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Chapter 30 19th Century Art In Europe And The United States 2


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Chapter 30 19th Century Art In Europe And The United States 2

  1. 1. Chapter 30: 19th Century Art in Europe and the United States<br />Realism and Photography<br />Magister Ricard<br />AP Art History<br />
  2. 2. Consider: Influences of Enlightenment and Science <br />How might developments in science and industry affect social change?<br />How might these same influences affect art and the ideas of the artists?<br />How might the invention of photography affect the creation and intention of art?<br />
  3. 3. The Realist Era<br />Typically associated with the 1850’s<br />Scientific method is used rather than accept dogma<br />Develops the “Age of Reason”<br />Industrial Revolution takes shape as factories produce goods cheaper and faster<br />Migration from rural areas into cities (urbanization), economies change from agrarian to industrial<br />Major inventions are the train and photography<br />
  4. 4. Influential Literature<br />Karl Marx’s Communist Manifesto<br />Calls for the abolition of personal, private property<br />Predicts the overthrow of the middle class (bourgeoisie) by the working class (proletariat)<br />Creates a classless society, calling halt to social revolution growing out of industrialization, urbanization, and capitalism<br />
  5. 5. What is Realism?<br />Enlightenment put focus on scientific method and observation<br />Empiricism – knowledge based on what can be measured and directly experienced<br />What can actually be seen/experienced in the world<br />Realists only painted subjects they themselves could experience (personal experience)<br />
  6. 6. Realism and Positivism<br />Developed by philosopher Auguste Comte (1798-1857)<br />All knowledge could be derived from objectivity of scientific observation<br />(Ahem…anyone ever hear of Aristotle??!!)<br />Social scientists would deduce laws of human culture<br />Metaphysical and theological speculation was out<br />Positivism stressed emphasis on objectivity<br />
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  14. 14. Reaction: Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood<br />Not everyone was enjoying the world produced by industrialization<br />In England, Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood departed from subject matter of French Realists<br />Tired of classical themes, focused on medieval stories and spirituality<br />
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  16. 16. The Problem of Photography<br />What is the purpose of art in the face of photography?<br />Vermeer used the camera obscura<br />Some artists reacted against photography<br />Some embraced it – much like Vermeer<br />First surviving photograph dates to 1826, by 1880s portable cameras available<br />