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CHAPTER 3
The Voyage Through
the Life Span
Learning Outcomes
• Explain prenatal development and the role that
sex hormones play.
• Explain the physical, cognitive, m...
Learning Outcomes
• Explain the physical, cognitive, moral, social and
emotional development of adolescents.
• Explain the...
Truth or Fiction?
Your heart started beating when you were only
one-fifth of an inch long and weighed a fraction
of an ou...
Truth or Fiction?
The architect Frank Lloyd Wright designed New
York’s innovative spiral-shaped Guggenheim
Museum when he...
Prenatal DevelopmentPrenatal Development
Prenatal Development
• Germinal Stage
– Conception through implantation
– Zygote divides and becomes implanted in the
uter...
Prenatal Development
• Embryonic Stage
– Implantation until about 8th
week
– Major organ systems are formed
– Genetic code...
Prenatal Development
• Embryonic Stage
– Embryo is suspended in amniotic sac
• Nutrients and wastes are exchanged with
mot...
Prenatal Development
• Fetal Stage
– Beginning of third month until birth
– Characterized by maturation and gains in size
ChildhoodChildhood
Physical Development
• Reflexes
– Simple, unlearned, stereotypical responses
elicited by specific stimuli
• Rooting and su...
Motor Development
Physical Development
• Perceptual Development
– Within days, infant can track moving light
– At 2-months prefer human face...
VIDEO: Newborns and Infants: Sensation and
Perception
Two-Month-Olds’ Preferences for Visual Stimuli
Physical Development
• Perceptual Development
– Newborns hear normally; prefer mother’s voice
• Show no preference for fat...
Cognitive Development
• The way in which children mentally represent and
think about the world
– Jean Piaget – Cognitive-d...
Piaget’s Cognitive-Development Theory
• Schema
– “Mental structure” in organizing knowledge
• Assimilation
– Respond to ne...
Stages of Cognitive-Development Theory
• Sensorimotor Stage (0-2 years old)
– Coordination of sensory information and moto...
VIDEO: Sensorimotor Stage
Stages of Cognitive-Development Theory
• Preoperational Stage (2-7 years old)
– Use words and symbols to represent objects...
VIDEO: Preoperational Stage
Stages of Cognitive-Development Theory
• Concrete Operational Stage
– Beginning of capacity for adult logic
– Decentration...
VIDEO: Piaget’s Concrete Operational Stage
Evaluation of Piaget’s Theory
• Piaget tended to underestimate children’s abilities
• Egocentrism and conservation appear ...
Lev Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory
• Continuous theory focused on influence of
culture and children’s interactions with e...
Lawrence Kohlberg’s
Theory of Moral Development
• Use of “moral dilemma” story to explore
reasoning of right and wrong
• S...
Lawrence Kohlberg’s
Theory of Moral Development
• Preconventional Level
– Base judgment on consequences of behavior
• Stag...
Lawrence Kohlberg’s
Theory of Moral Development
• Conventional Level
– Base judgment on conformity to conventional
standar...
Lawrence Kohlberg’s
Theory of Moral Development
• Postconventional Level
– Base judgment on need to maintain social
order ...
Evaluation of Kohlberg’s
Theory of Moral Development
• Research suggests moral reasoning does follow
a sequence
• Most peo...
Social and Emotional Development
• Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Development
– Eight stages that represent life crises
• Tru...
18 m-3yr18 m-3yr
3-63-6
65+65+
30-6530-65
21-3021-30
12-2112-21
6-126-12
AgesAges
0-18m0-18m
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill
Companies, Inc.
Socioemotional Development
• Erik Erikson (1902-1994)
• Theory emphasizes lifelong ...
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill
Companies, Inc.
Erikson’s Theory
First 4 Stages: Childhood
1. Trust versus mistrust
2. Autonomy ver...
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill
Companies, Inc.
Erikson’s Theory
Attachment
• Emotional tie between one animal/person and
another specific individual
– Mary Salter Ainsworth
• Behavior th...
Attachment
• Strange Situation
– Method to assess infants’ response to
separations and reunions with caregivers and
a stra...
Securely Attached babies: happier, more sociable, more
cooperative, have longer attention spans, less impulsive,
liked bet...
Stages of Attachment
Initial-preattachment phase (0-3 m)
- Indiscriminant; but show no preference
Attachment-in-the-maki...
Theoretical Views of Attachment
• Behaviorists viewed attachment as learned
behavior based on caregiver’s attention
• Harr...
