CHAPTER 3
The Voyage Through
the Life Span
Learning Outcomes
• Explain prenatal development and the role that
sex hormones play.
• Explain the physical, cognitive, m...
Learning Outcomes
• Explain the physical, cognitive, moral, social and
emotional development of adolescents.
• Explain the...
Truth or Fiction?
Your heart started beating when you were only
one-fifth of an inch long and weighed a fraction
of an ou...
Truth or Fiction?
The architect Frank Lloyd Wright designed New
York’s innovative spiral-shaped Guggenheim
Museum when he...
Prenatal DevelopmentPrenatal Development
Prenatal Development
• Germinal Stage
– Conception through implantation
– Zygote divides and becomes implanted in the
uter...
Prenatal Development
• Embryonic Stage
– Implantation until about 8th
week
– Major organ systems are formed
– Genetic code...
Prenatal Development
• Embryonic Stage
– Embryo is suspended in amniotic sac
• Nutrients and wastes are exchanged with
mot...
Prenatal Development
• Fetal Stage
– Beginning of third month until birth
– Characterized by maturation and gains in size
ChildhoodChildhood
Physical Development
• Reflexes
– Simple, unlearned, stereotypical responses
elicited by specific stimuli
• Rooting and su...
Motor Development
Physical Development
• Perceptual Development
– Within days, infant can track moving light
– At 2-months prefer human face...
VIDEO: Newborns and Infants: Sensation and
Perception
Two-Month-Olds’ Preferences for Visual Stimuli
Physical Development
• Perceptual Development
– Newborns hear normally; prefer mother’s voice
• Show no preference for fat...
Cognitive Development
• The way in which children mentally represent and
think about the world
– Jean Piaget – Cognitive-d...
Piaget’s Cognitive-Development Theory
• Schema
– “Mental structure” in organizing knowledge
• Assimilation
– Respond to ne...
Stages of Cognitive-Development Theory
• Sensorimotor Stage (0-2 years old)
– Coordination of sensory information and moto...
VIDEO: Sensorimotor Stage
Stages of Cognitive-Development Theory
• Preoperational Stage (2-7 years old)
– Use words and symbols to represent objects...
VIDEO: Preoperational Stage
Stages of Cognitive-Development Theory
• Concrete Operational Stage
– Beginning of capacity for adult logic
– Decentration...
VIDEO: Piaget’s Concrete Operational Stage
Evaluation of Piaget’s Theory
• Piaget tended to underestimate children’s abilities
• Egocentrism and conservation appear ...
Lev Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory
• Continuous theory focused on influence of
culture and children’s interactions with e...
Lawrence Kohlberg’s
Theory of Moral Development
• Use of “moral dilemma” story to explore
reasoning of right and wrong
• S...
Lawrence Kohlberg’s
Theory of Moral Development
• Preconventional Level
– Base judgment on consequences of behavior
• Stag...
Lawrence Kohlberg’s
Theory of Moral Development
• Conventional Level
– Base judgment on conformity to conventional
standar...
Lawrence Kohlberg’s
Theory of Moral Development
• Postconventional Level
– Base judgment on need to maintain social
order ...
Evaluation of Kohlberg’s
Theory of Moral Development
• Research suggests moral reasoning does follow
a sequence
• Most peo...
Social and Emotional Development
• Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Development
– Eight stages that represent life crises
• Tru...
18 m-3yr18 m-3yr
3-63-6
65+65+
30-6530-65
21-3021-30
12-2112-21
6-126-12
AgesAges
0-18m0-18m
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill
Companies, Inc.
Socioemotional Development
• Erik Erikson (1902-1994)
• Theory emphasizes lifelong ...
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill
Companies, Inc.
Erikson’s Theory
First 4 Stages: Childhood
1. Trust versus mistrust
2. Autonomy ver...
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill
Companies, Inc.
Erikson’s Theory
Attachment
• Emotional tie between one animal/person and
another specific individual
– Mary Salter Ainsworth
• Behavior th...
Attachment
• Strange Situation
– Method to assess infants’ response to
separations and reunions with caregivers and
a stra...
Securely Attached babies: happier, more sociable, more
cooperative, have longer attention spans, less impulsive,
liked bet...
Stages of Attachment
Initial-preattachment phase (0-3 m)
- Indiscriminant; but show no preference
Attachment-in-the-maki...
Theoretical Views of Attachment
• Behaviorists viewed attachment as learned
behavior based on caregiver’s attention
• Harr...
