To be or not to be: The outcomes of research into the policy and practice of widening participation in drama

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A conference paper presented at the Widening Participation Conference 2012 'Discourse of Inclusion in Higher Education' 24-25 April 2012, UK

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To be or not to be: The outcomes of research into the policy and practice of widening participation in drama

  1. 1. Open University Widening Participation Conference 2012: Discourses of Inclusion in Higher Education (‘Inclusive policy and practice’ theme) TO BE OR NOT TO BE:THE OUTCOMES OF RESEARCH INTO THE POLICY AND PRACTICE OFWIDENING PARTICIPATION IN DRAMA Richard Harrison School and Community Liaison Officer
  2. 2. Aims of the session- Provide a context for the research: institutional, governmental and theoretical.- Provide an overview of WP activity at Central- Describe Central’s Career Pathways Mapping Project- Present findings and recommendations from the Career Pathways Mapping Project- Consider further research opportunities
  3. 3. Outline- Contexts for the research: researcher;institutional; policy; theory- Research aims and questions- Operation of the research- Research findings and recommendations- Further research- Concluding remarks
  4. 4. Outline- Contexts for the research: researcher;institutional; policy; theory- Research aims and questions- Operation of the research- Research findings and recommendations- Further research- Concluding remarks
  5. 5. Autobiography of the researcher- Currently School and Community Liaison Officer at CSSD- Formerly Undergraduate Recruitment and AdmissionsOfficer at The University of Warwick- Worked in theatre marketing/audience development atBirmingham Repertory Theatre- Also youth theatre: Warwick Arts Centre and AllesleyChildren’s Theatre- BA (Hons) English and Theatre Studies, MA Arts Policyand Management and MA Advanced Educational Practice- Prior to that, A Level Theatre Studies and BTECPerforming Arts- School governor
  6. 6. The same but different…- ‘Widening participation’ in higher education and the arts: - in HE it is called ‘widening participation’; in the arts it is called ‘audience development’ and ‘community engagement’.- The aims, though, are similar: to broadenaccess to HE/the arts.
  7. 7. Institutional context (1)- Central has a history of engaging with a diverse range of groups.- Central engages in a range of activities to promotewidening participation to HE and to drama in particular.
  8. 8. Institutional context (2)- Driver for this project is the commitment made in Central’s access agreement.…development of a model for mapping the pathways taken by school students intothe study of drama and theatre in higher education, enabling measurement ofsuccess of outreach activities in attracting applicants to HE and to the School…(Section 1.1)The School would aim to establish its mapping model over five years and thenpresent the findings to other institutions and agencies in the sector. A key aim wouldbe to identify which activities are most effective in attracting under-representedgroups in HE in order to target funding more effectively and to invest in the mosteffective strategies. (Section 7.5.2)- This has been a longitudinal research project,which has utilised both quantitative and qualitativedata.
  9. 9. Key areas of focus for access at Central- Age- BAME (as %age of declarations)- Disability- Gender- Socio-economic status - NS SEC 4, 5, 6, 7 (location adjusted) - POLAR2 - Students from state schools and colleges (location adjusted)
  10. 10. Why does Central engage in this activity?- Broaden access to Central, and the subject area of drama in general.- Institutional belief in the importance of access and widening participation.- Helps us access potential students who may not otherwise engage with Central.- Desire to develop a diverse student – and staff – base that contributes to Central being an exciting place to study and work.- There is an expectation on publicly-funded organisations (whether HE or the arts) that they will make themselves as accessible as possible to the communities they serve.
  11. 11. Why drama? (1)‘Drama is a collaborative group artform where people transform,act, and reflect upon the human condition. In drama, people arethe instruments of inquiry.’ (Taylor, 2002, 1)‘Drama … invites its students to learn about themselves, eachother and the world in which they are living; it is an ‘exploratorymedium’ (Hornbrook, 1991, 19). It asks students to respond to thatworld, and to challenge it, not to accept the status quo but to beagents for change. It draws from deep inside the learner toencourage the most passionate response… It reduces all learnersto their base selves: humans engaged in a dialogue with, betweenand beyond themselves, and encourages appreciation of anindividual’s differences. Drama ‘relies on social interaction andcollaborative practices’ (Kempe and Nicholson, 2007, 92).’ R. Harrison. ‘Homotopia? Recognising and understanding: how are young gay male subjectivities constituted in the school drama studio, and what are the implications of these constitutions and identifications for participation in learning?’ [Unpublished MA assignment] London, 2010.