Theoretical Views of Attachment
• Konrad Lorenz
– Ethologist – attachment is an instinct
– Critical period
– Imprinting
• ...
Parenting Styles
• Diana Baumrind’s styles of parenting
– Connection between parental behavior and
development of instrume...
Parenting Styles
• Diana Baumrind’s styles of parenting
– Authoritative
– Authoritarian
– Permissive
– Uninvolved
Outcomes from Parenting Styles
• Authoritative
– greatest self-reliance, self esteem, social
competence, achievement motiv...
Outcomes from Parenting Styles
• Permissive
– less mature, often impulsive, moody,
aggressive
• Uninvolved
– more likely t...
AdolescenceAdolescence
Physical Development
• Growth spurt
– last for 2-3 years. Grow 8-12 inches.
• Puberty
– Begins with appearance of secondar...
Cognitive Development
• Piaget’s Formal Operations Stage
– Classification, logical thought, ability to
hypothesis
– Abstra...
• imaginary audience
– the belief that other people are as concerned
with our thoughts and behaviors as we are
• personal ...
VIDEO: Abstraction and Hypothetical Propositions
Moral Reasoning
• Kohlberg’s Postconventional Level
– Many people do not reach this level
– Judgment is based on person’s ...
Sex Differences and Moral Reasoning
• Kohlberg’s theory shows higher levels of moral
reasoning in boys
• Carol Gilligan ar...
Social and Emotional Development
• “Storm and stress” or calm and joyous?
• Independence is the challenge of adolescence
•...
AdulthoodAdulthood
Physical Development
• Young adulthood
– Usually height of physical prowess
• Middle adulthood
– Gradual physical decline
...
Cognitive Development
• Creativity can be evidenced throughout lifetime
• Memory functioning declines with age
– Crystalli...
• crystallized intelligence
– one’s lifetime of intellectual achievement, as
shown largely through vocabulary and
knowledg...
Alzheimer’s Disease
• Progressive form of mental deterioration
– Affects 1% of people at age 60; 50% past
age 85
– It is a...
Social and Emotional Development
• Great variety based on cultural expectations
and individual behavior patterns
• Trends
...
Young Adulthood
• Pursuit of ‘Dream’
– Blueprint for life
Erikson’s Psychosocial Development
• Young adulthood
– Intimacy versus Isolation
• Middle adulthood
– Generativity versus ...
Psychology Chapter 3
Psychology Chapter 3
Psychology Chapter 3
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Psychology Chapter 3

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Psychology Childhood Development

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Psychology Chapter 3

  1. 1. CHAPTER 3 The Voyage Through the Life Span
  2. 2. Learning Outcomes • Explain prenatal development and the role that sex hormones play. • Explain the physical, cognitive, moral, social, and emotional development of children. Learning Outcomes
  3. 3. Learning Outcomes • Explain the physical, cognitive, moral, social and emotional development of adolescents. • Explain the physical, cognitive, moral, social, and emotional development of adults. Learning Outcomes
  4. 4. Truth or Fiction? Your heart started beating when you were only one-fifth of an inch long and weighed a fraction of an ounce. Prior to 6 months, or so, of age, “out of sight” is literally “out of mind.”
  5. 5. Truth or Fiction? The architect Frank Lloyd Wright designed New York’s innovative spiral-shaped Guggenheim Museum when he was 65 years old. Alzheimer’s disease is a normal part of aging.
