The Final 10%                            The Final 10%                                 John Sarik                         ...
The Final 10%  Introduction      Hardware Design Flow
The Final 10%  Introduction      What is “The Final 10%”?                 The extra effort at the end of a project        ...
The Final 10%  Introduction      What is the other 90%?                                             A functional prototype...
The Final 10%  Introduction      Design - Picking Parts                 Distributors (Digikey, Mouser, Newark, etc) have l...
The Final 10%  Introduction      Design - Picking Parts                 Manufacturers provide application notes, example c...
The Final 10%  Introduction      Build - Connecting Parts                 Breadboard                 Perfboard            ...
The Final 10%  Introduction      Test - Characterizing Circuits                 Does my circuit do what I want it do?     ...
The Final 10%  Introduction      Iterate                 “The design process is part intuition, part art and all          ...
The Final 10%  Designing a printed circuit board      What’s in a PCB?                Parts consist of a symbol and a foot...
The Final 10%  Designing a printed circuit board      What is EAGLE?                Easily Applicable Graphical Layout Edi...
The Final 10%  Designing a printed circuit board    1. Concept      Electroluminescent (EL) Display Power Supply       Fro...
The Final 10%  Designing a printed circuit board    2. Prototype      Breadboarded Power Supply
The Final 10%  Designing a printed circuit board    3. EAGLE Schematic      Create Parts                EAGLE includes lib...
The Final 10%  Designing a printed circuit board    3. EAGLE Schematic      Draw Symbol
The Final 10%  Designing a printed circuit board    3. EAGLE Schematic      Draw Footprint
The Final 10%  Designing a printed circuit board    3. EAGLE Schematic      Create Device
The Final 10%  Designing a printed circuit board    3. EAGLE Schematic      Connect Pins and Pads
The Final 10%  Designing a printed circuit board    3. EAGLE Schematic      Place Parts
The Final 10%  Designing a printed circuit board    3. EAGLE Schematic      Draw Nets
The Final 10%  Designing a printed circuit board    4. EAGLE Layout      Create Board
The Final 10%  Designing a printed circuit board    4. EAGLE Layout      Place Parts
The Final 10%  Designing a printed circuit board    4. EAGLE Layout      Route Signals                Red: Top copper     ...
The Final 10%  Designing a printed circuit board    4. EAGLE Layout      Routing Tips                Routing by hand is pr...
The Final 10%  Designing a printed circuit board    4. EAGLE Layout      Run Design Rule Check                PCB manufact...
The Final 10%  Designing a printed circuit board    5. CAM Processor      Generate Gerber and Drill Files                E...
The Final 10%  Designing a printed circuit board    5. CAM Processor      Verify the Gerber Files with gerbv              ...
The Final 10%  Designing a printed circuit board    6. Manufacturing      Gerber and Drill Files to Submit                ...
The Final 10%  Designing a printed circuit board    6. Manufacturing      4PCB.com and FreeDFM.com                Deals fo...
The Final 10%  Designing a printed circuit board    6. Manufacturing      APCircuits.com                Reasonable prices ...
The Final 10%  Designing a printed circuit board    7. The Finished PCB      Assembled EL Display Power Supply PCB
The Final 10%  Designing a printed circuit board    7. The Finished PCB      Tips and Tricks                Harness the po...
The Final 10%  Designing an enclosure      Why do you need an enclosure?                Enhances your project’s “wow facto...
The Final 10%  Designing an enclosure    Types of Enclosures      Off the shelf enclosures                Easy, moddable  ...
The Final 10%  Designing an enclosure    Types of Enclosures      T-slot frames                Large scale: 80/20         ...
The Final 10%  Designing an enclosure    Types of Enclosures      Laser-cut enclosures                2D Acrylic + 4-40 Sc...
The Final 10%  Designing an enclosure    Types of Enclosures      3D printed enclosures                True 3D capabilities
The Final 10%  Designing an enclosure    Available tools      Laser cutter                Universal VLS3.50               ...
The Final 10%  Designing an enclosure    Available tools      3D printer                Dimension uPrint Plus             ...
The Final 10%  Designing an enclosure    Using CAD software      Start with an accurate mechanical drawing            From...
The Final 10%  Designing an enclosure    Using CAD software      2D CAD                Can use any software that generates...
The Final 10%  Designing an enclosure    Using CAD software      3D CAD                Can use any software that generates...
