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Participatory Design with Older People (Feb 2014)


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Talk given to the University of York HCI Masters on 3rd February 2014. In the lecture I touched on the history of participatory design, and talked about the specific challenges of planning, organising and facilitating design workshops with older people (but also the great insights that this can bring). At the end I talk about some examples of the work I have done on the Banking for the Older Old project.

This is a slight adaptation of the talk given to the same course in 2013.

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Participatory Design with Older People (Feb 2014)

  1. 1. Participatory Design with Older People John Vines Digital Interaction Group Culture Lab, Newcastle University email: 1 John Vines
  2. 2. 2 John Vines
  3. 3. outline of talk 09.35 A brief history of participatory design 09.55 Quick discussion 10.05 The challenges of ageing populations 10.25 Quick activity 10.35 BREAK 10.45 Case study of PD with Older People 11.15 Final discussion 11.30 Finish 3 John Vines
  4. 4. part one a brief history of participatory design 4 John Vines
  5. 5. a simple definition ‘Participatory Design (PD) represents [an] approach towards computer systems design in which the people destined to use the system play a critical role in designing it.’ - Schuler & Namioka, 1993, p.xi … but it is often a lot more complicated than this! 5 John Vines
  6. 6. one time, in Scandinavia… Participatory Design Co-Operative Design a concern with the politics of system design no technology is ‘neutral’ dislocation and deskilling of workers exertion of the management's control over their workforce - Kensing & Blomberg, 1998 6 John Vines
  7. 7. 7 John Vines
  8. 8. questioning and alternatives ‘we must use our curiosity and creativity to question solutions […] we must use the insight to help ordinary users raise similar questions to the specific technologies proposed to them. This is an agenda that has many levels – from questioning wellestablished human-computer interaction paradigms, via questioning IT strategies on a societal level, to helping users in particular organisations participate in technological development. The latter is what we often call participatory design, but I would claim that it does not come without the former.’ - Bødker, 2003, p.88   8 John Vines
  9. 9. traditions and transcendence a fundamental tension in all ‘user-focused’ systems design is balancing an understanding and incorporation of existing traditions with providing opportunities for individuals to transcend and break existing boundaries - Ehn, 1989 9 John Vines
  10. 10. a little later, in the United States ‘… to empower users to act as full participants in the design of systems that will have impact on their jobs and their work-lives.   … to improve knowledge acquisition for design, and the quality of the resulting system, by involving the people with job expertise (the people who do the job) in the design process.   … to improve the flow of the software engineering process by bringing representatives from major components of that process into the design phase a co-owners of the design.’ - Muller, 1991, p.225 10 John Vines
  11. 11. the ‘third space’ of participatory design - Muller, 2003 11 John Vines
  12. 12. the ‘workshop’ ‘… workshops are usually held to help diverse parties (“stakeholders”) communicate and commit to shared goals, strategies, and outcomes (e.g., analyses, designs, and evaluations, as well as workplace-change objectives). Workshops are often held at sites that are in a sense neutral – they are not part of the software professionals’ workplace, and they are not part of the workers’ workplace.’ - Muller, 2003, p.1060 future workshops - Kensing and Madsen, 1991 12 John Vines
  13. 13. resources to support participation 13 John Vines
  14. 14. diversification of participation 14 John Vines
  15. 15. warning: terminological overload! The original term for Participatory Design use in Scandinavia in the 1970s-late 1980s co-operative design Participatory design (with a big P) participatory design (with a little p) co-design (collaborative design)   co-creation 15 A view of end-user involvement in design to destabilise power structures and empower workers/users A view of end-user involvement in design to inform more approximately designed systems and provide grounded insight A balanced and integrative approach to broad stakeholder and user involvement in design   As per co-design, but with core principle that all people (and not just designers) are creative and create their own systems John Vines