  12. 12. Why drama? (2)- Despite its dialogic approach, drama can be viewed asoperating within an elitist arena; Central has an expectationthat its applicants are conversant with live theatre, despitethe physical and psychological barriers to participationexperienced by some young people.- ‘While lack of time and cost are frequently cited barriers… research finds that psychological barriers are moreimportant overall than practical concerns… Caught up withthis are questions of intellectual nervousness and lack ofcultural self-confidence… Many people report feeling thatthe arts are ‘not for people like me’ and are concerned about notfitting in or being looked down on in some way.’ (CreativeResearch, 2007, cited in Bunting, 2010, p.27, quoted inHarrison, 2011)
  13. 13. Why drama? (3)- ‘‘Process drama’ therefore offers young people a chance to learn ‘through drama’ (Murphy in Downes et al, 2007,p.309) and has the potential to transmit knowledge and power tothe ‘oppressed’, disrupting notions of ‘reproduction’ andhegemony.’ (Harrison, 2011)
  14. 14. Widening participation: a policy context: social justice… “Widening participation addresses the large discrepancies in the take-up of higher education opportunities between different social groups. Under-representation is closely connected with broader issues of equity and social inclusion, so we are concerned with ensuring equality of opportunity for disabled students, mature students, women and men, and all ethnic groups. “We work with higher education institutions and other organisations to raise aspirations and educational attainment among people from under-represented communities to prepare them for higher education, ensure success on their programme of study, improve their employment prospects and open possibilities for postgraduate study, and give them opportunities to return to learning throughout their lives.” HEFCE, ‘Widening Participation’ [Online}. Available from <http://www.hefce.ac.uk/widen/>. 29 March 2012. [Accessed 4 April 2012].
  15. 15. Widening participation: a policy context: …versus economic imperative “Britain can only succeed in a rapidly changing world if we develop the skills of our people to the fullest possible extent … to create an innovative and competitive economy.” John Denham, Former Secretary of State for Innovation, Universities and Skills, at the Action on Access conference in December 2007
  16. 16. Policy drivers for WP activity in 2006- Government aim to achieve up to 50% of 18-30 year olds having anexperience of higher education.- Institutional desire to broaden and diversify student population.- Impact on learning environment for students and staff.- Positive effect of more diverse student - and staff - populations.
  17. 17. Policy drivers: the Government’s perspective in2006- New Labour imperative (born in c.1999),though not a New Labour invention.- Open University, P/T degrees, open studieshave existed for a number of years.- Office for Fair Access (OFFA) inaugurated in2004 following The Higher Education Act 2004,with powers increasing followingimplementation of increased fees- Funding linked to WP and achieving targetsset by HEFCE/OFFA/DBIS
  18. 18. Policy drivers for WP activity in 2012: a mixedpicture?- Greater focus on notion of ‘fair access’as opposed to ‘widening participation’.- Social mobility a key driver, but what form does that mobility take, and for whom?- Abolition of Aimhigher and other networks.- Increased role for OFFA following studentfunding changes.- Appointment of Prof Les Ebdon as Director of Fair Access to Higher Education.