The Final 10%  Designing an enclosure    Using CAD software      Tips and Tricks                Harness the power of open-...
The Final 10%  Resources      Useful Resources                SparkFun                Adafruit                Evil Mad Sci...
The Final 10%    QuestionsColumbiaoratory for ventional ectronics
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The Final 10%

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How to take a project from functional to amazing.

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The Final 10%

  1. 1. The Final 10% The Final 10% John Sarik Columbia University Department of Electrical Engineering Columbia Laboratory for Unconventional Electronics April 5, 2011
  2. 2. The Final 10% Introduction Hardware Design Flow
  3. 3. The Final 10% Introduction What is “The Final 10%”? The extra effort at the end of a project Transforms projects from “functional” to “amazing”
  4. 4. The Final 10% Introduction What is the other 90%? A functional prototype Intel 8088-based single board computer constructed on a breadboard. From Wikimedia Commons.
  5. 5. The Final 10% Introduction Design - Picking Parts Distributors (Digikey, Mouser, Newark, etc) have large selections, but can be hard to search
  6. 6. The Final 10% Introduction Design - Picking Parts Manufacturers provide application notes, example circuits, and free samples
  7. 7. The Final 10% Introduction Build - Connecting Parts Breadboard Perfboard Printed Circuit Board From oomlut on Flickr From Revolt Labs on Instructables From ladyada on Flickr
  8. 8. The Final 10% Introduction Test - Characterizing Circuits Does my circuit do what I want it do? From Wikimedia Commons
  9. 9. The Final 10% Introduction Iterate “The design process is part intuition, part art and all iterative tenacity” -Amanda Wozniak From ladyada on Flickr
  10. 10. The Final 10% Designing a printed circuit board What’s in a PCB? Parts consist of a symbol and a footprint Schematic Shows connections between part symbols Used to generate a “netlist” for a board Board Shows physical connections between part footprints These connections are copper traces that must be routed according to a set of design rules Used to generate “gerber files” for a board house
  11. 11. The Final 10% Designing a printed circuit board What is EAGLE? Easily Applicable Graphical Layout Editor (EAGLE) Computer Aided Design (CAD) Software for Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Design Crossplatform (Windows, Mac, Linux) EAGLE Light is free for non-profit applications Four Main Components Schematic Editor Layout Editor Autorouter CAM Processor
  12. 12. The Final 10% Designing a printed circuit board 1. Concept Electroluminescent (EL) Display Power Supply From MAKE: Magazine 21.
  13. 13. The Final 10% Designing a printed circuit board 2. Prototype Breadboarded Power Supply
  14. 14. The Final 10% Designing a printed circuit board 3. EAGLE Schematic Create Parts EAGLE includes libraries with commonly used parts 3rd party libraries add even more parts But sometimes you may have to create your own parts 74-8&)9:;9<&-:=><?@:A9:< 607"&0M 1$(-%&0M ? = 5;A? @ ; D C 5CDD G70(.72)I7&Y0&" !5>?> 5;A?)!5>DA 6 5;>> 5?=> 5@B= 5>?: 5>BC !5>>C 5>?@ !5>>= !5>>C 5? 5C:> 9M#7(&T )+#"B"#(-"$%) ,-./$0 !"#$%&($)* + 8$/7/2&($)* + 9.0/ . G-0$)2M#$L/7N$K))O!F?C 12-(3)4-5 6075 1$(5 6075 1$(5 6075 1$(5 . !"#$%&($)J&07&27-K) C@9E>>?F8G ;>> : D; ?5> ;>> => P?>Q)R)?<SN C@9E>>DF8G ?5@< : :> ?5> :?> :> C@9E>>CF8G @>> : ?@ ?5> C>> => . I5G5)0$/7/2&($)2-T$0&($K)))P?;Q C@9E>>:F8G :>> : C> ?5> ;?> =>
  15. 15. The Final 10% Designing a printed circuit board 3. EAGLE Schematic Draw Symbol
  16. 16. The Final 10% Designing a printed circuit board 3. EAGLE Schematic Draw Footprint
  17. 17. The Final 10% Designing a printed circuit board 3. EAGLE Schematic Create Device
  18. 18. The Final 10% Designing a printed circuit board 3. EAGLE Schematic Connect Pins and Pads
  19. 19. The Final 10% Designing a printed circuit board 3. EAGLE Schematic Place Parts
  20. 20. The Final 10% Designing a printed circuit board 3. EAGLE Schematic Draw Nets
  21. 21. The Final 10% Designing a printed circuit board 4. EAGLE Layout Create Board