  16. 16. quick thinking time! Get together in pairs (or threes) and… 1.  … define one potential ‘user’ group of technology that you believe may benefit from being involved in a participatory design process (don’t choose older people! – but do choose something related to your MSc project if appropriate). 2.  … come up with a research question or topic you think might be interesting to explore in some design workshops with this group.   16 John Vines
  17. 17. part two the challenges of ageing populations 17 John Vines
  18. 18. ageing populations Ageing demographics - ‘Very’ old fastest growing age group worldwide By 2050, over 65s will outnumber all children under the age of 14 worldwide 1/7th of all UK government public spending is on pensions 18 John Vines
  19. 19. the challenge for HCI Accessibility is now law: Equality Act 2012 The retirement age has risen and almost inevitably will again in the near future meaning the workforce will include older users The spending power of the over sixty-five population is enormous Older users represent the biggest (and maybe the last) untapped source of new internet users (only approx. 20% of over-70s use the internet at the moment – but this is growing massively) Some of the services offered on the web are almost perfect for helping with independence in later life (i.e., internet shopping, online banking, continued family communications) 19 John Vines
  20. 20. the challenge for HCI Most HCI research on the topic of ageing focuses on age-related functional decline, OR on negative perceptions of ageing: -  -  -  -  -  Memory Attention Visual acuity Dexterity Hearing -  -  -  -  Social Isolation Safety Risks Disease and Health Conditions -  -  -  -  -  Fun Enjoyment Pleasure Sharing Skills ? See: See: Vines et al. (in press – but I can send you an unpublished copy) 20 John Vines
  21. 21. the challenge for HCI “Research on technologies for older people often associates aging with disability and the need for care, and thus focuses on topics such as augmenting memory or the social resources required for older people to remain in their own homes.” – Gaver et al. 2010, p.2056 “’Designing for older people”, whether focused on disability or development, has the tendency to direct attention to a single dimension of comparison among people who may otherwise have little in common.” – Gaver et al. 2010, p.2064 21 John Vines
  22. 22. the challenge for HCI 22 John Vines
  23. 23. an even bigger challenge for HCI Dementia is a global decline in cognitive function – this means that no aspect of your mental faculties is left unimpaired In the UK in 2010, 800,000 people live with dementia. Predicted to rise to 1m by 2021, and 1.7m by 2050. If there is approx. 20 of us in this room, 6-9 of us will likely pass away with dementia (unless a cure is found) 23 John Vines
  24. 24. an even bigger challenge for HCI Massive strain on healthcare and society as a whole… … but what about supporting positive experiences of dementia? Wallace et al. 2013 24 John Vines
  25. 25. an even bigger challenge for HCI Massive strain on healthcare and society as a whole… … but what about supporting positive experiences of dementia? Lindsay et al. 2012 25 John Vines
  26. 26. question time! You have been tasked with both arranging and facilitating some participatory design workshops with a group of 80 year olds, some of whom (but not all) have early-onset dementia … … in pairs or small groups, discuss what you think some of the potential issues and problems you may come across in both arranging and running these workshops.   26 5-10 minutes! John Vines
  27. 27. practical issues Older people (very generally!) People living with dementia (again, very generally!) finding participants ‘all of the above’, and… method of recruitment reviewing and recapping turning up for sessions abstractness & focus on detail consistent point of contact diversity and heterogeneity harnessing existing groups deviating discussion difficulty articulating view used to ‘get what you’re given’ dominated by carers sensory concerns Lindsay et al. 2012b; Vines et al. 2012a; 2012b 27 Lindsay et al. 2012a John Vines
  28. 28. Break time! 10 minutes! 28 John Vines
  29. 29. part three case study of participatory design with older people 29 John Vines
  30. 30. case study new approaches to banking for the older old 30 John Vines
  31. 31. case study new approaches to banking for eighty somethings! 31 John Vines
  32. 32. methods used 32 John Vines
  33. 33. methods used financial biographies 33 John Vines
  34. 34. methods used financial biographies stakeholder quote clustering 34 John Vines