  19. 19. WP: the academic discourse“…There is a growing concern to increase, anddiversify, the numbers of students in highereducation… These drives to widen participation aremotivated by a number of factors, including economic,institutional and social justice concerns… To achievethis target of widened (not merely increased)participation, new students will need to be recruitedfrom previously under-represented groups.” L Archer, M Hutchings, and A Ross. Higher Education and Social Class: Issues of Exclusion and Inclusion. London: RoutledgeFalmer, 2003
  20. 20. WP: the academic discourse“Currently, almost all young people from middle-classand professional families go on to university.Participation among young people from working-classgroups are a key target of initiatives aimed atwidening participation in post-compulsory education.” L Archer, M Hutchings, and A Ross. Higher Education and Social Class: Issues of Exclusion and Inclusion. London: RoutledgeFalmer, 2003
  21. 21. WP: the academic discourse“Widening participation policy and practice must moveaway from deficit discourses and perspectives thathide the complex power relations tied to certainvalues to developing policies and practices that beginto challenge deeply embedded inequalities andexclusion in higher education.” P.J. Burke. ‘Fair access? Exploring gender, access and participation beyond entry to higher education’ in Leathwood C. and Francis, B. (Eds) Gender and Lifelong Learning: Critical Feminist Engagements. Abingdon: Routledge, 2006
  22. 22. WP: the implications of WP/outreach AGAINST FORLowering standards Equality of opportunity for the individualCostly for Universities and society Limits social exclusion and the associated(interventions, extra support etc.) problems (Social mobility)WP students more likely to drop out Employment / economic benefits (Good for individual, good for society)Mass HE lowers the market value of a Avoiding ‘waste of natural resources’degree (less delineation between (not missing out on talent)individuals)Social engineering that disadvantages Better relations between staff and studentIndependent School studentsDevalues non-University education/career Greater diversity = healthier learningpaths environment Source: Lewis, K. ‘Widening Participation: Philosophy, policy and practice’. Conference Proceedings, ‘AUA London Region Conference’, Birkbeck, University of London, 12.11.08.
  23. 23. WP: the current context“Universities serve both as gatekeepers for established orders ofinequality, and as transformative institutions that enable socialjustice through inter-generational changes in circumstance.Because of this ambiguity, the currently prevalent metaphor of thecompetitive marketplace is both wrong and ultimately self-defeating. The model of the market first renders a highereducation qualification as a positional good, and then devalues thecurrency. Reasserting the transformational role of highereducation through universities’ role in building the capabilities of aperson to lead the life that they value both re-establishes the corequalities of education and provides for visionary public policy.” M. Hall, Inequality and higher education: marketplace or social justice? Stimulus paper. Leadership Foundation for Higher Education, London, 2012.
  24. 24. WP outreach: the practice“There is now mounting evidence that targetedoutreach which boosts achievement andaspirations among disadvantaged young peopleat a much earlier stage is a more effective wayof widening access…” M. Harris, ‘Targeted outreach is the key to widening access athighly selective universities’ [Press release]. Available from <http:// www.offa.org.uk/press-releases/targeted-outreach-is-the-key-to- widening-access-at-highly-selective-universities-says-offa/> Office for Fair Access, Bristol, 2010.
  25. 25. The broader educational context (1) English Baccalaureate versus… “Apart from the intrinsic worth of including art and music in the statutory curriculum from 5 to 16 because of the importance of pupils acquiring knowledge of their cultural heritage(s), there is now substantial evidence that a good art and music education benefits individuals, their communities and the nation as a whole in other ways…” “In other words, the arts subjects in the curriculum have the potential to meet aims and purposes in all of the domains mentioned in Chapter 2 (i.e. economic, cultural, social and personal). We therefore recommend that education in art and music should be supported in Key Stage 4 through statutory requirement (separately or in combination), i.e. as part of the Basic Curriculum, as broad responsibilities; content should be determined by the school.”T. Oates, M. James, A. Pollard and D William. The Framework for the National Curriculum: A report by the Expert Panel for the National Curriculum review. Department for Education, London, 2011.
  26. 26. The broader educational context (2) “Recommendation 1: Broad Cultural Education for all children There should be a minimum level of Cultural Education that a child should expect to receive during his or her schooling as a whole. For children to leave full-time education without having engaged in the spectrum of Cultural Education outlined below would be a failure of a system which sets out to create young people who are not only academically able, but also have a fully-rounded appreciation of the world around them.” (p.23) D. Henley. Cultural Education in England: An independent review by DarrenHenley for the Department of Culture, Media and Sport and the Department for Education. Department for Culture, Media and Sport, London, 2012.
  27. 27. The broader educational context (3) “As part of our mission, Achieving great art for everyone, we have a goal to make sure that every child and young person has the opportunity to experience the richness of the arts and culture. To help us achieve this we will fund a network of 10 bridge organisations… that will use their experience and expertise to connect children and young people, schools and communities with art and culture.”Arts Council England. (2012) ‘Bridge organisations’. [Online]. Available from<http://www.artscouncil.org.uk/what-we-do/our-priorities-2011-15/children-and- young-people/bridge-organisations/>/. [Accessed 4 April 2012].