Theoretical Views of Attachment
• Konrad Lorenz
– Ethologist – attachment is an instinct
– Critical period
– Imprinting
• ...
Parenting Styles
• Diana Baumrind’s styles of parenting
– Connection between parental behavior and
development of instrume...
Parenting Styles
• Diana Baumrind’s styles of parenting
– Authoritative
– Authoritarian
– Permissive
– Uninvolved
Outcomes from Parenting Styles
• Authoritative
– greatest self-reliance, self esteem, social
competence, achievement motiv...
Outcomes from Parenting Styles
• Permissive
– less mature, often impulsive, moody,
aggressive
• Uninvolved
– more likely t...
AdolescenceAdolescence
Physical Development
• Growth spurt
– last for 2-3 years. Grow 8-12 inches.
• Puberty
– Begins with appearance of secondar...
Cognitive Development
• Piaget’s Formal Operations Stage
– Classification, logical thought, ability to
hypothesis
– Abstra...
• imaginary audience
– the belief that other people are as concerned
with our thoughts and behaviors as we are
• personal ...
VIDEO: Abstraction and Hypothetical Propositions
Moral Reasoning
• Kohlberg’s Postconventional Level
– Many people do not reach this level
– Judgment is based on person’s ...
Sex Differences and Moral Reasoning
• Kohlberg’s theory shows higher levels of moral
reasoning in boys
• Carol Gilligan ar...
Social and Emotional Development
• “Storm and stress” or calm and joyous?
• Independence is the challenge of adolescence
•...
AdulthoodAdulthood
Physical Development
• Young adulthood
– Usually height of physical prowess
• Middle adulthood
– Gradual physical decline
...
Cognitive Development
• Creativity can be evidenced throughout lifetime
• Memory functioning declines with age
– Crystalli...
• crystallized intelligence
– one’s lifetime of intellectual achievement, as
shown largely through vocabulary and
knowledg...
Alzheimer’s Disease
• Progressive form of mental deterioration
– Affects 1% of people at age 60; 50% past
age 85
– It is a...
Social and Emotional Development
• Great variety based on cultural expectations
and individual behavior patterns
• Trends
...
Young Adulthood
• Pursuit of ‘Dream’
– Blueprint for life
Erikson’s Psychosocial Development
• Young adulthood
– Intimacy versus Isolation
• Middle adulthood
– Generativity versus ...
Psychology Chapter 3
Psychology Chapter 3
Psychology Chapter 3
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  • Truth or Fiction? Your heart started beating when you were only one-fifth of an inch long and weighed a fraction of an ounce. True.
    Truth or Fiction? Prior to 6 months or so of age, “out of sight” is literally “out of mind.” True.
    Go to 4ltrpress.cengage.com/psych for an interactive version of this Truth or Fiction feature.
  • Truth or Fiction? The architect Frank Lloyd Wright designed New York’s innovative spiral-shaped Guggenheim Museum when he was 65 years old. False.
    Truth or Fiction? Alzheimer’s disease is a normal part of aging. False.
    Go to 4ltrpress.cengage.com/psych for an interactive version of this Truth or Fiction feature.
  • LO1 Explain prenatal development and the role that sex hormones play
  • zygote – a fertilized ovum (egg cell)
    germinal stage – the first stage of prenatal development, during which the dividing mass of cells has not become implanted in the uterine wall
    amniotic sac – a sac within the uterus that contains the embryo or fetus
  • Truth or Fiction? Your heart started beating when you were only one-fifth of an inch long and weighed a fraction of an ounce. TRUE During the fourth week, a primitive heart begins to beat and pump blood—in an organism that is one-fifth of an inch long.
  • amniotic sac – a sac within the uterus that contains the embryo or fetus
    placenta – a membrane that permits the exchange of nutrients and waste products between the mother and her developing child but does not allow the maternal and fetal bloodstreams to mix
    umbilical cord – a tube between the mother and her developing child through which nutrients and waste product are conducted
  • LO2 Explain the physical, cognitive, moral, social, and emotional development of children.
  • reflex – a simple unlearned response to a stimulus
    rooting – the turning of an infant’s head toward a touch, such as by the mother’s nipple
  • Figure 3.2 Motor Development
  • fixation time – the amount of time spent looking at a visual stimulus
  • Figure 3.3 Two-Month-Olds’ Preferences for Visual Stimuli.
