Chapter 16 Gothic


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    In the church of Fraga (Aragon-Spain) were tested vaulted new techniques to suggest the Jesus face.



    En la iglesia de Fraga (ARAGON-España) se ensayaron nuevas técnicas de abovedado para sugerir un rostro de Jesús.

    ROSTRO SUBLIMINAL: En la iglesia de Fraga (ARAGON-España) ensayaron sugerir un rostro de Jesús.
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  • De administratione, CH. XXVII
  • Chapter 16 Gothic

    1. 1. Chapter 16: Gothic Art of the 12th and 13th Centuries<br />Magister Ricard<br />Art History<br />
    2. 2. What should you know?<br />Be ready to answer questions about Gothic architecture<br />Lots of interior images of Gothic cathedrals<br />What are the architectural innovations of this period?<br />What are the key features of Gothic architecture?<br />Think height and light!<br />
    3. 3. Gothic: It’s an insult!<br />The term “gothic” was coined by Renaissance artist (and art historian) Giorgio Vasari<br />Wrote biographies about the Renaissance masters and designed gli Uffizi building<br />Proclaimed all of the structures built during the previous period to be the type of work only Goths would produce<br />Gothic tribes were blamed for the downfall of Rome and thus, civilization<br />Vasari, as a Renaissance thinker, favored classical Greco-Roman culture<br />
    4. 4. Gothic art in France<br />Chapter 16<br />
    5. 5. Abbot Suger: A Real Goth<br />Abbot Suger, as abbot of Saint-Denis, wanted to beautify the church <br />Desired a significant departure from the Romanesque style<br />Church should be a place of beauty and inspiring hope and paradise (heaven)<br />Very different from fear-inspiring last judgment scenes found in tympana of Romanesque churches<br />
    6. 6. Abbot Suger: A Real Goth<br />De administratione, Ch. XXVII<br />Bright is the noble work; but being nobly bright the work<br />Should lighten the minds, so that they may travel, through the true lights<br />To the True Light where Christ is the true door…<br />…The dull mind rises to truth through that which is material<br />And, in seeing this light, is resurrected from its former subversion<br />
    7. 7.
    8. 8.
    9. 9. Abbot Suger’s Innovations<br />Saint-Denis<br />Saint-Etienne, Caen<br />
    10. 10. Abbot Suger’s Innovations<br />Saint-Denis<br />Saint-Lazare, Autun<br />
    11. 11. Choir, Abbey Church of-Saint Denis<br />Completed 1140-1144<br />Stained glass windows demonstrate departure from Romanesque<br />Only possible due to high development of vaulting techniques<br />Initially used in the Romanesque period, now adapted to allow light in<br />
    12. 12. Abbey Church of Saint-Denis<br />Aesthetic based on open spaces and not massive, heavy walls<br />Suger wanted light and color to help illuminate the soul<br />Stained glass imitates shine of gems<br />
    13. 13.
    14. 14.
    15. 15. Symbolism in Architecture: Notre Dame and Alchemy?<br />
    16. 16. Flying Buttresses<br />
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    18. 18.
    19. 19. Chartres Cathedral<br />Mix of Romanesque and Early Gothic<br />Stained glass = Gothic elements<br />Housed the Tunic of the Virgin<br />Given by Byzantine empress Irene to Charlemagne<br />Chartres had a pre-Christian virgin goddess cult<br />
    20. 20.
    21. 21. Chartres Cathedral<br />Royal Portal<br />Inspired by portals at Saint-Denis<br />Built after the fire in 1134<br />
    22. 22. Royal Portal<br />Christ enthroned<br />Ascension of Christ<br />Virgin Mary<br />
    23. 23.
    24. 24.
    25. 25. Ribbed Vaults<br />Quadpartite ribbed vault<br />Sexpartite ribbed vault<br />
    26. 26.
    27. 27.
    28. 28. Clerestory<br />Triforium/Gallery<br />Nave/Arcade<br />
    29. 29.
