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Hindu architecture .


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Hindu architecture .

  1. 1. Philomina joicy 1st Msc RM&ID St.Teresas College Ernakulam
  2. 2. Northern Hindu Style  Central Hindu Style  South Hindu Style 
  3. 3.     This style had spread over at least 3 to 4th part of northern India. The earliest movement started in the state of Orissa, its ancient name is Kalinga. It is offered strong resistance to mauryas but finally sudued to ashoka in 260 B.C After ashokas death kalinga regained its independence and later become more powerful under kharavela.
  4. 4.    Beginning of this Orissa group is seen at Bhuvaneshwar where there are thirty temples. The most important are the temple of jaganath at puri , Mahashivagupta Yayati , Sun temple at konark The other groups are confined to some area such as at khajuraho , the largest of entire series is shiva temple of kandariya mahadeva at khajuraho.
  5. 5. Sun temple of konark The magnificent temple was therefore built to glorify „surya‟ the sun god at konark The temple of sun god , surya, the source of life, origin of light, the dispeller of darkness, and sin, the source and instrument of purity and health is unique in its construction. The plan of this temple was that of genious and its scale was too great for its execution. 1.   
  6. 6.      The temple is formed like a „ratha‟ or wheeled chariot being carried by seven. Horses symbolizing the seven rays of the sun who blazes his way through the heaven and proceded by the charioteer arun. The temple resting on a large platform with twelve gaint wheels It is curved with erotic sculptures and decorated with medallion on the spokes an hub. On its 3 sides , in the middle segments there are 3 subsidary shrines with stairways leading to niches each containing the life-size image of sun god minutely curved
  7. 7.      The wall fully sculptured with beautiful dancers playing on musical instruments Two gracefully carved elephant guard its entrance. The width of the cubical portion or„bada‟ of jaga mohan is twice its own height Upper tapering part „pida‟ and which is crowned with a melon shaped „kalasha‟ or „amlaka‟ is fluted Outer surface of bada sculptured with as many as fifteen hundred elephants in different patterns , along with soldiers riding on horses in the bottom row.
  8. 8.     Many mythical animals in second row In the third row depicts the „maithuna rituals‟ . It represent symbolism of prakriti ana purusha The top „pida‟ the pyramidal tower consist of three tiers In order to sustain the weight of the huge kalasa over the pida the entire ceiling is strengthened with iron grid
  9. 9.     The temple had originally only 2 appartments Deul and jaga-mohan, and the natmandir(dance hall) , bhog mandir(offering hall) are added a century or more later The entrance is flanked by two large stone statues of lions Most attractive feature of this temple is the sri mandir richly built entirely of stones
  10. 10.      Bada is vertical one third of its height and above It has parabolic curve rising to a height of 38 m from the ground Over it is a necking or beki above which rest the melon shaped fluted disc or amal-sila and crowned with „kalasa‟ Outer surface is carved with gods , godesses , nymphs. A shiva linga 3m height and 2.5m diameter is installed in grabhgriha
  11. 11.     The temple is merely a replica of the temple at bhuvaneshwar This temple is not so much impressive in its treatment The presiding deities are jagannatha , balabhadra and subhadra Every year in the month of june/july devotees in large number of gather at puri in order to participate in the „carfestival‟ when the image of the 3 deities are taken in the large procession in 3 highly decorated „rathas‟ pulled by ardent devotees.
  12. 12. 1.    The sun temple at martand The temple is built by king lalitadity is located about 35 km from sringar , kashmir , martand . The temple is situated on a stupendous hil top enclosed in 61m X 43m quadrangle containing a cluster of 84 sculptured colums of gracco roman style The number of 84 is also significant as it is product of 7 and 12. i.e 7 days of the week and 12 months of the year.
  13. 13.  The temple consist of portico for sun worship and is connected to cella over which there was once pyramidal roof rising to a height of 23m.
