What do we know about these 2 pyramids? Old one-specific servings for everyone-no physical activity incorporated New one- no serving sizes-activity is emphasized Handout-Anatomy of mypyramid
Shows acitivity-moderation-proportions-personalized Visit mypyramid.gov to make your own personalized pyramid
Look for the word whole in front of the word grain on a product -whole wheat
Starchy vegetables-potatoes, corn, lima beans Dry beans and peas Orange vegetables- carrots, squash, sweet potatoes Dark green vegetables- spinach, collard greens, broccoli
Variety of fruits- apples, bananas, mangoes, oranges, papayas, grapes, pineapples
3-A-DAY CAMPAIGN -not adding milk products, it’s replacing things that aren’t as healthy, like soda, tea, coffee, and snacks. -choosing yogurt, low-fat cheese, etc. instead will help you become healthier
ACTIVITY -3 levels -sedentary, moderate, active -different serving sizes for boys and girls and also different servings sizes for boys and girls at each activity level. PERSONALIZATION -this is making your own pyramid using their guidelines based on your age, sex, and activity level
By looking at the new pyramid which groups shouldn’t be chosen very often? -oils, fruits Why??
By looking at the new pyramid which groups should make up most of our diet? -grains, vegetables, milk
What kinds of things can we do to improve our lifestyle each day??
-Substances that the body needs to regulate body functions, promote growth, repair body tissues, and obtain energy. -Your body requires more than 40 different nutrients for these tasks but only 6 are essential. -define what essential means
-Made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen -2 different types we are going to talk about -simple -complex -45-65% of a persons daily caloric intake should be from carbohydrates -foods rich in complex carbs are better than simple carbs.
-Added to manufactured foods like cookies, candies, and soft drinks -occurs naturally in fruits, vegetables, and milk -all sugars are converted to glucose for the body to use.
-Found in many plant foods such as potatoes -grains-rice, cereals, and wheat -when you eat complex carbohydrates your body (digests) breaks the starch into simple sugars that can be absorbed into your bloodstream. That’s why its slower to digest. -FIBER -is a complex carbohydrate but is not considered a nutrient because its not broken down and absorbed into your bloodstream. -still necessary for the proper functioning of your digestive system. -helps prevent constipation -may reduce risk of colon cancer -may help prevent heart disease
-High protein foods -meats, eggs, poultry, milk and milk products -Nuts, dried beans, dried peas, and lentils contain a lot of protein also. -10-35% of diet needs to be protein
-Helps maintain body temperature, protect your nerves, and form your cells. -20-35% of daily intake -primarily unsaturated fat
-MONOUNSATURATED FATS- olive oil, peanut oil, and canola oil -POLYUNSATURATED FATS- corn oil, soybean oil, and seafood. -balancing of the 2 is important for cardiovascular health
-ANIMAL FATS -lard and dairy products -too much can lead to heart disease -TRANS FAT -when manufacturers add hydrogen to the fat molecules in vegetables oils. -foods that contain these stay fresher longer
-CHOLESTEROL -waxy-fatlike substance that is only found in animal products. Your body needs a certain amount of cholesterol to make cell membranes and nerve tissue, certain hormones and substances that aid in the digestion of fat. -your liver can make all of the cholesterol your body needs, so its not a necessary part of your diet. -when to much cholesterol is in the bloodstream it causes plaque to form on the walls of arteries. Heavy build up causes blockages which in turn causes heart attack
-Write this down in the notes box!!
SAMPLE CALCULATIONS WORKSHEET
-Dehydration -very heavy perspiring or severe diarrhea -a serious reduction in the body’s water content -Symptoms of dehydration -weakness -rapid breathing -weak heartbeat -dizzy, lathargic -Female teen -at least 10, 8oz glasses of water a day -Male teen -at least 14, 8oz glasses of water a day -A person can lose 4 cups of water during every hour of exercise
WORKSHEET 5 WORKSHEET 6
-Minerals occur naturally in rocks and soil. Plants absorb these minerals through the soil and animals obtain these nutrients by eating these plants or eating an animal that has eaten these plants, then we eat these plants and animals. -24 different minerals have been shown to be essential for good health. There are 7 you need in significant amounts- Ca, Na, K, Mg, P, Cl, S. The others are only needed in trace amounts.