    30. 30. Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Reims<br />Innovates on Gothic features<br />Extends portal sculptural elements, gabled portals<br />Places large windows in tympana<br />Soaring peaks above tympana, reaching middle of rose window<br />Begun in 1211, completed in 1286<br />Used to coronate the kings of France<br />
    31. 31. Nave, Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Reims<br />Great rose window at clerestory level<br />Lancets illuminate triforium level<br />Window replaces stone in tympanum<br />Tracery and sculpture anchor windows<br />Mary, not Christ dominates central portal<br />
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    33. 33.
    34. 34. Nave, Amiens Cathedral<br />
    35. 35. Gothic Art in England<br />Chapter 16<br />
    36. 36. Gothic Elements in England<br />Gothic style gets adapted locally<br />Originally known as “opus francigeno”<br />(English) Decorated style<br />Ornate decoration of architectural elements<br />Extra ribs to ribbed vaults<br />(English) Perpendicular style<br />Increased vertical emphasis on architecture<br />Windows are taller<br />More ornate<br />
    37. 37. Gloucester Cathedral, England<br />Illustrates emphasis on vertical element<br />English Perpendicular style<br />Large window in the choir<br />Tall lancets unite the choir from floor to ceiling<br />
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    40. 40. Nave Comparison: Look ma, no Flying Buttresses!<br />Salisbury Cathedral, England80 feet tall (no buttresses)<br />Amiens Cathedral, France144 feet tall (flying buttresses)<br />
    41. 41. Gothic art in germany<br />Chapter 16<br />
    42. 42. Shrine of the Three Kings<br />Reliquary held relics of three magi<br />Shaped like a basilica-plan church<br />Shows Germany still inspired by Roman art<br />c. 1190-1210<br />
    43. 43. Saint Maurice<br />Artist:n/a<br />Title:Saint Maurice<br />Medium: Dark sandstone with traces of polychromy<br />Size: n/a<br />Date:c. 1240–50<br />Source/ Museum: Magdeburg Cathedral, Magdeburg, Germany<br />Commander of Egyptian Christian troops in Roman army<br />Martyred in 286, favored by Ottonian emperors<br />
    44. 44. Ekkehard and Uta<br />Figures represent ideal types<br />Faces are individualized and lifelike<br />Such realism becomes characteristic of German Gothic art<br />Painted to add realism<br />
    45. 45. Gothic Statuary<br />Initially, Gothic architecture followed Romanesque in adorning exterior parts of buildings<br />As time progressed, especially during High Gothic, sculpture is freed<br />The higher the relief the greater degree of naturalism<br />Gothic S-curve emerges, similar to contrapposto<br />
    46. 46. Gothic art in italy<br />Chapter 16<br />
    47. 47. Return to Classically-Inspired Art?<br />Frederick II, Holy Roman emperor, was a talented poet, artist, naturalist and patron of the arts<br />Mindful of ancient Roman sculpture and how it affects imperial status, he begins to commission artists to follow that style<br />Artists like Nicola Pisano who use observation of nature as a source of inspiration<br />
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    49. 49. Pulpit, Baptistry, Pisa<br />Nicola Pisano, 1260<br />Panels illustrate several scenes – Annunciation, Nativity, and Adoration of the Shepherds<br />Virgin reclines in Annunciation<br />Inspiration may have come from Roman sarcophagi found near Baptistry<br />
    50. 50. Pulpit, Cathedral, Pisa<br />Giovanni Pisano, 1302<br />Son of Nicola Pisano<br />More emotion<br />Higher relief<br />More dynamic<br />
    51. 51. The Pisano Family<br />Nicola Pisano, 1260<br />Giovanni Pisano, 1302<br />
    52. 52.
    53. 53. Crucifix: Gothic Painting<br />Artist:CoppodiMarcovaldo<br />Title:Crucifix<br />Medium: Tempera and gold on wood panel<br />Size: 9'7⅜" X 8'1¼" (2.93 X 2.47 m)<br />Date:c. 1250–70<br />Source/ Museum: Pinacoteca, San Gimignano, Italy<br />“Historiated crucifix” – contains narrative of the Passion of Christ<br />