  14. 14. z
  15. 15.  The temple is raised in tier over tier of sculptured excellence with stone carvings of griffins, nymphs , gods, demons and couples.
  16. 16. 1.  Kirti stambha of chittor The kirti –stambha or pillar of fame built in 1100 A.D is 23m high in six storeys containing many sculptures of jaina tirthankaras
  17. 17. 2.Jaya stambha at chittor      The rana kumbha of chittor erected this famous and beautiful tower The jaya stambha or tower of victory at chittor rises to a height of 24m in eight storeys Each of its faces is about 10 m broad at base Each storey is provided with highly decorated balcony It is covered with a pyramidal roof at top
  18. 18.     The temple is laid on usual plan i.e. the main cella , a mantapa, and a sabha mantap which 2 or 3 storeys In exterior, the elagantly carved pillers are arranged forming an octagonal nave in the centre of a main hall The interiors are profusely sculptured. „Sabha mantap‟ leads to „gudha mantap‟ and finally the mysterious deeply shadowed sanctum in the end with a shikhara at top.
  19. 19. 1.Larger sas-bahu temple     The temple also known as mother in law and daughter in law consist of two structures of which mantapa only remains the vimana with its shikara has been vanished. The temple measures 30m long and 19m wide. The main hall is in three storeys. The roof , partly demolished ,rises into a low pyramidal form.
  20. 20.  The interior consist of only one huge sized compartment though the external facede consists of 3 storeys with canopaied galleries.
  21. 21. 2.Palaces of gwalior    In gwalior there are number of palaces which exhibit ingenuity and talent of the architects and masons. A well known example is that of man mandir built for maharaja man singh Other examples are guruji mahal, badal mahal, holkar;s palaces in indore etc.
  22. 22. 3. Gwalior fort      It is one of the magnificient forts and described as “pearl in the necklace of the castles of india” Great personalities like bahur, humayun, sher shah, tantiya top have once lived here The freedom figjter rani laxmibai of jhanci moved into gwalior fort in 1857 Every stone in the fort speaks of legendary past. Its history has been written in letters of love , fire and blood
  23. 23.    In exquisit 11th century salabhanjika which is a marvellous piece of architecture is preserved in gwalior fort Orginally salabhanjika means a charming female gathering sala flowers But later used as a statute beautifully ornamented wearing scanty garments , necklaces of various designs and standing in alluring pastures
  24. 24. 4. River ghats     River ghats or public bathing places are for ablution purposes for hindu relegious rituals These are constructed with board steps leading down to the river banks. Ghats of banares are nearly 5km long along with ganges river and are more than thirty. Sometimes palaces are also constructed near these ghats thus producing beautiful architectural composition
  25. 25.  Many of top storeys consist of projecting balconies or oriels,latticed windows, pillars , loggias and beautifully designed kiosks, which give the river ghats a picturesque and romantic view of worldwide fame
  26. 26. Early chalukyan architecture The architecture falls into two distinct types (i) rock-cut (ii) structural Rock –cut cave temples at badami  The chalukyan capital city badami was protected by a fort wall surroune ed by a moat  The superfluous water of agastyathirtha was a sporting place for the royal families.  Badami was also a religious centre  Godesses banashankrari was the presiding deity.
  27. 27.   The most interesting thing from architectural point of view is is a series of 4 cave temples hewn from top to bottom in the scrap of a southern hill called ranmandal These are brahminical in nature , one shaivite, two vishnavites, and the fourth belongs to jaina
  28. 28. (i) Cave 1( shaiva cave)
  29. 29. (ii) Cave 2( vaishnava cave)
  30. 30. (iii) Cave 3(vaishnav cave)
  31. 31. (iv) Cave 4 (jaina cave)
  32. 32. Structural temples     In addition to the rock cut cave temples at badami chalukyans also built several structural temples along the edge of the lake and hill tops. The early chalukyans combined some some features of contemporary north and south indian style of construction i.e nagar and dravidian respectively to create their own style of construction Which is characterized by high platform , pithas ornate door frames, plinth moulding , vestibule
  33. 33. 1. Lad khan temple at aihole     The temple stands on square plan of 15 m side with high platform. It is consist of an open pillared porch leading to a large square mantapa with 2 square group of pillars The nanthi fills the central bay Whose ceiling contains sculpture of naga with its tail twisted around
  34. 34.     The pillars have cushion capitals with floral abacus supporting the ponderous bracket There are lattice window on north and south sides and perforated circles ofradiating fish design set in square frame in the eastern and western sides The roof is sloping , rising in two tires , with a sma;ll cubical shikara containg images of surya , shiva , and vishnu on its three sides. No mortar is used for the construction of this temple.
