Chapter 7The Rationalists
Descartes• Cogito ergo suum (Meditations)• Use rational processes to arrive at 1st  principles• Logically prove existence ...
Dualism•   Mind/body separate (ala Plato)•   animals have no need for a soul•   Soul is immortal/divine•   Body is a machi...
Mechanism• Deist hypothesis  – “Divine Clockmaker”  – Sets world in motion at creation, then hands off  – Life functions a...
• Calvinist issues  – Descartes believes in free will  – Calvinist predestination     • (the idea that God knows exactly w...
Descartes cont...• Rationalism- Truth comes about through the  careful use of reason.• Nativism-•    Belief in the existen...
Descartes cont...• The reflex
Baruch Spinoza• Jewish• Free spirit, worked with glass = death• Double-aspect monism  – Rejects Cartesian dualism  – God a...
Emmanuel Kant• Middle ground between empiricism and  rationalism• Analytic a priori (tautology)• Vs. Synthetic a priori (n...
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz                   (1646_1716)• Monadology  –   Tiny units of consciousness  –   Move in preestab...
Logic and “Truth”• Rationalists  – necessary truth (a priori)  – must be established before we use sensory    evidence    ...
Logic cont...• Deduction  – analytic truth  – syllogism     • “Men are mortal. Socrates is a man. Therefore       Socrates...
Logic cont...• denial of the antecedent     • If x, then y. Not x. Therefore not y     • If you are human, then you are mo...
Herbart• Apperception: Higher mental processes• Apperceptive Mass  – The collection of all ideas, experiences,    learning...
Thomas Reid                 (1710-1796)• Common Sense Philosphy, Direct realist• First Principles: cannot be doubted witho...
Enfranchising Curiosity
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Chapter 7

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Chapter 7

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Chapter 7

  1. 1. Chapter 7The Rationalists
  2. 2. Descartes• Cogito ergo suum (Meditations)• Use rational processes to arrive at 1st principles• Logically prove existence of time, space, God• analytic geometry
  3. 3. Dualism• Mind/body separate (ala Plato)• animals have no need for a soul• Soul is immortal/divine• Body is a machine (automaton) – Vivisection – Clockwork gardens
  4. 4. Mechanism• Deist hypothesis – “Divine Clockmaker” – Sets world in motion at creation, then hands off – Life functions according to natural laws• Theological problems – God would have no need of miracles – Christ not an “intervention” – Prayers are necessarily ineffective
  5. 5. • Calvinist issues – Descartes believes in free will – Calvinist predestination • (the idea that God knows exactly who is going to hell or to heaven) – Queen Christina of Sweeden • Descartes as private tutor • Dies of pneumonia at 54.
  6. 6. Descartes cont...• Rationalism- Truth comes about through the careful use of reason.• Nativism-• Belief in the existence of innate ideas. • Contrast with derived ideas, a wax candle of x number of inches will burn for x number of hours.• Animal Spirits- means of communication• Pineal Gland- seat of the soul
  7. 7. Descartes cont...• The reflex
  8. 8. Baruch Spinoza• Jewish• Free spirit, worked with glass = death• Double-aspect monism – Rejects Cartesian dualism – God as center of everything• No room for free will: God’s natural laws determine all
  9. 9. Emmanuel Kant• Middle ground between empiricism and rationalism• Analytic a priori (tautology)• Vs. Synthetic a priori (new truth)• Innate categories + Experience• Self-government (Social Psychology) – Heteronomy (control from outside) – Autonomy (control from inside) • Forces in conflict
  10. 10. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646_1716)• Monadology – Tiny units of consciousness – Move in preestablished harmony – Psychophysical parallelism – Active Mind – Uniformitarianism: Change is gradual – Christian Von Wolff: 1st to use “Psychology”
  11. 11. Logic and “Truth”• Rationalists – necessary truth (a priori) – must be established before we use sensory evidence • self-evident truth (1 + 1 = 2), must believe even before we can count, basis of math• Empiricist response – these truths are tautological (trivial and circular) – 1 + 1 = 2 is true cause we made it that way!
  12. 12. Logic cont...• Deduction – analytic truth – syllogism • “Men are mortal. Socrates is a man. Therefore Socrates is mortal.”• If premises are true, and argument valid, then conclusions must be true• create whole systems of knowledge
  13. 13. Logic cont...• denial of the antecedent • If x, then y. Not x. Therefore not y • If you are human, then you are mortal. You are not human. Therefore you are not mortal.• affirmation of the consequent • If x, then y. Y. Therefore x. • If you are human, then you are mortal. You are mortal. Therefore you are human.
  14. 14. Herbart• Apperception: Higher mental processes• Apperceptive Mass – The collection of all ideas, experiences, learning that constitutes the mind. This includes both conscious and unconscious, or aware and out-of-awareness, if you prefer those terms.
  15. 15. Thomas Reid (1710-1796)• Common Sense Philosphy, Direct realist• First Principles: cannot be doubted without violating common sense• Hume’s constant conjunction – We only infer causation, – But that’s no problem
  16. 16. Enfranchising Curiosity

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