Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

2. characteristics of a projec


Published on

for public use

  • Be the first to comment

2. characteristics of a projec

  1. 1. 2. PROJECT CHARACTERISTICS 05/15/15 1Mavole, J. 2014
  2. 2. 1. Projects have a purpose Projects have clearly-defined goal and set out aims to produce clearly-defined results. Their purpose is to solve a "problem”, and this involves analyzing needs beforehand. Suggesting one or more solutions, a project aims at lasting social change. Goals and objectives are statements that describe what the project will accomplish, or the business value the project will achieve. Because the goal is at a high-level, it may take more than one project to achieve. Generally, non-measurable: If you can measure the achievement of your goal, it is probably at too low a level and is probably more of an objective.05/15/15 2Mavole, J. 2014
  3. 3. Purpose continues... The goal should reference the business benefit in terms of cost, speed and / or quality. Objectives are concrete statements describing what the project is trying to achieve. The objectives should be written at a lower level, so that they can be evaluated at the conclusion of a project to see whether it was achieved or not. Goal statements are designed to be vague. Objectives should not be vague.  A well-worded objective will be Specific, Measurable, Attainable/Achievable, Realistic and Time-bound (SMART). 05/15/15 3Mavole, J. 2014
  4. 4. Purpose continues... An example of an objective statement might be to "upgrade the helpdesk telephone system by December 31 to achieve average client wait times of no more than two minutes". Note that the objective is much more concrete and specific than the goal statement. The objective is measurable in terms of the average client wait times the new phone system is trying to achieve. We must assume that the objective is achievable and realistic. The objective is time-bound, and should be completed by December 31. Objectives should refer to the deliverables of the project. In this case, it refers to the upgrade of the telephone system.05/15/15 4Mavole, J. 2014
  5. 5. 2. Projects are realistic Their aims must be achievable, and this means taking account both of requirements and of the financial and human resources available. Does what you would like to achieve possible using the resources you have? How prepared are you to account for every plan’s cost, when to be realized and who to accomplish it? 05/15/15 5Mavole, J. 2014
  6. 6. 3. Projects are limited in time and space They have a beginning and an end and are implemented in (a) specific place(s) and context. “It’s a temporary group activity designed to produce a unique product, service or result” A project is a temporary endeavor with a defined beginning and end (usually time- constrained, and often constrained by funding or deliverables), undertaken to meet unique goals and objectives, typically to bring about beneficial change or added value. The temporary nature of projects stands in contrast with business as usual (or operations), which are repetitive, permanent, or semi-permanent functional activities to produce products or services. In practice, the management of these two systems is often quite different, and as such requires the development of distinct technical skills and management strategies. The primary challenge of project management is to achieve all of the project goals and objectives while honoring the preconceived constraints. The primary constraints are scope, time, quality and budget 05/15/15 6Mavole, J. 2014
  7. 7. 4. Projects are complex Projects call on various planning and implementation skills and involve various partners and players. Project complexity- 'consisting of many varied interrelated parts' and can be operationalized in terms of differentiation and interdependency. This applies to any project dimension relevant to the project management process, such as organization, technology, environment, information, decision making and systems. It is worthwhile emphasizing that complexity is a distinctly different concept to two other project characteristics--size and uncertainty There are two types of project complexity most commonly referred to in project management;- That is, organizational complexity and technological complexity. 05/15/15 7Mavole, J. 2014
  8. 8. 5. Projects are collective Projects are the product of collective endeavours. They involve teamwork and various partners and cater for the needs of others. 05/15/15 8Mavole, J. 2014
  9. 9. 6. Projects are unique Projects stem from new ideas. They provide a specific response to a need (problem) in a specific context. They are innovative. 05/15/15 9Mavole, J. 2014
  10. 10. 7. Projects are an adventure Every project is different and ground-breaking; they always involve some uncertainty and risk. 05/15/15 10Mavole, J. 2014
  11. 11. 8. Projects can be assessed Projects are planned and broken down into measurable aims, which must be open to evaluation. 05/15/15 11Mavole, J. 2014
  12. 12. 9. Projects are made up of stages Projects have distinct, identifiable stages (Project cycle). Eight stage process through which practically every major project goes through (These stages) a. Identification: stage where one project-idea out of several alternatives is chosen and defined. b. Preparation: defined idea is carefully developed to the appraisal stage. c. Appraisal: every aspect of the project idea is subjected to systematic and comprehensive evaluation, and a project plan is prepared. d. Presentation: detailed plan is submitted for approval and financing to the appropriate entities. e. Implementation: with necessary approvals and financing in place, the project plan is implemented. f. Monitoring: at every stage the progress of the project is assessed against the plan. g. Evaluation: upon completion the project is reassessed in terms of its efficiency and performance. h. Termination – When the project comes to an end05/15/15 12Mavole, J. 2014