Descartes• Cogito ergo suum (Meditations)• Use rational processes to arrive at 1st principles• Logically prove existence of time, space, God• analytic geometry
Dualism• Mind/body separate (ala Plato)• animals have no need for a soul• Soul is immortal/divine• Body is a machine (automaton) – Vivisection – Clockwork gardens
Mechanism• Deist hypothesis – “Divine Clockmaker” – Sets world in motion at creation, then hands off – Life functions according to natural laws• Theological problems – God would have no need of miracles – Christ not an “intervention” – Prayers are necessarily ineffective
• Calvinist issues – Descartes believes in free will – Calvinist predestination • (the idea that God knows exactly who is going to hell or to heaven) – Queen Christina of Sweeden • Descartes as private tutor • Dies of pneumonia at 54.
Descartes cont...• Rationalism- Truth comes about through the careful use of reason.• Nativism-• Belief in the existence of innate ideas. • Contrast with derived ideas, a wax candle of x number of inches will burn for x number of hours.• Animal Spirits- means of communication• Pineal Gland- seat of the soul
Baruch Spinoza• Jewish• Free spirit, worked with glass = death• Double-aspect monism – Rejects Cartesian dualism – God as center of everything• No room for free will: God’s natural laws determine all
Emmanuel Kant• Middle ground between empiricism and rationalism• Analytic a priori (tautology)• Vs. Synthetic a priori (new truth)• Innate categories + Experience• Self-government (Social Psychology) – Heteronomy (control from outside) – Autonomy (control from inside) • Forces in conflict
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646_1716)• Monadology – Tiny units of consciousness – Move in preestablished harmony – Psychophysical parallelism – Active Mind – Uniformitarianism: Change is gradual – Christian Von Wolff: 1st to use “Psychology”
Logic and “Truth”• Rationalists – necessary truth (a priori) – must be established before we use sensory evidence • self-evident truth (1 + 1 = 2), must believe even before we can count, basis of math• Empiricist response – these truths are tautological (trivial and circular) – 1 + 1 = 2 is true cause we made it that way!
Logic cont...• Deduction – analytic truth – syllogism • “Men are mortal. Socrates is a man. Therefore Socrates is mortal.”• If premises are true, and argument valid, then conclusions must be true• create whole systems of knowledge
Logic cont...• denial of the antecedent • If x, then y. Not x. Therefore not y • If you are human, then you are mortal. You are not human. Therefore you are not mortal.• affirmation of the consequent • If x, then y. Y. Therefore x. • If you are human, then you are mortal. You are mortal. Therefore you are human.
Herbart• Apperception: Higher mental processes• Apperceptive Mass – The collection of all ideas, experiences, learning that constitutes the mind. This includes both conscious and unconscious, or aware and out-of-awareness, if you prefer those terms.
Thomas Reid (1710-1796)• Common Sense Philosphy, Direct realist• First Principles: cannot be doubted without violating common sense• Hume’s constant conjunction – We only infer causation, – But that’s no problem