Helps with functioning of your nervous system. Good sources of Calcium-Dairy products of course but some people cannot digest dairy products so what can they eat to get Ca? -Beet greens, collard greens, broccoli, and tofu A lack of Ca can lead to osteoporosis-bones gradually weaken usually a disease of older people but what you do now can affect what happens as you get older. 85% of girls do not get enough Ca in their diet.
-Necessary for healthy red blood cells -Women need extra iron because they lose iron during menstruation -Boys and girls need iron to build muscle mass -Not getting enough iron may cause anemia. -a condition in which the red blood cells do not contain enough hemoglobin -anemics are often weak and tired, may become sick easily.
Potassium and Sodium work together to maintain water balance in the body People who consume enough potassium each day generally have lower blood pressure than people who do not Foods rich in potassium: baked potatoes, spinach, bananas, dried fruits, oranges, soybeans, tomato products, milk, and carrots.
-Helps build bones and proteins -Helps with energy metabolism -Muscle contraction Sources: -leafy green vegetables -legumes -nuts -whole-grain food Another Mineral -Sodium: most people consume to much sodium. Table salt or NaCl is a major source of sodium. Helps functioning of the heart. Aids in water balance. Too much sodium can cause blood pressure problems. Can raise blood pressure. -Fluoride: helps form strong teeth and bones can get it from fish and water. -Chlorine: Helps maintain water balance and aids with digestion. Can get it from table salt, soy sauce and processed foods.
-required in small amounts -assists in many chemical reactions in the body -Vitamins do not directly provide the body with energy -Instead vitamins help with various processes in the body including the use of other nutrients.
Not stored in the body for future use. Must eat foods with these vitamins everyday
Aids in bone, teeth, and skin formation resistance to infection Sources: citrus fruits, green vegetables, melons, potatoes, and tomatoes.
B1-Thiamin- aids in nervous system function B2-Riboflavin- aids in metabolism of carbs, proteins, and fats B3- Niacin- aids in metabolism B6-Pyridoxine- aids in metabolism of carbs, proteins, and fats B12-Cobalamin- maintains healthy nervous system and red blood cells Pantothenic acid-aids in metabolism Folic Acid (folate)- aids in formation of red blood cells and protein Biotin- aids in metabolism
Maintains healthy skin, bones, teeth and hair Aids in vision in dim light Sources: liver, eggs, cheese, milk, and yellow, orange and dark green vegetables and fruit
Maintains bones and teeth Helps in the use of Ca and phophorous Sources: milk, eggs, liver, and sunlight Vitamin E -aids in maintenance of red blood cells, vitamin A and fats -Sources: margarine, vegetable oil, whole grains, legumes, green leafy vegetables Vitamin K -aids in blood clotting -Sources: green leafy vegetables, potatoes, liver
What can make the healthy choices unhealthy? What can make the unhealthy choices healthy? Mayo, cheese, loaded baked potato, salad dressing, toppings Baked instead of fried
PORTION DISTORTION HANDOUT
ON T I RI U TN
Grain GroupMake half your grains whole• Eat at least 3 oz. of whole grains every day – Cereal -Breads – Crackers -Rice – Pasta
Vegetable GroupVary your veggies• Eat more dark green veggies like broccoli, spinach and other dark, leafy greens• Eat more orange vegetables like carrots and sweet potatoes
Fruit Group Focus on fruits • Eat a variety of fruits • Choose fresh, frozen, canned, or dried fruit • Go easy on fruit juices
Milk GroupGet your calcium-rich foods• Go low-fat or fat-free when you choose milk, yogurt, and other milk products• If you don’t or can’t consume milk, choose lactose free products or other calcium sources such as fortified foods and beverages
Meat & Bean GroupGo lean with protein• Choose low-fat or lean meats and poultry• Bake it, broil it, or grill it• Vary your protein routine choose more fish, beans, peas, nuts, and seeds
Oil/Fat Group• Make most of your fat sources from fish, nuts, and vegetable oils.• Limit solid fats like butter, stick margarine, shortening, and lard, as well as foods that contain these.• Check the Nutrition Facts label to keep saturated fats, trans fats, and sodium low.• Choose food and beverages low in added sugars. Added sugars contribute
MyPyramid Anatomy• ACTIVITY – Activity is represented by the steps and the person climbing them, as a reminder of the importance of daily physical activity• PERSONALIZATION – Personalization is shown by the person on the steps, the slogan, and the URL. Find the kinds and amounts of food to eat each day at MyPyramid.gov
• MODERATION – represented by the narrowing of each food group from bottom to top. The wider the base stands for foods with little or no solid fats or added sugars. These should be selected more often. The narrower top area stands for foods containing more added sugars and solid fats. The more active you are, the more of these foods can fit into your diet.
