Ch 21 The Revolution in Politics

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The French Revolution and the Age of Napoleon.

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Ch 21 The Revolution in Politics

  1. 1. Magister Ricard<br />AP Euro<br />CH 21 The Revolution in Politics<br />
  2. 2. The Old Regime<br />The French Revolution and Napoleon 1789-1815<br />
  3. 3. Peasants constituted 4/5 of population<br />Lost half of income to taxes<br />Dues were paid to nobles, church, the crown<br />Paid a land tax (taille) and performed forced labor (corvee)<br />Grain shortage increased price of bread<br />Peasant Distress<br />
  4. 4. Overspending by Louis XVI and previous kings left massive public debt<br />Half of tax revenue used to pay interest on debt<br />Funding of wars increased debt<br />Seven Years’ War (against England) <br />American Revolution<br />Government Debt<br />
  5. 5. Nobles (2nd estate) exempt from paying taxes<br />Resisted all attempts to reform tax system<br />Aristocratic Resistance<br />
  6. 6. Louis XV (r. 1715-1774) weak and indecisive<br />Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette (r. 1774-1792) unpopular, scandalous<br />Parlement assumed right to approve royal decrees – eroded absolute monarchy<br />Royal Weakness<br />
  7. 7. The Estates General<br />The French Revolution and Napoleon 1789-1815<br />
  8. 8. France was facing bankruptcy in 1789<br />Louis XVI’s tax reform was refused by Assembly of Notables<br />King forced to convene Estates General<br />First time since 1614<br />Convening the Estates General<br />
  9. 9. 1st Estate – Clergy<br />Held about 20% of land<br />Paid no taxes, instead gave a kickback of about 2% of income to crown<br />2nd Estate – Nobility<br />Comprised 2-4% of population<br />Held about 25% of land<br />3rd Estate – Everyone Else<br />Comprised 95% of population<br />Resented aristocratic privilege<br />Diverse group of professionals to peasants<br />The Three Estates<br />
  10. 10. 3rd Estate proposed all three estates to assemble together<br />1st and 2nd Estates assumed that each would get one vote, push through their agenda<br />Led by Abbe Sieyes, this was rejected<br />King refused proposal<br />3rd Estate declared itself the true National Assembly<br />Locked out, met in nearby tennis court <br />Declared oath not to disband until constitution was drafted<br />The Tennis Court Oath<br />
  11. 11. The National Assembly (1789-1791)<br />The French Revolution and Napoleon 1789-1815<br />
  12. 12. Reasserting royal authority, Louis XVI orders Swiss army towards Paris and Versailles<br />Angry mobs already protesting over prices of bread then storm the Bastille<br />Mob frees prisoners and seizes weapons and munitions<br />Fall of Bastille becomes a symbol against royal despotism and tyranny<br />Storming the Bastille<br />
  13. 13. All men were “born and remain free and equal in rights”<br />Rights to liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression<br />Provides for freedom of religion, speech, and press, the right to petition government and innocence until proven guilty<br />Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen<br />
  14. 14. Gained right to inherit property and divorce<br />Did NOT gain right to vote or hold political office<br />Mary Wollstonecraft (A Vindication of the Rights of Women) argues women not inferior to men<br />Women’s Rights<br />
  15. 15. October 5, 1789<br />March to Versailles to demand cheap bread<br />Insist the royal family move to Paris<br />King complies, National Assembly also moved to Paris<br />Women’s March to Versailles<br />
  16. 16. August 1790<br />Passed by National Assembly<br />Confiscated lands owned by Catholic Church<br />Bishops and priests are to be elected by the people, paid by the state<br />Clergy required to take oath to support the state<br />Pope Pius VI condemns the act<br />Half of active clergy refuse to comply<br />Alienated Catholics become opponents to French Revolution<br />Civil Constitution of the Clergy<br />
  17. 17. Created a constitutional monarchy<br />Divided France into 83 departments, each governed by an elected official<br />Abolished guilds<br />Established use of metric system<br />Reforms of the National Assembly<br />
  18. 18. The Legislative Assembly (1791-1792)<br />The French Revolution and Napoleon 1789-1815<br />
  19. 19. Conservatives sat on the right<br />Moderates sat in the center<br />Radicals (distrusted king) sat on left<br />Jacobins – wanted a republic and dispose of monarchy<br />Jean-Paul Marat, Georges-Jacques Danton, Maximilien Robespierre<br />Girondists wanted to involve France in war to discredit monarchy and spread revolutionary ideals across Europe<br />Factions in the Legislative Assembly<br />
  20. 20. Leopold II (Austria) and Frederick William II (Prussia) want to see restoration of absolutism in France<br />Declaration of Pillnitz (August 1791)<br />Legislative Assembly declares war on Austria and Prussia (April 1792) – War of First Coalition<br />Summer of 1792, Prussian and Austrian forces were advancing towards Paris<br />War with Austria and Prussia<br />
  21. 21. Recruits rush to enlist, singing the Marseillaise<br />Replenished French forces stop the advance of Prussia/Austria<br />Prevent return to monarchy<br />Sans-culottes (“without breeches”) take control of Paris Commune, force Legislative Assembly to depose Louis XVI<br />Call for election of national convention and democratic form of government<br />Sans-culottes commit “September Massacres” to prevent betrayal by royalists<br />The 2nd French Revolution<br />
  22. 22. The National Convention(1792-1795)<br />The French Revolution and Napoleon 1789-1815<br />
  23. 23. National Convention abolishes monarchy, declares France a republic<br />Girondists favored imprisonment of Louis XVI<br />Jacobins favored execution<br />National Convention condemns Louis XVI to death<br />The resolution, reached after debate, passed by one vote<br />Sans-culottes and Jacobins brand Girondists as counter-revolutionaries<br />Ousted from National Convention<br />The Execution of Louis XVI<br />