  6. 6. Prenatal DevelopmentPrenatal Development
  7. 7. Prenatal Development • Germinal Stage – Conception through implantation – Zygote divides and becomes implanted in the uterine wall
  8. 8. Prenatal Development • Embryonic Stage – Implantation until about 8th week – Major organ systems are formed – Genetic code (XX or XY) causes sex organs to differentiate • Y sex chromosome – testes form and produce androgens
  9. 9. Prenatal Development • Embryonic Stage – Embryo is suspended in amniotic sac • Nutrients and wastes are exchanged with mother through placenta • Embryo is connected to placenta by umbilical cord
  10. 10. Prenatal Development • Fetal Stage – Beginning of third month until birth – Characterized by maturation and gains in size
  11. 11. ChildhoodChildhood
  12. 12. Physical Development • Reflexes – Simple, unlearned, stereotypical responses elicited by specific stimuli • Rooting and sucking, withdrawal, startle(moro), grasping • Motor Development – Brain maturation and environmental factors
  13. 13. Motor Development
  14. 14. Physical Development • Perceptual Development – Within days, infant can track moving light – At 2-months prefer human face as visual stimuli • Fixation time – measure of visual preference – Perceive depth about time – begin crawling • Visual cliff experiments
  15. 15. VIDEO: Newborns and Infants: Sensation and Perception
  16. 16. Two-Month-Olds’ Preferences for Visual Stimuli
  17. 17. Physical Development • Perceptual Development – Newborns hear normally; prefer mother’s voice • Show no preference for father’s voice
  18. 18. Cognitive Development • The way in which children mentally represent and think about the world – Jean Piaget – Cognitive-development theory – Lev Vygotsky – Sociocultural theory – Lawrence Kohlberg – Theory of moral development
  19. 19. Piaget’s Cognitive-Development Theory • Schema – “Mental structure” in organizing knowledge • Assimilation – Respond to new stimuli through existing habit • Accommodation – Create new ways of responding to objects
  20. 20. Stages of Cognitive-Development Theory • Sensorimotor Stage (0-2 years old) – Coordination of sensory information and motor activity – Object Permanence • Before 6 months of age does not mentally represent objects
  21. 21. VIDEO: Sensorimotor Stage
  22. 22. Stages of Cognitive-Development Theory • Preoperational Stage (2-7 years old) – Use words and symbols to represent objects and relationships among them – Egocentrism – Animism – Artificialism – Conservation • Objective Responsibility
  23. 23. VIDEO: Preoperational Stage
  24. 24. Stages of Cognitive-Development Theory • Concrete Operational Stage – Beginning of capacity for adult logic – Decentration – Reversibility • Subjective Moral Judgment
  25. 25. VIDEO: Piaget’s Concrete Operational Stage
  26. 26. Evaluation of Piaget’s Theory • Piaget tended to underestimate children’s abilities • Egocentrism and conservation appear to be more continuous than Piaget thought • Developmental sequences do not vary
  27. 27. Lev Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory • Continuous theory focused on influence of culture and children’s interactions with elders • Zone of proximal development (ZPD) • Scaffolding • Children internalize explanations that encourage skill development
  28. 28. Lawrence Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development • Use of “moral dilemma” story to explore reasoning of right and wrong • Stage theory with a specific sequence
  29. 29. Lawrence Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development • Preconventional Level – Base judgment on consequences of behavior • Stage 1 – Obedience and punishment • Stage 2 – Good behavior allows people to satisfy their needs
  30. 30. Lawrence Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development • Conventional Level – Base judgment on conformity to conventional standards of right and wrong • Stage 3 – Good-boy orientation • Stage 4 – Judgments are based on rules that maintain social order
  31. 31. Lawrence Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development • Postconventional Level – Base judgment on need to maintain social order and personal conscience – “I fear” – “I am trying to be moral as much as possible”
  32. 32. Evaluation of Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development • Research suggests moral reasoning does follow a sequence • Most people do not reach postconventional level (consistent with formal operational thought) • Kohlberg underestimated the influence of social, cultural, and educational institutions and parents
  33. 33. Social and Emotional Development • Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Development – Eight stages that represent life crises • Trust versus Mistrust • Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt • Initiative vs. Guilt • Industry versus Inferiority
  34. 34. 18 m-3yr18 m-3yr 3-63-6 65+65+ 30-6530-65 21-3021-30 12-2112-21 6-126-12 AgesAges 0-18m0-18m
  35. 35. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Socioemotional Development • Erik Erikson (1902-1994) • Theory emphasizes lifelong development • Eight psychosocial stages of development • Each stage represents a developmental task – Crisis that must be resolved – Personal competence or weakness
  36. 36. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Erikson’s Theory First 4 Stages: Childhood 1. Trust versus mistrust 2. Autonomy versus shame and doubt 3. Initiative versus guilt 4. Industry versus inferiority
  37. 37. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Erikson’s Theory
  38. 38. Attachment • Emotional tie between one animal/person and another specific individual – Mary Salter Ainsworth • Behavior that defines attachment – Attempts to maintain contact – Anxiety when separated
  39. 39. Attachment • Strange Situation – Method to assess infants’ response to separations and reunions with caregivers and a stranger • Three Types of Attachment – Secure attachment – Avoidant attachment – Ambivalent/resistant attachment
  40. 40. Securely Attached babies: happier, more sociable, more cooperative, have longer attention spans, less impulsive, liked better by peers and teachers, have fewer behavior problems. Avoidant attachment: infants are least distressed by their mother’s departure. Play by themselves and ignore their mothers when they return. Ambivalent/resistant attachment: infants are the most emotional showing severe signs of distress when their mothers leave and show ambivalence upon reunion by alternately clinging to and pushing their mother away.