  • schema – according to Piaget, a hypothetical mental structure that permits the classification and organization of new information
    assimilation - according to Piaget, the inclusion of a new event into an existing schema
    accommodation – according to Piaget, the modification of schemas so that information inconsistent with existing schemas can be integrated or understood
  • Truth or Fiction? Prior to 6 months or so of age, “out of sight” is literally “out of mind.” TRUE For most infants younger than 6 months, objects are not yet represented mentally.
    sensorimotor stage – the first of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development, characterized by coordination of sensory information and motor activity, early exploration of the environment, and lack of language
    object permanence – recognition that objects removed from sight still exist, as demonstrated in young children by continued pursuit
  • preoperational stage – the second of Piaget’s stages, characterized by illogical use of words and symbols, spotty logic, and egocentrism
    egocentrism – according to Piaget, the assumption that others view the world as one does oneself
    conservation – according to Piaget, recognition that basic properties of substances such as weight and mass remain the same when superficial features change
    objective responsibility – according to Piaget, the assignment of blame according to the amount of damage done rather than the motives of the actor
    Animism – The belief that inanimate objects move because of will or spirit
    Artificialism – The belief that natural objects have been created by human beings
  • concrete operational stage – Piaget’s third stage, characterized by logical thought concerning tangible objects, conservation, and subjective morality
    decentration – simultaneous focusing on more than one dimension of a problem, so that flexible, reversible thought becomes possible
    subjective moral judgment – according to Piaget, moral judgment that is based on the motives of the perpetrator
    Reversibility – Recognition that processes can be undone
  • zone of proximal development – Vygotsky’s term for the situation in which a child carries out tasks with the help of someone who is more skilled, frequently an adult who represents the culture in which the child develops.
    scaffolding – Vygotsky’s term for temporary cognitive structures or methods of solving problems that help the child as he or she learns to function independently
  • preconventional level – according to Kohlberg, a period during which moral judgments are based largely on expectation of rewards or punishment
  • conventional level – according to Kohlberg, a period during which moral judgments largely reflect social conventions; a “law and order” approach to morality
  • These are the first three stages of Erikson’s theory representing the years of infancy through childhood
    trust versus mistrust – Erikson’s first stage of psychosocial development, during which children do—or do not—come to trust that primary caregivers and the environment will meet their needs.
  • attachment – the enduring affectional tie that binds one person to another
  • contact comfort – a hypothesized primary drive to seek physical comfort through contact with another
  • ethologist – a scientist who studies the characteristic behavior patterns of species of animals
    critical period – a period of time when an instinctive response can be elicited by a particular stimulus
    imprinting – a process occurring during a critical period in the development of an organism, in which that organism responds to a stimulus in a manner that will afterward be difficult to modify
  • Instrumental competence is the ability to manipulate the environment to achieve one’s goals.
    Four aspects of parental behavior - 1) Strictness; 2) Demands for child to achieve intellectual, emotional and social maturity; 3) Communication ability; 4) Warmth and involvement
  • authoritative parents – parents who are strict and warm; authoritative parents demand mature behavior but use reason rather than force in discipline
    authoritarian parents – parents who are rigid in their rules and who demand obedience for the sake of obedience
    permissive parents – parents who impose few, if any, rules and who do not supervise their children closely
    uninvolved parents – parents who generally leave their children to themselves
    Outcomes from parenting:
    Authoritative – children have greatest self-reliance, self-esteem, social competence, and achievement motivation
    Authoritarian – children are withdrawn or aggressive and usually do not do as well in school as children of authoritative parents
    Permissive – children seem to be less mature and are often impulsive, moody, and aggressive
    Uninvolved – children tend to be more likely to hang out with crowds who “party” a good deal and use drugs
  • Outcomes from parenting:
    Authoritative – children have greatest self-reliance, self-esteem, social competence, and achievement motivation
    Authoritarian – children are withdrawn or aggressive and usually do not do as well in school as children of authoritative parents
  • Outcomes from parenting:
    Permissive – children seem to be less mature and are often impulsive, moody, and aggressive
    Uninvolved – children tend to be more likely to hang out with crowds who “party” a good deal and use drugs
  • LO3 Explain the physical, cognitive, moral, social and emotional development of adolescents.
