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Ch 7 Arh

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Chapter 7 based on Stokstad's Art History book.

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Ch 7 Arh

  1. 1. Chapter 7: Early Christian, and Byzantine Art<br />Magister Ricard<br />Art History<br />
  2. 2. Questions to Consider<br />What are the architectural elements of a basilica plan church and a central plan church?<br />How does the dome of the Hagia Sophia differ from that of the Parthenon?<br />How does the mosaic Justinian and His Attendants display the Byzantine Style?<br />
  3. 3. Christian Art<br />Chapter 7<br />
  4. 4. Christian Art: Life of Jesus<br />For Christians, Jesus is the Son of God, the Messiah foretold in the Old Testament<br />Incarnation and childhood: the birth, infancy, and childhood of Jesus<br />Public ministry: Critical events like the 12 apostles, performing miracles, and sermons<br />Passion: Events of his arrest, trial, crucifixion, resurrection and ascension<br />
  5. 5. Christian Literary Sources<br />Art is drawn from New Testament<br />4 evangelists: Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John (four gospels)<br />Art that draws on Old Testament prefigure the coming of the Messiah<br />Draws on the book of Revelation and images of the Last Judgment<br />
  6. 6. Christian Underground<br />Throughout its young history during the Roman empire, Christianity had to go underground to escape persecution<br />This lead to the creation of the catacombs<br />This is where Christian imagery was developed, founded on classical imagery<br />
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  16. 16. Byzantine Art<br />Chapter 7<br />
  17. 17. Byzantine Art<br />Extends from Constantinople <br />Based in the eastern portion of Roman empire<br />Western Rome ruled by Germanic tribes in 476<br />Eastern Rome continues on until 1453 with invasion of Ottoman Turks<br />Influenced predominantly by Christian themes and imagery<br />Not focused on realism and naturalism<br />Concerned with religion and teaching <br />
  18. 18. Byzantine Art: Characteristics<br />Flat – figures appear flat, lacking volume<br />Floating – figures appear to hover, appear weightless<br />Frontal – oriented toward the viewer in a planar format, in same picture plane as viewer<br />Gold – interest is in central figures, little detail in backgrounds, depthless, but full of gold<br />
  19. 19. Byzantine Art: Chronology<br />
  20. 20. Justinian I<br />Besides Constantine, important Byzantine ruler<br />His rule (527-565 AD) typified the early Byzantine era<br />Reclaims large portions of former western Roman empire<br />Ravenna is administrative capital in the west<br />Suppresses all other religions, proclaims Orthodox Christianity official religion<br />Creates a theocratic state in which emperor was head of the church and state<br />
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  30. 30. Byzantine Art: Devotional Objects<br />Workshops in Constantinople produced excellent works of gold, carved ivory, and textiles<br />Scriptoria (a scriptorium) were sponsored by Byzantine elites for the production of manuscripts<br />
  31. 31. Byzantine Art: Devotional Objects<br />Vienna Genesis<br />Page from book of Genesis<br />In codex form<br />Written in Greek<br />Illuminated due to use of color<br />Vellum dyed purple<br />
  32. 32. Icons and Iconoclasm<br />Christians were more open towards the religious use of icons when compared to Jews and Muslims<br />Church doctrine was ambivalent<br />Used to help when praying and aid in meditation<br />In 726 Emperor Leo III launched campaign against use of icons – iconoclasm<br />Byzantine figural art ceases until 843 when icon production is resumed<br />Abstraction of religious symbols was used instead <br />
  33. 33. Icon: Virgin of Vladmir<br />Medium: Tempera – egg yolk mixed with pigment<br />11th-12th century, Moscow<br />Stylized – adheres to set features of Byzantine style<br />Flat appearance, golden background<br />Mary’s thin nose, yet expressive<br />Believed to have miraculous powers of protection<br />
  34. 34. Conclusion<br />Christian art would develop upon the Classical images it inherited and would eventually rescue that imagery from oblivion<br />Byzantine art, although heavily stylized, would also have a heavy influence on European art<br />What it lacks in realism it makes up for by portraying matters of the spirit and establishes a recognizable art style<br />
  35. 35. Questions to Consider<br />What are the architectural elements of a basilica plan church and a central plan church?<br />How does the dome of the Hagia Sophia differ from that of the Parthenon?<br />How does the mosaic Justinian and His Attendants display the Byzantine Style?<br />

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