  28. 28. An additional theoretical context‘The theoretical underpinning for this investigation draws on thewritings of Pierre Bourdieu and Michel Foucault; Bourdieu arguedthat ‘capitals’ circulate in society, and accumulate in the middle-classes, and that these ‘capitals’ buy privilege in education andwork. Foucault wrote that power also circulates in society, and thatpower can result from the possession of knowledge. Access topower is restricted, though if it is shared can support a more equalsociety, just as the acquisition of Bourdieurian capital can too leadto social mobility. Thus, the role that theatres can play insupporting the acquisition of capital and power is discussed, tounderstand the sociological reason for engagement practice, andits link to the social inclusion drivers of recent participatory activity.’R. Harrison. Models of Engagement: How Producing Theatres Engage Young People as Makers and Spectators. [Unpublished MA dissertation] London, 2011.
  29. 29. WP activity at Central• Work of Central Connects: Community Drama Officer (short courses, NST, Aimhigher, projects), business development (communication and presentation training, voice classes), Saturday Classes, Summer Schools (funded and private).• Other outreach at Central: placements, public productions, research seminars and lectures, consultancy work, external lettings, UG/PG programmes.• Bursary and scholarship support.
  30. 30. The role of the SCLO• Governed by OFFA and our access agreements.• Two areas of activity at Central: workshops and research. Innovative in drama subject area.• ‘Higher Education Audition/Interview Workshops’• ‘Career Pathways Mapping Project’• Audition Vouchers Scheme• Also a member of the Equality and Diversity Committee, author of safeguarding policy, Access HE, Aimhigher, Meteor project
  31. 31. Outline- Contexts for the research: researcher;institutional; policy; theory- Research aims and questions- Operation of the research- Research findings and recommendations- Further research- Concluding remarks
  32. 32. A response:Career PathwaysMapping Project
  33. 33. Research aim- To develop a model for mappingcareer pathways into the study of drama/theatre in higher education.
  34. 34. Research questions- What experiences are available to young people who show an interest in drama/theatre during their secondaryschooling?- What drama/theatre-related opportunities are open toyoung people in London?- What advice is, or is not, available to young peopleinterested in progressing within drama/theatre?- How are young people’s aspirations in drama explored and met?- How effective are participatory wideningparticipation interventions in encouraging young people toconsider study and work pathways in drama?
  35. 35. Outline- Contexts for the research: researcher;institutional; policy; theory- Research aims and questions- Operation of the research- Research findings and recommendations- Further research- Concluding remarks
  36. 36. Stages of the research project- The research project has been conducted overfive academic years, and comprised three mainstages: - Pre-pilot stage (2006-2007) during which sampling was explored, and methodologies established. - Pilot stage (2007-2008) during which methodologies were tested, and literature reviewed. - Study (2008-2011).- Data collection was concluded in July 2011, and the final research report will be published insummer 2012.
  37. 37. Sampling- Data has been collected from two primary sources: - students, their teachers, professionals (primary); - literature/web based (secondary).- The project involves students from seven London secondary schools, one sixth form college and one FEcollege (both London), and one non-London school.- Six Year 10/12 students were chosen by their teachers – with guidance from researcher – to be interviewed inKS4/KS5 and through their post-16 study into higher education.- Year 10/11 students attending Central’s HEFCE-fundedsummer schools (since 2007) have also been tracked.- Existing literature and web resources are being used tocompile information about the opportunities available to studentswanting to pursue an interest in drama.
  38. 38. Research sites Inner Outer Non- Co- London London London educationa Girls only Boys only 11-16 11-18 16-19 SpecialismSite A   Site B   Site C   Site D   Site E   Site F   Site G    ArtsSite H   Site I   Site J   SummerSchool     
  39. 39. Professionals interviewedProfessor Jonathan Neelands, University of WarwickOliver Benjamin, A New DirectionCaroline Bray, Arts AwardPaul Webster, EdExcelCareers adviser (e-mail response)AQA (e-mail response)
  40. 40. Methodology- This is a practitioner-led research project, which may more accurately be considered a casestudy.- A mixed-method approach – thus enabling thecollection of quantitative and qualitative data – hasbeen employed, comprising: - initial questionnaire and interview; - workshop intervention; - follow-up questionnaire and interview; - questionnaire and face-to-face interview or written answer questions in subsequent years.- Statistical data is also being analysed and used.
