Chapter 22 baroque art


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Chapter 22 baroque art

  1. 1. Chapter 22: Baroque Art<br />AP Art History<br />Magister Ricard<br />
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  3. 3. What is Baroque?<br />Art produced from the end of the 16th to early 18th centuries<br />Stresses emotional, rather than intellectual responses; likes drama<br />Grew out of the tug-of-war between Protestant Reformation (Northern Europe) and Counter Reformation (Italy)<br />Artists tried to persuade to the faithful through dramatic works<br />Used by “absolute” rulers (popes and kings) to overwhelm and awe<br />
  4. 4. Culture of Baroque Era<br />Wealthy middle class continues to pursue strong patronage of arts<br />Buildings, painting, sculpture continue to be adapted<br />Still lifes and genre paintings (everyday life) emerge<br />Science begins to challenge religion, Earth is not center of the universe<br />Workshops begin to churn out copies of popular themes<br />Value on the original work is a modern notion<br />
  5. 5. Baroque Art<br />Italy<br />
  6. 6. Bernini<br />A child prodigy who the pope demanded an audience of<br />Deemed the “Michelangelo” of his generation<br />His David is hailed as the first Baroque sculpture – it depicts a dramatic moment and involves the audience (many ducked when seeing the statue for the first time)<br />
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  8. 8. Bernini and St. Peter’s<br />The façade was completed in 1626 by Carlo Maderno<br />Used both Renaissance (Michelangelo’s dome) and Baroque (Maderno’s façade) styles<br />Bernini is named architect of St. Peter’s<br />Oversees many projects for next 51 years<br />Baldachino was the first project – directly under Michelangelo’s dome and the tomb of St. Peter<br />Rumored to have been heavily worked by Borromini<br />Four bronze spiral columns recall Temple of Solomon, are 95’ high – bronze stripped from the Pantheon <br />
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  10. 10. Bernini and St. Peters<br />Bernini also was responsible for the courtyard extending in front of the basilica<br />From Bramante’s original central plan design to the extensions made by Maderno, Bernini unified these artistic styles<br />Two curved porticoes extended like the “motherly arms of the Church”<br />
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  14. 14. Borromini<br />A rival of Bernini’s, regarded himself as an architect (and not Bernini)<br />Regarded buildings as exercises of geometry<br />Unlike Brunelleschi and Alberti, who built flat symmetrical walls, used undulating walls to create motion<br />Façade used a mixture of concave and convex bays<br />Creates dramatic use of light and shadow<br />Oval-shaped dome uses different coffers which decrease as they reach the apex<br />
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  18. 18. Caravaggio<br />Recast biblical scenes or themes in new light<br />Used naturalism but instead did not idealize the narratives <br />Accentuates the “sinner” or the lower classes in his works<br />Strong use of light with deep pockets of shadow - tenebrism<br />Strong personality, thrived in Roman underground scene – necspenecmetu<br />
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  23. 23. Baroque Art<br />The Habsburg Lands<br />
  24. 24. The Habsburgs<br />Charles V abdicates Holy Roman Empire throne in 1556<br />The Western portion (Spain, American colonies, Netherlands, Burgundy, Milan, Naples and Sicily) go to his son Phillip II<br />The Eastern portion (Germany and Austria) go to his brother Ferdinand<br />Even as Spain’s gold imports lessen from New World, and eventual bankruptcy in 1692, this is known as Golden Age of Spain<br />The artwork tends to support heavily the Catholic Church and the Habsburgs liked the use of strong dramatic effect and lighting<br />
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  30. 30. Baroque Art<br />Flanders and the Netherlands<br />
  31. 31. Peter Paul Rubens<br />(1577-1640) Born in Germany, trained in Antwerp and studied in Rome<br />Influenced by Michelangelo and Caravaggio<br />Became synonymous with Flemish Baroque <br />Combined portraiture and historical narrative for a cycle of 21 paintings dedicated to Marie de’Medici<br />Unified the styles of northern and southern Europe<br />Upon his return to Antwerp, built a house with a large studio that allowed his workshop to crank out works<br />
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  35. 35. The Golden Age of Dutch Art<br />The Dutch Republic was based on commerce and trade; merchant class held power, wealth<br />No royal court and officials and lacking Catholic church commissions, artists turned to merchant class for work<br />Portraiture rose in popularity as did works showing their possessions and land<br />Still lifes, landscapes, genre scenes and portraits <br />
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  37. 37. Rembrandt<br />Based in Amsterdam (1606-1669), the financial center of Europe<br />Became cities most-renowned portrait artist<br />Was well-established in creating group portraiture (“The Night Watch)<br />Held a range of interests, also was a master of etching and used drypoint technique later<br />
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  42. 42. Jan Vermeer<br />Not much is known about his life, but he is considered one of the Dutch masters<br />Typical paintings have light coming from source on left side, uses yellows and blues, subjects tended to be women<br />Believed to have used the camera obscura, an instrument that created an image through a hole set inside a dark box<br />
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  48. 48. Baroque Art<br />France<br />
  49. 49. The Rise of France<br />France really shifted the center of European art and culture away from Italy<br />Italy began to dominate art in the 1300’s with the return to the classics<br />When Louis XIV took over in France in 1661, everything changed<br />He reigned for 54 years, established France as the leading superpower <br />From 1661-1789 French art took prominence<br />
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  52. 52. The “Sun King”<br />Louis XIV (1661-1715) defined his era<br />All life “revolved” around him, he envisioned himself as Apollo<br />Oversaw the construction of Versailles – palace and gardens were unfortified<br />Style emphasized glory; lavish and luxurious<br />At 63, most famous portrait not just for the opulence of his position, but also the vanity of his legs!<br />
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  57. 57. Baroque Art<br />England<br />