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AP Euro CH 14 Martin Luther

Martin Luther and Protestantism/Lutheranism.

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AP Euro CH 14 Martin Luther

  1. 1. CHAPTER 14: MARTIN LUTHER AP European History Magister Ricard
  2. 2. QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER  How was the Reformation an historical phenomenon?  What kind of man was Martin Luther?  What were his central ideas?  Where can you see his debts to Christian humanism?  What was the Catholic Church objecting to?
  3. 3. WHAT IS THE REFORMATION?  What exactly is a reformation?  What exactly was this particular one trying to reform and, why the big R for it?
  4. 4. LAYING THE GROUNDWORK  It must be noted that there were many “reformations” during the 16th century  Protestant vs. Catholic is not a truly accurate picture  Protestants disagreed with one another as sharply as they did with Catholics  Protestantism became a general term used for attempted reformations of the Catholic church
  5. 5. LAYING THE GROUNDWORK  Protestant reformers did not see themselves as anti-Catholic  A reformation means to improve or make better  It was an attempt to improve the Catholic church (not destroy it)
  6. 6. MARTIN LUTHER  1483-1546  Father was a miner, attended university  Joined Augustinians, ordained a priest  Rose in his ranking and visited Rome  Began teaching at University of Wittenberg
  7. 7. MARTIN LUTHER  At 22, he was lecturing on the ethics of Aristotle using original Greek text  His appointment at Wittenberg came only three years later as Frederick made him chair of philosophy  He later translated Old and New Testaments into German, using his dialect, which became the new standard for German
  8. 8. MARTIN LUTHER  Influenced by Christian humanism  He disdained the idea of Scholasticism  Accepted the criticisms of the church  Deeply sensitive, prone to pessimism and doubt  Did not see himself as worthy in the eyes of God
  9. 9. BASIC BELIEFS OF MARTIN LUTHER  Salvation was achieved through faith alone  Catholics believed in faith and good works  Religious authority was within Bible, not within the institution of the Church  Every person could be his/her own priest  The church community was every believer, not just members of the clergy  All occupations glorify God, not just occupations of the church
  10. 10. Make your payment now and confirm your reservation within the pearly gates! BEFORE IT’S TOO LATE!!! All proceeds to benefit the rebuilding of St. Peter’s
  11. 11. TETZEL AND LUTHER  In 1516, Luther attacked the notions of indulgences  They underlined the problem of “good works” for salvation  One could simply buy his/her way into heaven  This stance of Luther’s appealed to others because it was sending money out of Germany to Rome
  12. 12. NINETY FIVE THESES  In 1517, Luther posts his Ninety Five Theses  Not an act of defiance, rather an act of scholarly debate  He did happen to circulate German translations  Humanists received the ideas warmly  Disciplinary action from Church was soft
  13. 13. SEPARATION FROM ROME  In 1519, while in a debate, Luther places himself into a position which rejects authority of popes and councils  Openly begins to separate from Rome on theological matters
  14. 14. THREE GREAT TREATISES OF LUTHER  In 1520, he publishes three treatises  Address to the German Nobility – called on noblemen to reform the churches in their own territories, stop paying tithes to church  On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church – criticized church imposing transubstantiation; only baptism and Eucharist were valid sacraments
  15. 15. THREE GREAT TREATISES OF LUTHER  On the Freedom of a Christian Man – argued that salvation was on faith and not connected to good works
  16. 16. EXCOMMUNICATION  Shortly after his publications, in 1520, Pope Leo X excommunicates him  Luther finds protection in Saxony, under elector Frederick III  At imperial Diet of Worms in 1521, Luther refuses to recant  Charles V labels him an outlaw
  17. 17. MARRIAGE  In 1524, Luther marries Catherine von Bora  Believes marriage demonstrates spiritual equality of men and women  Proper social hierarchy also a husband’s authority and his wife’s obedience  Catholics see marriage as a sacrament  Protestants as a contract, allow for divorce
  18. 18. GERMAN PEASANTS’ WAR  Martin Luther also worked hard to help prevent radical reforms  At once in support of the peasants, their protests got out of hand and violent  Luther supported the nobles right to pacify their sovereigns with maximum force  Against the Murderous, Thieving Hordes of the Peasants  Maintained Scripture has nothing to do with earthly justice  More than 75,000 were killed in the German Peasants’ War of 1525
  19. 19. THREE ALONES  Established the three alones or onlys  Sola fide – salvation is by faith alone  Sola gratia – salvation depends on God’s grace alone  Sola scriptura – the Bible alone teaches and is the authority in matters of religion
  20. 20. CONCLUSION  Due to his widespread publishing and popularity, Luther created a much more comprehensive alternative to Roman Catholicism  He translated sacred texts into German, creating the standard voice for German writing  He was protected politically and seen as a German patriot  Europe was still a Christian continent  Only now it had broken away from the katholos form into varying fragments

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  • ligonier1758

    Jan. 9, 2013
  • JamesFinlinson

    Oct. 12, 2016

Martin Luther and Protestantism/Lutheranism.


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