  41. 41. Stages of Attachment Initial-preattachment phase (0-3 m) - Indiscriminant; but show no preference Attachment-in-the-making phase - 3 to 4 months of age, is characterized by preference for familiar figures. Clear-cut-attachment phase -Fear of strangers – 8 to 10 months
  42. 42. Theoretical Views of Attachment • Behaviorists viewed attachment as learned behavior based on caregiver’s attention • Harry F. Harlow – Inborn need for contact comfort
  43. 43. Theoretical Views of Attachment • Konrad Lorenz – Ethologist – attachment is an instinct – Critical period – Imprinting • Ainsworth and Bowlby – Attachment is instinctive in humans
  44. 44. Parenting Styles • Diana Baumrind’s styles of parenting – Connection between parental behavior and development of instrumental competence
  45. 45. Parenting Styles • Diana Baumrind’s styles of parenting – Authoritative – Authoritarian – Permissive – Uninvolved
  46. 46. Outcomes from Parenting Styles • Authoritative – greatest self-reliance, self esteem, social competence, achievement motivation • Authoritarian – withdrawn or aggressive
  47. 47. Outcomes from Parenting Styles • Permissive – less mature, often impulsive, moody, aggressive • Uninvolved – more likely to use drugs
  48. 48. AdolescenceAdolescence
  49. 49. Physical Development • Growth spurt – last for 2-3 years. Grow 8-12 inches. • Puberty – Begins with appearance of secondary sex characteristics – Menarche • Usually occurs between 11 and 14
  50. 50. Cognitive Development • Piaget’s Formal Operations Stage – Classification, logical thought, ability to hypothesis – Abstract thinking – Able to deal with hypothetical situations • Adolescent Egocentrism – Imaginary Audience – Personal Fable
  51. 51. • imaginary audience – the belief that other people are as concerned with our thoughts and behaviors as we are • personal fable – the belief that our feelings and ideas are special and unique and that we are invulnerable
  52. 52. VIDEO: Abstraction and Hypothetical Propositions
  53. 53. Moral Reasoning • Kohlberg’s Postconventional Level – Many people do not reach this level – Judgment is based on person’s own moral standards – Stage 5 – Laws are made to preserve order but exceptions can occur – Stage 6 – Adherence to universal ethical principles
  54. 54. Sex Differences and Moral Reasoning • Kohlberg’s theory shows higher levels of moral reasoning in boys • Carol Gilligan argues difference is result of socialization – Girls make judgments based on needs of others – Boys make judgments based on logic
  55. 55. Social and Emotional Development • “Storm and stress” or calm and joyous? • Independence is the challenge of adolescence • Erikson’s Psychosocial Development – Ego Identity versus Role Diffusion • Adolescent Sexuality – About 50% of American teens engage in sexual intercourse
  56. 56. AdulthoodAdulthood
  57. 57. Physical Development • Young adulthood – Usually height of physical prowess • Middle adulthood – Gradual physical decline – Women – menopause • Late Adulthood – Bones become brittle – greater risk for falls – Slower response time
  58. 58. Cognitive Development • Creativity can be evidenced throughout lifetime • Memory functioning declines with age – Crystallized intelligence – Fluid intelligence • Tasks that require speed and visual spatial skills decline
  59. 59. • crystallized intelligence – one’s lifetime of intellectual achievement, as shown largely through vocabulary and knowledge of world affairs • fluid intelligence – mental flexibility as shown in learning rapidly to solve new kinds of problems
  60. 60. Alzheimer’s Disease • Progressive form of mental deterioration – Affects 1% of people at age 60; 50% past age 85 – It is a disease, not a normal progression
  61. 61. Social and Emotional Development • Great variety based on cultural expectations and individual behavior patterns • Trends – More optimistic than previous generation – Grow psychologically healthier as they advance to middle age
  62. 62. Young Adulthood • Pursuit of ‘Dream’ – Blueprint for life
  63. 63. Erikson’s Psychosocial Development • Young adulthood – Intimacy versus Isolation • Middle adulthood – Generativity versus Stagnation – Midlife transition – Midlife crisis • Late adulthood – Ego integrity versus Despair

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