  35. 35. methods used financial biographies stakeholder quote clustering group workshops 35 John Vines
  36. 36. methods used financial biographies stakeholder quote clustering group workshops invisible design films 36 John Vines
  37. 37. methods used financial biographies stakeholder quote clustering group workshops invisible design films questionable concept cards 37 John Vines
  38. 38. methods used financial biographies stakeholder quote clustering group workshops invisible design films questionable concept cards provotypes   38 John Vines
  39. 39. methods used financial biographies stakeholder quote clustering group workshops invisible design films questionable concept cards provotypes   39 John Vines
  40. 40. biographies semi-structured interviews and visits to peoples homes ask participants to tell us their life story with occasional focused questions of experiences of the research topic as interview develops, ask to be shown relevant ‘artifacts’ and ‘materials’ around the home 40 John Vines
  41. 41. financial biographies “I have a spot here where I save up. I’ll always have so much for the housekeeping. … I do have a certain amount of cash which I like by me … I go to the bank and I get so much money out of the bank. I make sure that I have so much money in.” – Jean, 88 “I write out me carers, me gas, me light, me phone and hair, feet - chiropodist, water, television, St Leonard’s Hospice which I support, church – how much I donate each week and then I give a bit extra at Christmas, that all goes down.” – Thora, 89 “If I want anything out of the wall, Nigel will get me 100 out if I need it.” – Barbara, 95 41 John Vines
  42. 42. financial biographies make participants feel at ease and allows them to tell us stories of their life provides a good understanding of existing traditions, why people do them based on their life story, and the barriers new systems make the ‘site’ is peoples homes, meaning they can access supplementary materials to give more insight not so useful for ‘transcendence’ 42 John Vines
  43. 43. invisible design short films, usually a dialogue between two characters, about a new technology one of the characters is using used in group workshops to prompt discussion the technology is in the scene but never ‘seen’ (hence invisible) created to promote discussion about the experiences and context of use of the technology, and not physical qualities of the interface or system 43 John Vines
  44. 44. invisible design go here to see the video: 44 John Vines
  45. 45. invisible design “Well I visualise it as a blank note with no sum on.” - Margaret, 82 “Like a cheque in other words.” – Iris, 81 “I don’t trust the banks, I don’t trust the finance institutions, because it’s only one operator filling in one set of numbers, puts in the wrong number, the wrong initial on a name, and you’re in hock” – Jean, 82 “the Queen’s head disappeared if handed to unauthorised payee. How do we know we are going to buy something e.g. a lady goes shopping for shoes and may visit 10 shops before she finds what she wants. How does she pay if not one of the authorised payees?” – Rita, 84 “if they’d shown us some of the money that was supposed to be there, and how it worked, it would be more helpful to me” – Edith, 87 John Vines 45
  46. 46. invisible design new design suggestions suggestions of how existing (nondigital) technologies exist negating the need for the new design further understanding of existing traditions, practices and desires through participants concerns about the invisible design avoids focusing on tangible details – however, can be a significant barrier to some people to participate 46 John Vines
  47. 47. questionable concepts a collection of cards provided to participants in a pack to take home with them after a workshop each card has a pictorial illustration of an idea – the idea relates to insights from the biographies or invisible design discussions the idea is ‘questionable’ – i.e., not entirely practical, feasible, and may in some respects go against the values of participants The card also includes a set of questions related to the ideas for participants to answer 47 John Vines
  48. 48. questionable concepts 48 John Vines
  49. 49. questionable concepts 49 John Vines
  50. 50. questionable concepts 50 John Vines
  51. 51. questionable concepts 51 John Vines
  52. 52. questionable concepts “If this actually came to pass it would be just a way for the banks and financial institutions to make more money for the “fatcats” and the shareholders and to exploit the man in the street”- Rita, 83 ““hide it in code among telephone numbers in my diary.” - Agatha, 81 “I like the idea on the front of an iPad type wallet … But you could also, I feel, have a card that you could put into a computer or a screen and you would call up your accounts, and see them.” - Dolores, 81 52 John Vines