• PROPORTIONALITY – Proportionality is shown by the different widths of the food group bands. The widths suggest how much food a person should choose from each group. The widths are just a general guide, not exact proportions. Check the website for how much is right for you.
• VARIETY – Variety is symbolized by the 6 color bands representing the 5 food groups of the Pyramid and oils. This illustrates that foods from all groups are needed each day for good health
• GRADUAL IMPROVEMENT – Gradual improvement is encouraged by the slogan. It suggests that individuals can benefit from taking small steps to improve their diet and lifestyle each day.
Simple Carbohydrates• Sugars that are quickly digested and provide a BOOST of energy for the body• Foods with LOTS of sugar: oranges, milk, cookies, candy
Complex CarbohydratesStarches that are • Foods with composed of many • LOTS of starch: sugars linked rice together beans, potatoes• They provide the body with long-term energy since they are digested more slowly than sugars.
Protein• Structure: Proteins are made from many amino acids connected together in different arrangements.• Function: Provide the building materials your body needs to grow and repair itself
Essential Amino Acids• 9 of the 20 amino acids are called essential amino acids because you must obtain them from the foods you eat since your body cannot make them.
Complete proteins:• Foods containing all the essential amino acids Examples: fish, meat, eggs, milk, cheeseIncomplete proteins:• Foods that are missing some essential amino acids Examples: Legumes, nuts, whole grains
FatFunctions:• ENERGY source for the body (more than carbs and proteins)• Help protect and cushion vital organs as well as joints• Insulate the body
FatStructure:• Fats belong to a group of organic compounds called lipids which are substances that do not dissolve in water.• Fatty acids are the building blocks of fats.
Unsaturated fats: • They are less• Contain fatty harmful to the acids that are circulatory missing system than hydrogen atoms saturated fats.• At room • Foods with a lot temperature, of unsaturated they are fat: canola, typically in safflower, and liquid form. peanut oils
Saturated fats:• Contain fatty acids with the MAXIMUM amount of hydrogen atoms• At room temperature, they are typically in solid form.
• Diets with TOO MUCH saturated fat have been known to cause heart disease.• Foods with a lot of saturated fat: beef fat, egg yolks, dairy products
Calories What is a calorie? • The energy obtained from carbohydrates, proteins, and fats is measured in units called calories.
Sample Calculation• A slice of bread has 9g of carbohydrates, 2g of protein, and 1g of fat.• Get out a piece of paper and see if you can do the
• 9 grams carbohydrates x 4 calories/gram = 36 calories + 2 grams protein x 4 calories/gram = 8 calories + 1 gram fat x 9 calories/gram = 9 calories _________________________ Total calories = 53
Do you know the MOST IMPORTANT nutrient?It’s Water!• 60%-80% of the human body is WATER!
• Function: Assists with the transport of materials in the body by making up most of the liquid part of blood (plasma), helps regulate body temperature, and helps break down food in the digestive system• Food sources: vegetables, fruit, milk
Micronutrients• Minerals and vitamins are called micronutrients since they are needed by your body in SMALL amounts.The minerals and most of the vitamins your body needs must be obtained from the FOODS you eat since your body cannot make them.