  41. 41. Data gathering stagesYear 10:- Initial group interview- Workshop intervention- Follow-up interviewYear 11:- End-of-L2 study interviewYear 12:- Progress update interview (can be postalquestionnaire)Year 13:- End-of-L3 study interview (can be postalquestionnaire)Year 1 HE:- E-mail/postal questionnaire to students
  42. 42. Interviews conducted (Year 5: 2010-2011)
  43. 43. Year 10: Initial interview (questionnaire)
  44. 44. Year 10: Initial interview (interview)1. What are your ideas for what you would like to do afterYear 11? Tell me if they involve studying, working, or both,and whether your plans involve studying Drama further?2. How are you going about achieving these ideas?3. What advice have you been given relating to what youwould like to do after Year 11? This might be in your Dramalessons, careers sessions, or from another source.4. Are you involved in drama outside of lessons? If so, tellme about it.5. How have your ideas for post-16 ideas developed?
  45. 45. Higher Education Audition/Interview Workshops
  46. 46. Year 10: Initial interview (questionnaire)
  47. 47. A post-workshop legacy
  48. 48. Year 10: Follow-up interview (questionnaire)
  49. 49. Year 10: Follow-up interview (questionnaire)
  50. 50. Year 10: Follow-up interview (interview)1. Now that you’ve taken part in the workshop, how have your ideas for what you would like to do after Year 11 changed? Tell me if they now involve studying, working – or both –and whether your plans involve studying Drama further.2. How will you now go about achieving these aims?3. What extra advice and information do you think you would you like to help with making choices for after GCSE? This might be in your Drama lessons, careers sessions, or from elsewhere.4. Might you now get involved in drama activities outside of lessons? If so, tell me about it.5. How have your ideas for what you might do after Year 13 changed?
  51. 51. Year 11: Follow-up interview (questionnaire)
  52. 52. Year 11: Follow-up interview (questionnaire)
  53. 53. Year 11: Follow-up interview (interview)1. Now that you are almost at the end of Year 11, how have your ideas for what you would like to do next year changed from last summer? Tell me if they involve studying,working – or both – and whether your plans involve studyingDrama further.2. How are you going about achieving these aims?3. What extra advice and information have you sought during this year to help with making choices for after Year 11?This might be in your Drama lessons, careers sessions, orfrom elsewhere.4. Since the workshop, have you become involved in drama activities outside of your lessons? If so, what activitieshave you participated in?5. How have your ideas for what you might do after Year 13 changed?
  54. 54. Pros/cons of chosen methodology PROS CONSHas enabled project to track small number The outcomes cannot be broadly translatedof learners because of case study approachAllows for detailed understanding of The design is too ambitiousparticipantsAllows for obtaining of both quantitative It is difficult (impossible!) for a singleand qualitative data researcher to collate, record and transcribe all of the dataA case study design provides an It is difficult to maintain input from youngopportunity to understand the context of the people as they progress throughinstitutions and the learners school/college and into HEIt is a low-cost model The design relies on a certain level of literacy among participantsThe methodology is discursive, which is Pressures in schools/colleges can impactappropriate to subject area on the smooth running of the data collection cycle!
  55. 55. Outline- Contexts for the research: researcher;institutional; policy; theory- Research aims and questions- Operation of the research- Research findings and recommendations- Further research- Concluding remarks
  56. 56. Limitations of analysis- The following findings and recommendations are derived from generalised interpretation of the research data.- As it has not been possible to transcribe the interviews andtabulate the questionnaire responses, the findings andrecommendations are based on themes that have been repeatedlydiscussed across the interviews.- The analysis also draws on my outreach practice, and theconversations held with students and their teachers/advisersduring workshops.- The theoretical positions established earlier also provide an impetus to the analysis and interpretation.