  22. 22. The Final 10% Designing a printed circuit board 4. EAGLE Layout Place Parts
  23. 23. The Final 10% Designing a printed circuit board 4. EAGLE Layout Route Signals Red: Top copper Blue: Bottom copper Green: Pads and Vias
  24. 24. The Final 10% Designing a printed circuit board 4. EAGLE Layout Routing Tips Routing by hand is preferable, but not always possible Part placement is crucial EAGLE’s Autorouter is good enough for simple boards Freerouting.net has an excellent, EAGLE-compatible autorouter for more complex boards
  25. 25. The Final 10% Designing a printed circuit board 4. EAGLE Layout Run Design Rule Check PCB manufacturers have limits on the minimum size and spacing of traces
  26. 26. The Final 10% Designing a printed circuit board 5. CAM Processor Generate Gerber and Drill Files EAGLE uses CAM files to generate gerber files Board houses use these gerber files to make your PCB
  27. 27. The Final 10% Designing a printed circuit board 5. CAM Processor Verify the Gerber Files with gerbv Make sure your gerber files were generated correctly
  28. 28. The Final 10% Designing a printed circuit board 6. Manufacturing Gerber and Drill Files to Submit Layers Required Outline Drill file Top copper Bottom copper Optional Layers Top and bottom stencil (labels) Top and bottom solder mask (protective coating)
  29. 29. The Final 10% Designing a printed circuit board 6. Manufacturing 4PCB.com and FreeDFM.com Deals for students Good for large orders
  30. 30. The Final 10% Designing a printed circuit board 6. Manufacturing APCircuits.com Reasonable prices for quick turn boards 2-day turn around, but no soldermask or stencils
  31. 31. The Final 10% Designing a printed circuit board 7. The Finished PCB Assembled EL Display Power Supply PCB
  32. 32. The Final 10% Designing a printed circuit board 7. The Finished PCB Tips and Tricks Harness the power of open-source hardware! Label EVERYTHING! Triple check EVERYTHING! Print out custom part layouts Print out final board designs Avoid the classic Arduino spacing error!
  33. 33. The Final 10% Designing an enclosure Why do you need an enclosure? Enhances your project’s “wow factor” Provides protection from the “negation fields”
  34. 34. The Final 10% Designing an enclosure Types of Enclosures Off the shelf enclosures Easy, moddable SparkFun Adafruit
  35. 35. The Final 10% Designing an enclosure Types of Enclosures T-slot frames Large scale: 80/20 Small scale: Makerbeam, Microrax
  36. 36. The Final 10% Designing an enclosure Types of Enclosures Laser-cut enclosures 2D Acrylic + 4-40 Screws & Nuts = 3D Enclosure
  37. 37. The Final 10% Designing an enclosure Types of Enclosures 3D printed enclosures True 3D capabilities
  38. 38. The Final 10% Designing an enclosure Available tools Laser cutter Universal VLS3.50 12" x 24" bed, 40W CO2 laser Requires DXF (Drawing Interchange File)
  39. 39. The Final 10% Designing an enclosure Available tools 3D printer Dimension uPrint Plus 8" x 8" x 6" build area Recommended 0.075" minimum feature size Requires STL (Stereolithography) file
  40. 40. The Final 10% Designing an enclosure Using CAD software Start with an accurate mechanical drawing From WayneAndLayne
  41. 41. The Final 10% Designing an enclosure Using CAD software 2D CAD Can use any software that generates vector images (AutoCAD, Illustrator, etc) Inkscape is free and (relatively) easy Exporting between different file formats can be frustrating
  42. 42. The Final 10% Designing an enclosure Using CAD software 3D CAD Can use any software that generates STL files (AutoCAD, SolidWorks, SketchUp, etc) OpenSCAD is “The Programmers Solid 3D CAD”
  43. 43. The Final 10% Designing an enclosure Using CAD software Tips and Tricks Harness the power of open-source hardware! Measure EVERYTHING! Triple check EVERYTHING! Print out your designs Check your units!
  44. 44. The Final 10% Resources Useful Resources SparkFun Adafruit Evil Mad Scientist Solarbotics Thingiverse Ponoko Shapeways MakerBot Wiki McMaste-Carr
  45. 45. The Final 10% QuestionsColumbiaoratory for ventional ectronics

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