  35. 35. 2. Durga temple at aihole    The temple stands on a high moulded plinth 3m high and consist of pillared hall 2 flights of steps one from north and another from south are provided in front of the porch There is garuda over the shrine door which is elaborately carved
  36. 36.       Light is admitted into the hall and passage through „stone grills‟ of perforated pattern 2 raws of Columns separate the temple hall into a central nave and two side aisles The inner columns are beautifully sculptured. There are several inches in the wall s containg beautiful images of god and goddesses The roof of mukha mantapa is flat Upper portion has follen down
  37. 37.  The temple derives its name because of the fortlike encloseure called durga
  38. 38. 3. Bhutanath group of temples at badami    These temples are situated on the eastern edge of the lake These temples stand on high plinths, two to three metres high. The big temple has a mukhamantapa or pillared hall, the door frame of which consist of sculptures of ganga and yamuna flanked by „dwarpalakas‟.
  39. 39.  A shiva-linga is enshrined in the temple, over which rises a „vimana‟ of kadamb nagar style which is characterised by receding tiers resembling a stepped pyramid culminating in a final or kalasa
  40. 40. 4 . Jambulinga Temple at Badami   (696-733 A.D)This temple is dedicated to three gods, Bramha, vishnu and Mahesh. All the three shrines are places in the common mantapa, which exhibit good sculpturesque quality. The tower is built of bricks and app[ears to be later addition.
  41. 41. 5. Malegitti shivalaya at badami    The temple stands on a spur of the rugged hills on the north side of badami. It contains a porch assembly hall and shrine. The square porch consist of large monolithic pillares with heavy bracket capitals.
  42. 42.    The entrance is guareded by two dwarpalakas. Sculptures of shiva and vishnu with makara torana at the back, are carved on the south and north walls of temple into which are built square perfolated stone windows that let in a subdued light faintly illumining the interior of the hall. The high plinth contains a row of the lions and elephant symboling strength.
  43. 43.    The outer wall contains a belt of dwarfs dancing , rollicking playing musical instrument . The door frame of the srine is richly ornamented with garuda in the middle holding two serpents. The temple is also called because of its assosiation with a lady garland
  44. 44. 6. Papanath Temple at Pattadkal    The temple is provided with a covered ambulatory passage, a vestibule or an antrala and open portico in front. The pillare and beams are exquisitely carved and decorated with incidents from Ramayana and Mahabharata. The temple is characterised by Rekha- Nagar shikhara, i.e. a beehive- shaped curvilinear somewhat conical tower.
  45. 45. 7. Virupaksha Temple at Pattadkal    The entrance to the temple is by the Malaprabha river in which the pilgrims usually take bath before entering the temple to worship the deity. The temple has a large pillared hall approached through porches, in the front and either side with a “Nandi” mantapa on its axial plan. It has a covered ambulatory round the cella on which rises a vimana of Dravidian style.
  46. 46.   The inscriptions show that the temple was built by Vikramaditya II in honour of his queen Lokamahadevi, to celebrate another victory over Pallava kings of Kanchipuram. Its lavish disposition shows distinct advancement in temple development Further it served as a model for the world – famous Kailasa temple at Ellora.
  47. 47. THANK YOU