Micronutrients: Minerals• Minerals are INORGANIC substances that are required by your body in order to develop and grow properly.Some Important Minerals:• Calcium Iron• Potassium Magnesium
Micronutrients: MineralsCalcium• Function: Helps build strong bones and teeth, regulates blood clotting• Food sources: dairy products, leafy and green vegetables
Micronutrients: MineralsIron• Function: Helps build hemoglobin which is the oxygen-carrying part of your red blood cells• Food sources: eggs, meats, whole grains
Micronutrients: Minerals Potassium • Function: Helps regulate fluid balance in the body, assists with the normal functioning of muscles and nerves • Food sources: bananas, carrots, milk
Micronutrients: MineralsMagnesium• Function: Involved in the metabolism of proteins and carbohydrates, assists with bone growth and proper muscle functioning• Food sources: milk, meat, nuts
Micronutrients: VitaminsVitamins: Group of complex compounds that help your body maintain normal metabolism, growth, and development Two Groups of Vitamins: • Water-Soluble • Fat-Soluble
Micronutrients: VitaminsWater-Soluble Vitamins:• Vitamins that dissolve in water and are NOT stored in your body for future useVitamin B and Vitamin C
Examples of Water-Soluble Vitamins:• Vitamin C: Fights against infection, maintains healthy gums, strengthens and maintains blood vessel structure – Food sources: citrus fruits, tomatoes, leafy vegetables
Micronutrients: VitaminsVitamin B Complex/Folic acid: Helps prevent birth defects, and is needed in the formation of red blood cells and nucleic acids – Food sources: beets, broccoli, avocado, turkey, bok choy, and lentils.
Micronutrients: Vitamins Fat-Soluble Vitamins: • Vitamins that dissolve into and are transported by fat • They can be stored in fat tissue, the liver, and the kidneys. • Vitamins A, D, E, and K
Examples of Fat-Soluble Vitamins:• Vitamin A: Maintains good vision, promotes body cell growth, helps protect teeth – Food sources: green vegetables, dairy products
• Vitamin D: Promotes the development of healthy bones and teeth – Food sources: eggs, salmon, fortified breakfast cereal. Other sources include sunlight
Making Good Food Choices• The US federal government created a food pyramid which is a guide to healthy living.• It gives recommendations for: – Eating healthy – Regular exercise
Fast Food Choices• Fast food consumption should be limited since it generally includes foods that are high in calories, fat, and/or sodium.• Try to choose smaller portions since larger portion sizes greatly increase the calorie, fat, and sodium content of your meal.
– Option #1: McDonald’s Quarter Pounder with Cheese, large fries, and a 16 oz. soda includes1,166 calories and 51 grams of fat!– Option #2: McDonald’s Hamburger, small fries, and a 16 oz. diet soda includes 481 calories and 19 grams of fat!
Fast Food Choices• Some fast food choices are healthier than others so try to choose the healthier options.
– Healthy options: –Less healthy •Grilled chicken options: •Regular-sized •Chicken single hamburger nuggets •Fruit and yogurt •Croissant •Plain baked potato breakfast (no butter or sour sandwiches cream) •Onion rings •Salad •Large French fries
Physical Activity• Regular exercise, included as part of the new food pyramid, is an important part in maintaining a healthy lifestyle.• Exercise (physical activity) involves any form of movement such as walking, jogging, climbing stairs, or playing basketball.
–Exercise hints: •Include activities you enjoy doing •Work your way up to at least 30 min. of physical activity per day •Incorporate exercise into your social life by including your friends in the activity •Listen to music or watch TV while you exercise
Physical ActivityBenefits of Regular Exercise• Helps relieve stress and depression• Adds years to your life by lowering your risk of heart disease, colon cancer, diabetes, and high blood pressure
• Helps you maintain a normal weight by burning calories which results in a loss of body fat• Tones and develops the muscles in your body
Reading Food LabelsTo help you make healthy foodchoices, many foods have a “NutritionFacts” label that contains helpfulinformation such as: •serving size •calories per serving •fat/sodium/protein content •types and relative amounts of nutrients (vitamin C, iron, etc.)
Reading Food LabelsWhat do claims on food labels mean?• Organic - Made from foods grown without pesticides, man-made fertilizers, or genetic engineering• Healthy - Low in fat and saturated fat, contains no more than 360mg of sodium and cholesterol per serving
• Light - Contains at least one- third fewer calories or at least 50% less fat or sodium• Fresh - Raw food products that contain no preservatives and have never been frozen, heated, or processed in any way
• Most food products will include a list of ingredients that are listed in order from the highest to the lowest in amount used.
