Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

AP Euro CH 14 John Calvin


Published on

John Calvin and Calvinism

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

AP Euro CH 14 John Calvin

  1. 1. CHAPTER 14: JOHN CALVIN AP European History Magister Ricard
  2. 2. QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER  Calvinism seems to be cold, but was very popular. Why was this the case? Who did it appeal to?  What are some other examples that you can think of where the outlook was gloomy? What might they have in common with Calvinism?  Compare and contrast Calvinism with Lutheranism.
  4. 4. ZWINGLI IN SWITZERLAND  Reformation here owes most of its debt to Huldreich Zwingli (1484-1531)  Came from German Switzerland  Received traditional education, became a priest (1506)  Pursued humanistic studies, focused on Erasmus’ Greek New Testament
  5. 5. ZWINGLI  Closely read Paul’s Epistles  He memorized them  John Colet, Martin Luther, and Zwingli all heavily influenced by them  Regarded the thoughts of pilgrims as “superstitious folly”  Formed his notions for reform  Elected People’s Preacher of Zurich in 1518  Lectured on Paul, called for reform, gained support  Attacked issues like purgatory, the saints, clerical celibacy, Mass, monastic life, authority of the pope, fasting
  6. 6. ZWINGLI  Would marry in 1524  He and Luther did not agree on many things  Zwingli came to his conclusions mostly on his own accord  Same generation as Luther, More, Erasmus
  7. 7. Chapter 14 CALVINISM
  8. 8. JOHN CALVIN  Frenchman (1509-1564) born at Noyon from a modest family  Studied theology at Paris (1523)  Had doubts, and began to study law at Orleans  He encountered Protestants there  But would not renounce his association with Catholicism until 1533
  9. 9. JOHN CALVIN  Also influenced by humanism  In 1532 published Latin commentary on Seneca  Fearing capture from King Francis I, he fled to Basil in Switzerland  In 1536, in exile, he published Institutes of the Christian Religion  He was invited to Geneva to help with reforms  With Guillaume Farel, created Articles of Church Government imposing strict regime on Geneva
  10. 10. JOHN CALVIN  Articles of Church Government  All citizens had to profess to the reformed faith before public officials  No freedom of religion  Eventually both Calvin and Farel were chased out of Geneva but recalled in 1541  Created Holy Commonwealth  4 groups – pastors, doctors, elders, and deacons held power  Supervision of public morality was carried out by Consistory
  11. 11. JOHN CALVIN  2nd term in Geneva enabled Calvin to serve as a virtual dictator  Harsh penalties were imposed for skipping church  One could be executed for speaking on behalf of the pope  All pleasures – especially singing and dancing – were forbidden
  12. 12. WHAT IS CALVINISM?  Calvin believed in the absolute authority of God (omnipotent and omniscient)  Man was a depraved creature  Laid out his theology in his Institutes  But we find a more mature version in later publications of the Institutes
  13. 13. TULIP OF CALVINISM  T – Total depravity; man is sinful and incapable of redemtion  U – Unconditional election; God elects those for salvation and the terms are unconditional  L – Limited atonement; Christ died only for the elect, not all of humankind  I – Irresistible grace; God’s grace is irresistible for the elect and do not receive it as a reward  P – Persistence in grace; Grace cannot be lost or rejected
  14. 14. PREDESTINATION  Calvin’s system depended on the notion of absolute predestination  Certain people were predestined for salvation or damnation  Nothing a human being could do would change that
  15. 15. SIGNS OF ELECTION  Salvation was assured for the elect  No one could know for sure who was among the elected  External signs might help  Public profession of faith  Regular attendance to church  A godly life  Forced a kind of uniformity, no one wanted to appear to not be among the elect  Signs did not guarantee to be among elect, made them “candidates” for elect
  16. 16. CONCLUSION  We now have a break with the ancient notion about the goodness of humankind and their capacity for improvement  There are a variety of forms of religious experience  Catholicism did not offer an alternative, but reforms begin to offer alternatives instead
  17. 17. Group Discussion: Chapter 14 COMPARISON OF LUTHERANISM AND CALVINISM
  18. 18. COMPARE LUTHER AND CALVIN  Group discussion:  What are some of the similarities and differences between Lutheranism and Calvinism?  What did both systems agree upon?  How did each disagree with one another?
  19. 19. COMPARE LUTHER AND CALVIN  They agreed on three points 1. Primacy of Scripture (sola scriptura) 2. Justification by faith (free and underserved gift from God) 3. Free will did not truly exist because of sin
  20. 20. COMPARE LUTHER AND CALVIN  They disagreed on five points 1. Grace was persistent and irresistible (Luther did NOT agree with this) 2. Certitude of salvation (was possible, but for Calvin only for elect) 3. Absolute predestination (Luther does not believe in absolute version) 4. Presence of Christ in the Eucharist (symbolic for Calvin, Luther questioned priest’s role) 5. Theocratic polity (for Calvin, church was supreme; for Luther state was supreme)