  • adolescence – the period of life bounded by puberty and the assumption of adult responsibilities
    puberty – the period of physical development during which sexual reproduction first becomes possible
    secondary sex characteristics – characteristics that distinguish the sexes, such as distribution of body hair and depth of voice, but that are not directly involved in reproduction
    menarche – the beginning of menstruation
  • formal operational stage – Piaget’s fourth stage, characterized by abstract logical thought and deduction from principles
    imaginary audience – an aspect of adolescent egocentrism; the belief that other people are as concerned with our thoughts and behaviors as we are
    personal fable – another aspect of adolescent egocentrism; the belief that our feelings and ideas are special and unique and that we are invulnerable
  • postconventional level – according to Kohlberg, a period during which moral judgments are derived from moral principles and people look to themselves to set moral standards
  • ego identity – Erikson’s term for a firm sense of who one is and what one stands for
    role diffusion – Erikson’s term for lack of clarity in one’s life roles (due to failure to develop ego identity)
  • LO4 Explain the physical, cognitive, moral, social, and emotional development of adults.
  • menopause – the cessation of menstruation
  • Figure 3.7 The Relentless March of Time
    Go to 4ltrpress.cengage.com/psych for an interactive version of this figure.
  • Truth or Fiction? The architect Frank Lloyd Wright designed New York’s innovative spiral-shaped Guggenheim Museum when he was 65 years old. FALSE Frank Lloyd Wright was not 65; he was actually 89!
    crystallized intelligence – one’s lifetime of intellectual achievement, as shown largely through vocabulary and knowledge of world affairs
    fluid intelligence – mental flexibility as shown in learning rapidly to solve new kinds of problems
  • Truth or Fiction? Alzheimer’s disease is a normal part of aging. FALSE. Alzheimer’s disease is not a normal part of aging. Although connected with aging, it is a disease rather than a normal progression.
    Alzheimer’s disease – a progressive form of mental deterioration characterized by loss of memory, language, problem solving, and other cognitive functions
  • dream – in this usage, Levinson’s term for the overriding drive of youth to become someone important, to leave one’s mark on history
  • intimacy versus isolation – Erikson’s life crisis of young adulthood, which is characterized by the task of developing abiding intimate relationships
    generativity versus stagnation – Erikson’s term for the crisis of middle adulthood, characterized by the task of being productive and contributing to younger generations
    midlife crisis – a crisis experienced by many people during the midlife transition when they realize that life may be more than halfway over and they reassess their achievements in terms of their dreams
    ego integrity versus despair – Erikson’s term for the crisis of late adulthood, characterized by the task of maintaining one’s sense of identity despite physical deterioration
  • Psychology Chapter 3

    1. 1. CHAPTER 3 The Voyage Through the Life Span
    2. 2. Learning Outcomes • Explain prenatal development and the role that sex hormones play. • Explain the physical, cognitive, moral, social, and emotional development of children. Learning Outcomes
    3. 3. Learning Outcomes • Explain the physical, cognitive, moral, social and emotional development of adolescents. • Explain the physical, cognitive, moral, social, and emotional development of adults. Learning Outcomes
    4. 4. Truth or Fiction? Your heart started beating when you were only one-fifth of an inch long and weighed a fraction of an ounce. Prior to 6 months, or so, of age, “out of sight” is literally “out of mind.”
    5. 5. Truth or Fiction? The architect Frank Lloyd Wright designed New York’s innovative spiral-shaped Guggenheim Museum when he was 65 years old. Alzheimer’s disease is a normal part of aging.