  53. 53. questionable concepts allows the telling of stories and experiences people have had in their lives relevant to the design context – again, understanding tradition supports critique of ideas but also creativity in the form of alternative suggestions – transcendence reflecting onto existing traditions is tactile – something that is valued by many older people – and can be completed at home, offering time for reflection uncomplex data – writing on the cards, scribbles of ideas, and discussions prompted by each card 53 John Vines
  54. 54. questions? 54 John Vines
  55. 55. references Bødker, S. 2003. A for Alternatives. Scandinavian Journal of Information Systems . 15, 1, 87-89.   Briggs, P., Mark Blythe, John Vines, Stephen Lindsay, Paul Dunphy, James Nicholson, David Green, Jim Kitson, Andrew Monk, and Patrick Olivier. 2012. Invisible design: exploring insights and ideas through ambiguous film scenarios. In Proceedings of the Designing Interactive Systems Conference (DIS '12). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 534-543.   Ehn, P. 1989. Work oriented design of computer artefacts. Stockholm, Arbetslivscentrum.   Ehn, P., and Kyng, M. 1992. Cardboard Computers: Mockingit-up or Hands-on the Future. In: Design at Work . Lawrence Erlbaum, 169-196.   Gaver, W., Mark Blythe, Andy Boucher, Nadine Jarvis, John Bowers, and Peter Wright. 2010. The prayer companion: openness and specificity, materiality and spirituality. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '10). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2055-2064.   Gaver, W., Andy Boucher, John Bowers, Mark Blythe, Nadine Jarvis, David Cameron, Tobie Kerridge, Alex Wilkie, Robert Phillips, and Peter Wright. 2011. The photostroller: supporting diverse care home residents in engaging with the world. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '11). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 1757-1766.   55 John Vines
  56. 56. references Lindsay, S., Katie Brittain, Daniel Jackson, Cassim Ladha, Karim Ladha, and Patrick Olivier. 2012. Empathy, participatory design and people with dementia. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '12). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 521-530. Lindsay, S., Daniel Jackson, Guy Schofield, and Patrick Olivier. 2012. Engaging older people using participatory design. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '12). Kensing, F., and Madsen, K.H. 1991. Generating visions: Future workshops and metaphorical design. In J. Greenbaum & M. Kyng (eds.), Design at work: Cooperative design of computer systems. Hillsdale NJ US: Erlbaum Kensing, F., and Blomberg, J. 1998. Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, 7 (3-4), 167-185. Muller, M. J. 1991. PICTIVE—an exploration in participatory design. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '91), Scott P. Robertson, Gary M. Olson, and Judith S. Olson (Eds.). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 225-231. Muller, M J. 2002. Participatory design: the third space in HCI. In The human-computer interaction handbook, Julie A. Jacko and Andrew Sears (Eds.). L. Erlbaum Associates Inc., Hillsdale, NJ, USA 1051-1068.   Schuler, D., and Namioka, A. 1993. Participatory design: Principles and practices. Lawrence Erlbaum, New Jersey, USA. 56 John Vines
  57. 57. references Vines, J., Mark Blythe, Stephen Lindsay, Paul Dunphy, Andrew Monk, and Patrick Olivier. 2012. Questionable concepts: critique as resource for designing with eighty somethings. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '12). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 1169-1178.   Vines, J., Mark Blythe, Paul Dunphy, Vasillis Vlachokyriakos, Isaac Teece, Andrew Monk, and Patrick Olivier. 2012. Cheque mates: participatory design of digital payments with eighty somethings. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '12). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 1189-1198. Vines, J., Mark Blythe, Paul Dunphy, and Andrew Monk. 2011. Eighty something: banking for the older old. In Proceedings of the 25th BCS Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (BCS-HCI '11). British Computer Society, Swinton, UK, UK, 64-73.   Wallace, J., Wright, P., McCarthy, J., Green, D., Thomas, J., and Olivier, P. A design-led inquiry into Personhood in Dementia. 2013. In proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI ’13), ACM, New York, NY, USA.  57 John Vines