  57. 57. Research findings (1)- Students select to study drama at L2 (GCSE equivalent)and L3 (A Level equivalent) for a variety of reasons, not alwaysrelated to a desire to work in the creative industries. Theinstrumental application of drama through the transferrable skillsthat are developed in studying the subject are as important asthe artistic skills acquired.- Preparation for higher education does not start earlyenough in schools/colleges. There is a desire from studentsfor it to begin much earlier in their secondary school careers.- Careers advice in state-maintained schools and colleges iswoefully inadequate, and where provision is available, advisersoften lack robust knowledge of drama-related pathways.- Students greatly value opportunities to engage withcreative industries organisations, particularly through work experienceplacements and outreach opportunities.
  58. 58. Research findings (2)- Different curricular/examination courses are better suitedto particular study routes in higher education; information,advice and guidance needs to be improved to assist studentsin making the most adequate choices.- Programmes such as Arts Award offer students veryvaluable opportunities to further independence and leadershipin arts contexts; such opportunities should be encouraged byschools and colleges, and should be recognised byHEIs/employers.- The current policy context, which focuses on success inEBacc subjects, is marginalising drama study at L2.- The outcomes of the Henley Review of Cultural Education provide a valuable opportunity to emphasise the value(instrumental and artistic) of drama study in schools.
  59. 59. Recommendations (1)- Central must continue to provide opportunities for youngpeople to learn more about the School and its applicationand audition/interview procedures. This needs to begin from,ideally, upper primary age, or at least during KS3.- Central and other HEIs must make explicit theiraudition/interview criteria and convey this in suitable languagefor the intended audiences.- Central and other HEIs must maintain a dialogue withyoung people to understand the support they need, and theformat that support should take.- Central should provide recognised support on drama-related careers pathways in the form of CPD andinformation for careers advisers. This recommendation must bepursued in dialogue with careers professionals.
  60. 60. Recommendations (2)- Central should work with partners to develop resourcesthat are freely and widely available to help young people ininvestigating drama-related courses and careers. Any suchresources should supplement, not duplicate, existing provision.This may also include a work experience provisiondatabase.- Central should support increased access to extra-curricular opportunities within drama so that young people are ableto pursue interests independently of school/college. Thismay be through providing opportunities or information.- Central should explore how it might link more closely with Arts Award to emphasise the benefits of participating insuch a programme.- Central should seek to support the recommendations ofthe Henley Review to ensure that drama and other artssubjects are given appropriate recognition in school curricula.
  61. 61. A model for mapping career pathways? (1)- This research has demonstrated that there is no singlemodel for mapping young people’s journeys into studyingdrama in higher education, and then into theatre-related careers.- The variety of curricular and extra-curricular opportunities in drama mean that young people can access drama in HE and/or as a career from a variety of starting points.- One dominant model has, however, appeared: the study of drama at L2 and L3, which then leads in to studying drama at university or drama school, before embarking on an arts- related career. This may or may not be supplemented by participation in extra-curricular drama opportunities, yetthose who progress into specialised training andemployment are more likely to have participated in extra-curriculardrama activities at some point.
  62. 62. A model for mapping career pathways? (2)- Bourdieu’s ‘capitals’ theory suggests, though, that thosemost able to access extra-curricular opportunities alreadypossess the social and cultural capital needed to study andwork in drama.- What this research suggests, therefore, is that greateraccess needs to be provided for those from ‘widening`participation’ backgrounds to access extra-curricularopportunities to increase their social and cultural capital, and thustheir chance of accessing specialist training and employment.- Similarly, institutions like Central must review theirpractices, policies and expectations to ensure that potentialcan be recognised independently of ability to participate in acertain set of experiences.
  63. 63. Outline- Contexts for the research: researcher;institutional; policy; theory- Research aims and questions- Operation of the research- Research findings and recommendations- Further research- Concluding remarks
  64. 64. ‘Career Pathways Mapping Project’: a future?This project has been, to date, conceived, managed and deliveredby one member of staff with a varied job role. The ambitiousdesign of the project means that there is scope for building on thework to date, to maximise the input of the participating youngpeople.- Central should invest the resource needed to fullytranscribe and analyse the interviews conducted during thisresearch project.- Central should also invest the resource needed to tabulate the quantitative data obtained through the research, andanalyse for patters within individuals and across cohorts.- Central should then seek to make this resource open toother researchers, so that the participants’ contributions existbeyond the publication of the final report. - Attention would need to be paid to issues of consent.