    6. 6. Prenatal DevelopmentPrenatal Development
    7. 7. Prenatal Development • Germinal Stage – Conception through implantation – Zygote divides and becomes implanted in the uterine wall
    8. 8. Prenatal Development • Embryonic Stage – Implantation until about 8th week – Major organ systems are formed – Genetic code (XX or XY) causes sex organs to differentiate • Y sex chromosome – testes form and produce androgens
    9. 9. Prenatal Development • Embryonic Stage – Embryo is suspended in amniotic sac • Nutrients and wastes are exchanged with mother through placenta • Embryo is connected to placenta by umbilical cord
    10. 10. Prenatal Development • Fetal Stage – Beginning of third month until birth – Characterized by maturation and gains in size
    11. 11. ChildhoodChildhood
    12. 12. Physical Development • Reflexes – Simple, unlearned, stereotypical responses elicited by specific stimuli • Rooting and sucking, withdrawal, startle(moro), grasping • Motor Development – Brain maturation and environmental factors
    13. 13. Motor Development
    14. 14. Physical Development • Perceptual Development – Within days, infant can track moving light – At 2-months prefer human face as visual stimuli • Fixation time – measure of visual preference – Perceive depth about time – begin crawling • Visual cliff experiments
    15. 15. VIDEO: Newborns and Infants: Sensation and Perception
    16. 16. Two-Month-Olds’ Preferences for Visual Stimuli
    17. 17. Physical Development • Perceptual Development – Newborns hear normally; prefer mother’s voice • Show no preference for father’s voice
    18. 18. Cognitive Development • The way in which children mentally represent and think about the world – Jean Piaget – Cognitive-development theory – Lev Vygotsky – Sociocultural theory – Lawrence Kohlberg – Theory of moral development
    19. 19. Piaget’s Cognitive-Development Theory • Schema – “Mental structure” in organizing knowledge • Assimilation – Respond to new stimuli through existing habit • Accommodation – Create new ways of responding to objects
    20. 20. Stages of Cognitive-Development Theory • Sensorimotor Stage (0-2 years old) – Coordination of sensory information and motor activity – Object Permanence • Before 6 months of age does not mentally represent objects
    21. 21. VIDEO: Sensorimotor Stage
    22. 22. Stages of Cognitive-Development Theory • Preoperational Stage (2-7 years old) – Use words and symbols to represent objects and relationships among them – Egocentrism – Animism – Artificialism – Conservation • Objective Responsibility
    23. 23. VIDEO: Preoperational Stage
    24. 24. Stages of Cognitive-Development Theory • Concrete Operational Stage – Beginning of capacity for adult logic – Decentration – Reversibility • Subjective Moral Judgment
    25. 25. VIDEO: Piaget’s Concrete Operational Stage
    26. 26. Evaluation of Piaget’s Theory • Piaget tended to underestimate children’s abilities • Egocentrism and conservation appear to be more continuous than Piaget thought • Developmental sequences do not vary
    27. 27. Lev Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory • Continuous theory focused on influence of culture and children’s interactions with elders • Zone of proximal development (ZPD) • Scaffolding • Children internalize explanations that encourage skill development
    28. 28. Lawrence Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development • Use of “moral dilemma” story to explore reasoning of right and wrong • Stage theory with a specific sequence
    29. 29. Lawrence Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development • Preconventional Level – Base judgment on consequences of behavior • Stage 1 – Obedience and punishment • Stage 2 – Good behavior allows people to satisfy their needs
    30. 30. Lawrence Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development • Conventional Level – Base judgment on conformity to conventional standards of right and wrong • Stage 3 – Good-boy orientation • Stage 4 – Judgments are based on rules that maintain social order
    31. 31. Lawrence Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development • Postconventional Level – Base judgment on need to maintain social order and personal conscience – “I fear” – “I am trying to be moral as much as possible”
    32. 32. Evaluation of Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development • Research suggests moral reasoning does follow a sequence • Most people do not reach postconventional level (consistent with formal operational thought) • Kohlberg underestimated the influence of social, cultural, and educational institutions and parents
    33. 33. Social and Emotional Development • Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Development – Eight stages that represent life crises • Trust versus Mistrust • Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt • Initiative vs. Guilt • Industry versus Inferiority
    34. 34. 18 m-3yr18 m-3yr 3-63-6 65+65+ 30-6530-65 21-3021-30 12-2112-21 6-126-12 AgesAges 0-18m0-18m
    35. 35. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Socioemotional Development • Erik Erikson (1902-1994) • Theory emphasizes lifelong development • Eight psychosocial stages of development • Each stage represents a developmental task – Crisis that must be resolved – Personal competence or weakness
    36. 36. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Erikson’s Theory First 4 Stages: Childhood 1. Trust versus mistrust 2. Autonomy versus shame and doubt 3. Initiative versus guilt 4. Industry versus inferiority
    37. 37. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Erikson’s Theory
    38. 38. Attachment • Emotional tie between one animal/person and another specific individual – Mary Salter Ainsworth • Behavior that defines attachment – Attempts to maintain contact – Anxiety when separated
    39. 39. Attachment • Strange Situation – Method to assess infants’ response to separations and reunions with caregivers and a stranger • Three Types of Attachment – Secure attachment – Avoidant attachment – Ambivalent/resistant attachment
    40. 40. Securely Attached babies: happier, more sociable, more cooperative, have longer attention spans, less impulsive, liked better by peers and teachers, have fewer behavior problems. Avoidant attachment: infants are least distressed by their mother’s departure. Play by themselves and ignore their mothers when they return. Ambivalent/resistant attachment: infants are the most emotional showing severe signs of distress when their mothers leave and show ambivalence upon reunion by alternately clinging to and pushing their mother away.