  24. 24. At first, liberals supported French Revolution<br />Moderates (England’s Edwin Burke) warned mob rule would lead to anarchy and military dictatorship<br />September Massacres, execution of Louix XVI confirmed these views<br />European Reaction<br />
  25. 25. Foreign Threats<br />England, Spain, Holland join Prussia/Austria coalition<br />Spring 1793 First Coalition armies converge on France<br />Domestic Threats<br />Girondists and royalist Catholics rebel against radical Jacobins<br />Foreign and Domestic Threats<br />
  26. 26. National Convention establishes Committee of Public Safety to deal with foreign/domestic threats<br />Defend France and the Revolution<br />Led by Robespierre (Jacobin) and exercises dictatorial power carrying out Reign of Terror<br />Robespierre executes Marie Antoinette, political rivals, and enemies deemed “dangerous”<br />The Reign of Terror<br />
  27. 27. Reign of Terror crushes domestic threats<br />Robespierre decrees a levy of military service for all men between 18-40<br />Levee en masse creates a national military based on mass participation; first time state completely mobilizes for war<br />Motivation for French recruits was patriotism, fighting to protect revolutionary ideals<br />Lead by talented officers, not aristocracy<br />Defeats First Coalition forces<br />France in Arms<br />
  28. 28. Committee of Public Safety defends against threats domestic (Reign of Terror) and abroad (First Coalition)<br />Robespierre fanatically continues to pursue creation of Republic of Virtue<br />National Convention, fearing further chaos, condemns and executes Robespierre<br />Robespierre’s death ends radical phase of Revolution<br />July was Thermidor on new revolutionary calendar<br />The Thermidorian Reaction<br />
  29. 29. The Directory(1795-1799)<br />The French Revolution and Napoleon 1789-1815<br />
  30. 30. Government consists of two house legislature and 5 man executive panel known as The Directory<br />Directory was corrupt and unpopular<br />Overseen by rich bourgeoisie<br />Bourgeoisie Misrule<br />
  31. 31. Directory failed to deal with inflation, food shortages, corruption <br />November 9, 1799 Napoleon Bonaparte overthrows Directory and seizes control in a coup<br />Fall of The Directory<br />
  32. 32. Napoleon and the Consulate(1799-1804)<br />The French Revolution and Napoleon 1789-1815<br />
  33. 33. Napoleon is named first consul as a result of his coup<br />Holds all power and made all decisions<br />Restores order, stimulates prosperity, and defeats Second Coalition forces<br />His rule is heavily endorsed; uses democratic process to dispose of democratic rule<br />Enacted policies he felt would transform France into an efficient modern state<br />Seems to embody concepts of philosophes’ enlightened despot<br />The First Consul<br />
  34. 34. Consolidates hundreds of law codes into a uniform legal code<br />Still serves as basis for French law<br />Protected achievements of French Revolution<br />Equality, freedom of religion, protection of property rights<br />Increased authority of husbands within families<br />Women and children legally dependent on husband/father<br />The Napoleonic Code<br />
  35. 35. Granted special status to Catholic Church as the popular religion of France<br />Pope regained the right to confirm church officials appointed first by French government, depose French bishops, and reopen religious seminaries<br />Pope recognizes French (revolutionary) government and accepts loss of property confiscated<br />Concordat of 1801<br />
  36. 36. Napoleon censors the press<br />Suppressed all political opposition<br />Loss of individual liberties<br />France gained security, stability, and prosperity<br />Napoleon declares himself emperor on December 2, 1804<br />Surrendering Liberty<br />
  37. 37. The Napoleonic Empire(1804-1815)<br />The French Revolution and Napoleon 1789-1815<br />
  38. 38. 1805-1807 Napoleon defeats Austria, Prussia, and Russia<br />Victory at Austerlitz significant military achievement; solidifies Napoleon’s military reputation<br />1808 French rule extended from North Sea to Spain and Italy<br />English naval victory (Trafalgar) prevented French control of seas and Napoleon’s intended invasion of Great Britain<br />“Europe Was At My Feet”<br />
  39. 39. Napoleon dissolves the Holy Roman Empire<br />Previously independent German states were consolidated into a Confederation of the Rhine<br />Controlled by France<br />Napoleon abolishes feudalism and grants peasants freedom from duties<br />People at first viewed the French as liberators<br />Began to view the French as exploiters<br />Inadvertently stirs nationalism throughout Europe<br />Reorganization of Germany<br />
  40. 40. Three major mistakes<br />The Continental System<br />1806 Napoleon closed all European ports to British ships and goods<br />Guerrilla Warfare in Spain<br />1808 Napoleon deposed Spain’s Bourbon rulers; installs brother Joseph – angers Spanish<br />Spanish guerrilla fighters ambushed French troops<br />France lost nearly 300,000 men; wore down French forces<br />Invasion of Russia<br />Tsar Alexander I refused to abide Continental System<br />Napoleon invades Moscow, but Alexander refused to surrender<br />Bitter cold, disease, and attacks decimate French forces far from supply lines<br />Fall of Napoleon<br />
  41. 41. Great Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Austria (Grand Alliance) defeat Napoleon at Battle of Nations October, 1813<br />Grand Alliance enters Paris March, 1814<br />Napoleon abdicates, exiled to Elba<br />March 1815, Napoleon escapes and forms new army<br />Grand Alliance defeats Napoleon at Waterloo June, 1815<br />Napoleon abdicates a 2nd time; exiled to St. Helena and dies in 1821<br />One Last Roar<br />

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