  65. 65. Further research (2011-2012) (1)- Driver for this project is the commitment made in Central’s 2011-2012 access agreement.Central will institute a time-limited impact study, following completion anddissemination of its ‘Career Pathways Mapping Project’, to measure the impact andeffect of its outreach activities since the inauguration of the first access agreement in2006-2007. This study will work with new and continuing students, graduates andpostgraduate students to continue from the focus on pre-applicants in the previousresearch project. This research will also enable to School to plan its outreachcommitments from 2012-2013 onwards. (Section 7.5.3)- This will be a short-term study using bothquantitative and qualitative data gained from e- mailquestionnaires and focus groups.
  66. 66. Further research (2011-2012) (2)- ‘Shift’ session at PSi #18 (Performance Studies International) conference, 2012Journeys and their ends: Training, social division and qualityThe shift will open up the concept of the training ‘journey’ by suggesting that it issomething much larger than a course within an institution. It will look at the range ofextra-institutional journeys and blockages to them, the effects on what is trained andlearnt, and the emergence of aesthetic choices from what is negotiated. It will try togather together and map the journeys of all in the session, to produce a morecomplex collective understanding of the sociality of training.- This session will be both discursive andcollaborative, two key features of our subject area. Itwill bring together young people from Leeds andsurrounding areas, teachers, PSi delegates, staff frompartner institutions (Liverpool Community College andGraeae), a Central alum, and staff from across theSchool.
  67. 67. Outline- Contexts for the research: researcher;institutional; policy; theory- Research aims and questions- Operation of the research- Research findings and recommendations- Further research- Concluding remarks
  68. 68. Why does Central engage in this activity?- Broaden access to Central, and the subject area of drama in general.- Institutional belief in the importance of access and widening participation.- Helps us access potential students who may not otherwise engage with Central.- Desire to develop a diverse student – and staff – base that contributes to Central being an exciting place to study and work.- There is an expectation on publicly-funded organisations (whether HE or the arts) that they will make themselves as accessible as possible to the communities they serve.
  69. 69. Conclusions- WP in HE is driven by both institutional andgovernmental imperatives- WP is essential, not simply to fulfil Governmentobjectives, but to ensure diversity of the student body- WP is the ‘philosophy’ behind this activity, and outreachthe way of enacting it- The aim is to broaden access to higher education, andspecifically at Central to drama as a subject area- Beware of the ‘deficit model’ approach- The individual is of paramount importance- We’re already doing a lot of good work, but there is much room for improvement!
  70. 70. Concluding remarks- This has been an ambitious – and unique – piece of research.- There is very little similar research available.- The mixture of approaches has provided a broad picture of access to participation in drama.- It is envisaged that this research will be relevant to Central, as well as other drama schools/HEIs and related bodies (CDS/NCDT, DfE, DBIS,HEFCE, Action on Access, examination boards,ACE).
  71. 71. What were the aims of the session?- Provide a context for the research: institutional, governmental and theoretical.- Provide an overview of WP activity at Central- Describe Central’s Career Pathways Mapping Project- Present findings and recommendations from the Career Pathways Mapping Project- Consider further research opportunities
  72. 72. What have we covered?- Contexts for the research: researcher;institutional; policy; theory- Research aims and questions- Operation of the research- Research findings and recommendations- Further research- Concluding remarks
  73. 73. Any questions?
