during the High Middle Ages
  61. 61. Religious Reform!While the friars lived in poverty, evidence of the Church’s wealth could be seen everywhere during the High Middle Ages!Massive churches were being built to showcase the wealth & stature of the Church in Europe
  62. 62. Religious Reform!While the friars lived in poverty, evidence of the Church’s wealth could be seen everywhere during the High Middle Ages!Massive churches were being built to showcase the wealth & stature of the Church in Europe!Two main style of architecture began to emerge
  63. 63. Religious Reform..cont
  64. 64. Religious Reform..cont!Romanesque: The first major architecture style in which churches & cathedrals were being built in
  65. 65. Religious Reform..cont!Romanesque: The first major architecture style in which churches & cathedrals were being built in! There was an emphasis placed on arches
  66. 66. Religious Reform..cont!Romanesque: The first major architecture style in which churches & cathedrals were being built in! There was an emphasis placed on arches! A heavy roof would press down on thick walls & two rows of thick pillars within the church
  67. 67. Religious Reform..cont!Romanesque: The first major architecture style in which churches & cathedrals were being built in! There was an emphasis placed on arches! A heavy roof would press down on thick walls & two rows of thick pillars within the church! Walls were painted in brilliant colors
  68. 68. Religious Reforms..cont
  69. 69. Religious Reforms..cont!Gothic: Style ofarchitecture developedby Suger
  70. 70. Religious Reforms..cont!Gothic: Style ofarchitecture developedby Suger!Suger wanted the design of the church to extend upward
  71. 71. Religious Reforms..cont!Gothic: Style ofarchitecture developedby Suger!Suger wanted the design of the church to extend upward!He wanted light to stream in from all sides
  72. 72. Religious Reforms..cont!Gothic: Style ofarchitecture developedby Suger!Suger wanted the design of the church to extend upward!He wanted light to stream in from all sides!This style was much more difficult to build
  73. 73. 3 Main Features of a Gothic Church
  74. 74. 3 Main Features of a Gothic Church1. Pointed, ribbed vaults: Narrow bands of stone that ran from the roof to the columns below & helped support the roof’s weight
  75. 75. 3 Main Features of a Gothic Church1. Pointed, ribbed vaults: Narrow bands of stone that ran from the roof to the columns below & helped support the roof’s weight! The sections of walls between the pillars carried no weight & became frames for huge stained-glass windows
  76. 76. Religious Reform…cont
  77. 77. Religious Reform…cont!2. Flying Buttresses:Stone roofs pushed outward & downwardfrom the building
  78. 78. Religious Reform…cont!2. Flying Buttresses: Stone roofs pushed outward & downward from the building!These braces were beautifully carved
  79. 79. Religious Reform…cont!2. Flying Buttresses: Stone roofs pushed outward & downward from the building!These braces were beautifully carved!These braces slanted up against the outside walls of the church or cathedral
  80. 80. Religious Reform..cont!3. Pointed Arches: To emphasize the height of a Gothic church, all arches rose to points!The highest arch was the vaulted ceiling where all lines joined as pointing to heaven

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