John Everett MillaisOpheliaExhibited in 1855 at the Salon Universelle in ParisOphelia, from Shakespeare’s Hamlet.
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (French, 1780–1867), Comtessed’Haussonville, dated 1845; Oil on canvas, 51 ⅞ x 36 ¼ inches (131.8 x 92); The Frick Collection, New York. How does Ingres work both acknowledge the existence of photography and displays traditional painting techniques?Compare with Nadar’s portraits (photography). Ingres captures realistic detail – light in the corner of the room, the reflection in the mirror, details of the dress and folds. He used models and photographs to get the human figure right. Ingres was able to color his portrait while photography was not. Which has the advantage?
Chapter 30 19th Century Art In Europe And The United States 2
Chapter 30: 19th Century Art in Europe and the United States<br />Realism and Photography<br />Magister Ricard<br />AP Art History<br />
Consider: Influences of Enlightenment and Science <br />How might developments in science and industry affect social change?<br />How might these same influences affect art and the ideas of the artists?<br />How might the invention of photography affect the creation and intention of art?<br />
The Realist Era<br />Typically associated with the 1850’s<br />Scientific method is used rather than accept dogma<br />Develops the “Age of Reason”<br />Industrial Revolution takes shape as factories produce goods cheaper and faster<br />Migration from rural areas into cities (urbanization), economies change from agrarian to industrial<br />Major inventions are the train and photography<br />
Influential Literature<br />Karl Marx’s Communist Manifesto<br />Calls for the abolition of personal, private property<br />Predicts the overthrow of the middle class (bourgeoisie) by the working class (proletariat)<br />Creates a classless society, calling halt to social revolution growing out of industrialization, urbanization, and capitalism<br />
What is Realism?<br />Enlightenment put focus on scientific method and observation<br />Empiricism – knowledge based on what can be measured and directly experienced<br />What can actually be seen/experienced in the world<br />Realists only painted subjects they themselves could experience (personal experience)<br />
Realism and Positivism<br />Developed by philosopher Auguste Comte (1798-1857)<br />All knowledge could be derived from objectivity of scientific observation<br />(Ahem…anyone ever hear of Aristotle??!!)<br />Social scientists would deduce laws of human culture<br />Metaphysical and theological speculation was out<br />Positivism stressed emphasis on objectivity<br />
Reaction: Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood<br />Not everyone was enjoying the world produced by industrialization<br />In England, Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood departed from subject matter of French Realists<br />Tired of classical themes, focused on medieval stories and spirituality<br />
The Problem of Photography<br />What is the purpose of art in the face of photography?<br />Vermeer used the camera obscura<br />Some artists reacted against photography<br />Some embraced it – much like Vermeer<br />First surviving photograph dates to 1826, by 1880s portable cameras available<br />