Nutrient and Health Claims• Free… Fat Free = less than .5 g fat Sugar Free = less than .5 g sugar• Low in … low in calories = less than 40 calories low in sodium = less than 140 mg
• Excellent source of … Excellent source of calcium = one serving provides 20% or more of the Daily Value for calcium.• May reduce your risk of heart disease … can appear on fiber containing grain products fruits and vegetables that are also low in saturated fat and cholesterol
• High in … high in vitamins = one serving provides 20% or more of the daily value for vitamin C• Light … contains 50% less fat or at least 1/3 fewer calories.
• Open Dates = These dates give you an idea of how ling the foods will be fresh and safe to eat. – Sell by = last date the product can be sold – Best if used by = how long the product will be at peak quality – Do not use after = date is the expiration date. Last day you can consume the product.
Fad DietsWhat are “fad diets”?• Diets that promise quick weight loss and usually require you to eat specific types of food
Examples of fad diets:• Fit for Life (food combining diet)• Dr. Atkins’ New Diet Revolution (low carbohydrate diet)• Metabolife 356 (diet pills)• Slim Fast (liquid diet)
Fad Diets• The weight that you lose is usually water and/or lean muscle rather than body fat.• Some of these diets can be harmful to your health.• They sometimes do not include exercise which is important for healthy living.
• They limit your food choices and usually keep you from a balanced diet.• These diets do not offer long-term success, and you usually gain back all the weight you lose.
AnorexiaPsychological disorder that involves a person starving themselves due to an unhealthy fear of becoming obese
Warning signs: Harmful effects:• Eating extremely • Damage to the small amounts of heart food per day • Excessive• False impression of their own body weight loss image • Negatively• Obsessed with affects the exercise immune system • Death
BulimiaPsychological disorder that involves a person overeating (“binging”) followed by the use of laxatives or vomiting to keep from gaining weight
People who suffer from this disorder usually have a false sense of their body image, and they are constantly striving to obtain the “perfect body.”Harmful effects:• Tooth decay (from excessive vomiting)• Damage to the kidneys• Dehydration Death
COMPULSIVE EXCERCISE• Best defined by an exercise addicts frame of mind: He or she no longer chooses to exercise but feels compelled to and struggles with guilt/anxiety if he or she doesnt work out.• Exercising takes over the exercisers life because he or she plans life around it.
• Excessive exercise damages tendons, ligaments, bones, cartilage, and joints• May disrupt the balance of hormones in their bodies.• The combination of anorexia and compulsive exercise can be fatal.• Exercise addicts are often plagued by anxiety and depression
COMPULSIVE OVEREATING• Characterized as an "addiction" to food, using food and eating as a way to hide from their emotions, to fill a void they feel inside, and to cope with daily stresses and problems in their lives.
COMPULSIVE OVEREATING• Words like, "just go on a diet" are as emotionally devastating to a person suffering Compulsive Overeating as "just eat" can be to a person suffering Anorexia.
COMPULSIVE OVEREATING• At health risk for a heart attack, high blood-pressure and cholesterol, kidney disease and/or failure, arthritis and bone deterioration, and stroke.
Laxatives• Laxatives move food through the body more rapidly.• They relieve stomach bloating and pain after a binge.• They don’t prevent the calories from being absorbed.• Weight loss is caused by loss of H2O and minerals and only temporary.
Laxatives• Misuse of laxatives is VERY harmful: – Upsets the body’s mineral balance – Leads to dehydration – Damages the lining of the digestive tract – Lets the digestive tract get lazy. When someone stops using them, they may become constipated.
Diuretics• a.k.a. water pills-help get rid of excess water by increasing the amount of urine.• Causes sudden weight loss• Could cause dehydration• Increased loss of minerals• VERY DANGEROUS
Ipecac Syrup• Taken to cause vomiting• Can cause heart weakness• Linked to several deaths• TOXIC in large amounts or small amounts built up over time
ObesityCaused by an excess amount of body fat• People are usually considered “obese” if their weight is 30% or more above their ideal weight.2 main causes:1. Unhealthy eating habits2. Lack of physical activity
Health Risks: Obesity• Lower self-esteem• High blood pressure• Blocked arteries• Diabetes• Cancer
• Drugs do not really help people lose weight and keep it off. • They can be addictive, and lead to dangerous physical problems if misused.
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