    41. 41. Stages of Attachment Initial-preattachment phase (0-3 m) - Indiscriminant; but show no preference Attachment-in-the-making phase - 3 to 4 months of age, is characterized by preference for familiar figures. Clear-cut-attachment phase -Fear of strangers – 8 to 10 months
    42. 42. Theoretical Views of Attachment • Behaviorists viewed attachment as learned behavior based on caregiver’s attention • Harry F. Harlow – Inborn need for contact comfort
    43. 43. Theoretical Views of Attachment • Konrad Lorenz – Ethologist – attachment is an instinct – Critical period – Imprinting • Ainsworth and Bowlby – Attachment is instinctive in humans
    44. 44. Parenting Styles • Diana Baumrind’s styles of parenting – Connection between parental behavior and development of instrumental competence
    45. 45. Parenting Styles • Diana Baumrind’s styles of parenting – Authoritative – Authoritarian – Permissive – Uninvolved
    46. 46. Outcomes from Parenting Styles • Authoritative – greatest self-reliance, self esteem, social competence, achievement motivation • Authoritarian – withdrawn or aggressive
    47. 47. Outcomes from Parenting Styles • Permissive – less mature, often impulsive, moody, aggressive • Uninvolved – more likely to use drugs
    48. 48. AdolescenceAdolescence
    49. 49. Physical Development • Growth spurt – last for 2-3 years. Grow 8-12 inches. • Puberty – Begins with appearance of secondary sex characteristics – Menarche • Usually occurs between 11 and 14
    50. 50. Cognitive Development • Piaget’s Formal Operations Stage – Classification, logical thought, ability to hypothesis – Abstract thinking – Able to deal with hypothetical situations • Adolescent Egocentrism – Imaginary Audience – Personal Fable
    51. 51. • imaginary audience – the belief that other people are as concerned with our thoughts and behaviors as we are • personal fable – the belief that our feelings and ideas are special and unique and that we are invulnerable
    52. 52. VIDEO: Abstraction and Hypothetical Propositions
    53. 53. Moral Reasoning • Kohlberg’s Postconventional Level – Many people do not reach this level – Judgment is based on person’s own moral standards – Stage 5 – Laws are made to preserve order but exceptions can occur – Stage 6 – Adherence to universal ethical principles
    54. 54. Sex Differences and Moral Reasoning • Kohlberg’s theory shows higher levels of moral reasoning in boys • Carol Gilligan argues difference is result of socialization – Girls make judgments based on needs of others – Boys make judgments based on logic
    55. 55. Social and Emotional Development • “Storm and stress” or calm and joyous? • Independence is the challenge of adolescence • Erikson’s Psychosocial Development – Ego Identity versus Role Diffusion • Adolescent Sexuality – About 50% of American teens engage in sexual intercourse
    56. 56. AdulthoodAdulthood
    57. 57. Physical Development • Young adulthood – Usually height of physical prowess • Middle adulthood – Gradual physical decline – Women – menopause • Late Adulthood – Bones become brittle – greater risk for falls – Slower response time
    58. 58. Cognitive Development • Creativity can be evidenced throughout lifetime • Memory functioning declines with age – Crystallized intelligence – Fluid intelligence • Tasks that require speed and visual spatial skills decline
    59. 59. • crystallized intelligence – one’s lifetime of intellectual achievement, as shown largely through vocabulary and knowledge of world affairs • fluid intelligence – mental flexibility as shown in learning rapidly to solve new kinds of problems
    60. 60. Alzheimer’s Disease • Progressive form of mental deterioration – Affects 1% of people at age 60; 50% past age 85 – It is a disease, not a normal progression
    61. 61. Social and Emotional Development • Great variety based on cultural expectations and individual behavior patterns • Trends – More optimistic than previous generation – Grow psychologically healthier as they advance to middle age
    62. 62. Young Adulthood • Pursuit of ‘Dream’ – Blueprint for life
    63. 63. Erikson’s Psychosocial Development • Young adulthood – Intimacy versus Isolation • Middle adulthood – Generativity versus Stagnation – Midlife transition – Midlife crisis • Late adulthood – Ego integrity versus Despair

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