  74. 74. Bibliography (1)• Go to www.cssd.ac.uk to read Central’s WP Strategy• Go to www.cssd.ac.uk to read more about our school and community liaison activity. You’ll also see links to some of our other outreach activity.• See the HEFCE website for further information on the strategic drivers behind WP: http://www.hefce.ac.uk/ widen/• Go to www.offa.org.uk to read Central’s access agreement• Archer, L, M Hutchings, and A Ross. Higher Education and Social Class: Issues of Exclusion and Inclusion. London: RoutledgeFalmer, 2003• Arts Council England. (2012) ‘Bridge organisations’. [Online]. Available from <http://www.artscouncil.org.uk/what-we-do/our-priorities-2011-15/children-and-young-people/bridge- organisations/>/. [Accessed 4 April 2012].• Bourdieu, P. (1984; 2010) Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. Trans Nice, R. Abingdon: Routledge Classics.• Bourdieu, P. (2006) ‘The Forms of Capital’. In: Lauder, H., Brown, P., Dillabough, J.A., and Halsey, A. H. (eds). Education, Globalization and Social Change. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp105-118.• Burke, P.J. (2002) Accessing Education effectively widening participation. Stoke-on-Trent, Trentham Books.• Burke, P.J. ‘Fair access? Exploring gender, access and participation beyond entry to higher education’ in Leathwood C. and Francis, B. (Eds) Gender and Lifelong Learning: Critical Feminist Engagements. Abingdon: Routledge, 2006• Bunting, C. (2010) Achieving great art for everyone: A review of research and literature to inform the Arts Council’s 10-year strategic framework. London: Arts Council England.
  75. 75. Bibliography (2)• Denham, J. (2007) ‘Speech’, Conference Proceedings, Action on Access Annual Conference, 11.12.07.• Foucault, M. (1982) The Subject and Power (1982) Excerpt. [Online] Available from <http://foucault.info/ documents/foucault.power.en.html>. [Accessed 17 September 2011].• Gillborn, D. (2008) ‘What Happened to Race Equality?’, Conference Proceedings, ‘Widening Participation: Challenging Educational Inequalities’, Institute of Education, 7.1.08.• Gordon, C. (ed) (1980) Michel Foucault: Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings 1972-1977 By Michel Foucault. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.• Hall, M. (2012) Inequality and higher education: marketplace or social justice? Stimulus paper. London: Leadership Foundation for Higher Education.• Harris, M. (2010) ‘Targeted outreach is the key to widening access at highly selective universities’ [Press release]. Available from <http://www.offa.org.uk/press-releases/targeted-outreach-is-the-key-to-widening- access-at-highly-selective-universities-says-offa/> Bristol: Office for Fair Access.• Harrison, R. (2010) ‘Homotopia? Recognising and understanding: how are young gay male subjectivities constituted in the school drama studio, and what are the implications of these constitutions and identifications for participation in learning?’ [Unpublished MA assignment] London.• Harrison, R. (2011) Models of Engagement: How Producing Theatres Engage Young People as Makers and Spectators. [Unpublished MA dissertation]. London.• Henley, D. (2012) Cultural Education in England: An independent review by Darren Henley for the Department of Culture, Media and Sport and the Department for Education. London: Department for Culture, Media and Sport.• Hornbrook, D. (1991) Education in Drama: Casting the Dramatic Curriculum. ‘The Falmer Press Library on Aesthetic Education: The Individual Studies’ series. London: The Falmer Press.
  76. 76. Bibliography (3)• Kempe, A. and Nicholson, H. (2007) Learning to Teach Drama 11-18. Second edition. London: Continuum.• Lewis, K. ‘Widening Participation: Philosophy, policy and practice’. Conference Proceedings, ‘AUA London Region Conference’, Birkbeck, University of London, 12.11.08.• Murphy, P. (2007) ‘Drama as Radical Pedagogy’ in Downes, P. and Gilliagan, A.L. (eds) (2007) Beyond educational disadvantage. Dublin: Institute of Public Administration.• Oates, T., M. James, A. Pollard and D William. (2011) The Framework for the National Curriculum: A report by the Expert Panel for the National Curriculum review. London: Department for Education.• Reay, D, M. E. David and S Ball. (2005) Degrees of Choice: Social Class, Race and Gender in Higher Education. Stoke-on-Trent, Trentham Books.• Taylor, P. (2000) The Drama Classroom: Action, Reflection, Transformation. London: RoutledgeFalmer.
  77. 77. If you’d like to read a copy of thefinalised research report, and the research report for the one-year impact study, visit www.cssd.ac.uk/schools
  78. 78. If you have any comments or questions, contact me on:Richard.Harrison@cssd.ac.uk Tel: +44 (0) 20 7449 1597 Mob: +44 (0) 7887 691 937 www.cssd.ac.uk/schools

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