AP Euro CH 21 Part 2


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This presentation focuses on the radicals in France, the war with the rest of Europe, and the rise of Napoleon.

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AP Euro CH 21 Part 2

  1. 1. CH 21: The Revolution in Politics (1775-1815)<br />AP European History<br />Magister Ricard<br />
  2. 2. Questions to Consider<br />Identify the Gironists, the Mountain, and the sans-culottes and their effects on the revolution.<br />Why was the Directory not able to hold power?<br />How did Napoleon gain dominance over Europe?<br />
  3. 3. World War and Republican France (1791-1799)<br />CH 21: The Revolution in Politics (1775-1815)<br />
  4. 4. Foreign Reactions and the Beginning of War<br />Edmund Burke, Reflections on the Revolution in France, 1790<br />Mary Wollstonecraft, A Vindication of the Rights of Man, 1790<br />A Vindication of the Rights of Women, 1792<br />Wollstonecraft and Olympe de Gouges argued that women needed to be included in the ideal of equality<br />1791, the Revolution gets Radicalized<br />Louis XVI’s attempt to escape to Austria<br />Austria and Prussia’s readiness to intervene in France<br />The election of the new Legislative Assembly under a new constitution<br />By 1792, France was at war with Austria and Prussia and Louis XVI was removed from the throne<br />
  5. 5. The Second Revolution<br />Members of newly elected National Convention declare France to be a republic in September 1792<br />Revolutionaries tried to create a French revolutionary culture<br />The Convention tried and executed Louis XVI for treason<br />The sans culottes (without breeches), exercise strong influence on The Convention<br />
  6. 6. Total War and Terror<br />Military defeats push revolutionary government, Committee of Public Safety, to establish centrally controlled economy<br />Fixed prices for bread, rationing, tight control of munitions and other industries<br />The Terror aimed to crush all opponents to Revolution<br />About 40,000 executed, 300,000 arrested<br />France mobilized new soldiers (800,000) by initiating a draft and encouraging patriotic sentiment<br />France won military victories by outnumbering their opponents 4:1<br />
  7. 7. Revolution in Saint-Domingue<br />Slave revolts broke out across the island<br />On April 4, 1792, National Assembly enfranchised all free blacks and free people of color, but not slaves<br />Warfare in Europe spread to Saint-Domingue<br />February 4, 1794, National Convention abolishes slavery in all French territories<br />1796, France regained control of Saint-Domingue<br />Toussaint Louverture emerges as key military leader<br />
  8. 8. The Thermidorian Reaction and the Directory (1794-1799)<br />The Convention executes Maximilien Robespierre in July 1794<br />Fears the expansion of The Terror<br />End of economic controls hits the poor, results in riots that had to be suppressed by force<br />In rural France, villagers resorted to structured lifestyle around Catholic Church<br />
  9. 9. The Thermidorian Reaction and the Directory (1794-1799)<br />Five man directory rules France from 1795-1799 as dictators (The Directory)<br />Directory seeks expansionist military policy<br />Disgust with Directory lead to electoral defeat in 1797 <br />Directory used the army to nullify elections<br />In 1799, Napoleon Bonaparte led a coup d’etatthat ended the Directory<br />
  10. 10. The Napoleonic Era (1799-1815)<br />CH 21: The Revolution in Politics (1775-1815)<br />
  11. 11. Napoleon’s Rule of France<br />Napoleon confirms gains of peasantry, defends property of middle class<br />Strengthened central bureaucracy<br />Concordat of 1801, Napoleon reinstates freedom of worship for Catholics and maintained tight control of the Church<br />New law code reduced women’s legal and property rights<br />Established a police state and strict censorship to silence political dissent<br />
  12. 12. Napoleon’s Expansion in Europe<br />Austria accepts all territorial losses to France (Treaty of Luneville, 1801)<br />Treaty of Amiens with England (1802) gave France Holland, the Austrian Netherlands, the west bank of the Rhine, and most of the Italian peninsula<br />In May 1803, Napoleon renews war with England<br />Plans to invade the island but suffered large losses at naval battle of Trafalgar (1805)<br />Austria, Russia, and Sweden join Britain in Third Coalition against Napoleon (1805)<br />Napoleon defeats Coalition’s continental partners<br />1806 Napoleon crushes Prussia<br />Fighting ends between France, Prussia and Russia (Treaty of Tilsit (1807)<br />
  13. 13. The War of Haitian Independence<br />Toussaint Louverture is de facto ruler of Saint-Domingue<br />Andre Rigaud sets up his own government on southern peninsula<br />Tensions lead to conflict, won by Louverture<br />Napoleon attempts to bring colony back under French control and reintroduce slavery<br />Louverture was arrested and deported<br />French forces were defeated<br />Haiti is created on January 1, 1804<br />
  14. 14. The Grand Empire and its End<br />French occupation of much of Europe creates nationalistic reactions<br />Attempts to throw off French yoke<br />June 1812, Napoleon invades Russia, is defeated<br />Joined by Austria and Prussia, Russia and England defeat Napoleon in 1814<br />Victorious allies set up constitutional monarch under Louis XVIII<br />
  15. 15. Questions to Consider<br />Identify the Gironists, the Mountain, and the sans-culottes and their effects on the revolution.<br />Why was the Directory not able to hold power?<br />How did Napoleon gain dominance over Europe?<br />