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AP Euro CH 13

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AP Euro CH 13

  1. 1. A P E U R O P E A N H I S T O R Y M A G I S T E R R I C A R D Chapter 13: European Society in the Age of the Renaissance (1350-1550)
  2. 2. Objectives  Be able to identify the key economic and political developments that set up Renaissance  Be able to discuss the key ideas of the Renaissance  Identify how the experiences of men and women were different  Differentiate between the characteristics of Italian and Northern Renaissance developments  Describe the basic structure of Renaissance society  How do medieval kingdoms evolve into early versions of modern European states?
  3. 3. C H A P T E R 1 3 R E N A I S S A N C E 1 3 5 0 - 1 5 5 0 Economic and Political Developments of Renaissance
  4. 4. Overview  Economic growth in Italy provides the means for the rise of the merchant class  Merchant class now can vie for political power  Prestige of position also allows merchants to hire artists  Paves the way for the Renaissance
  5. 5. Commercial Developments  The northern cities of Italy forge their economic strength on trade  Florence gains financial wealth not through trade, but through banking  Gained control of papal banking institution  The Medici gained considerable political, cultural, and financial influence
  6. 6. Communes and Republics  Northern cities begin as communes but through trade gain independence and turn into oligarchies  Pressure from il populo lead to the formation of republican forms of government  Republics are often controlled by signori or merchant guilds/oligarchies  Wealth leads to elaborate lifestyle and patronizing of the arts
  7. 7. Balance of Power Among Italian City-States  People are fiercely loyal to their city-states  No political unification among Italians  Venice, Milan, Florence, the Papal States, and Naples dominate the peninsula  Modern diplomacy is developed as these states seek a balance of power  Lack of unity makes Italy easy to invade  France and Holy Roman Empire take advantage
  8. 8. C H A P T E R 1 3 R E N A I S S A N C E 1 3 5 0 - 1 5 5 0 Intellectual Change
  9. 9. Humanism  A revival in antiquity  Archaeology  Recovery of ancient manuscripts  Study of Latin and the classics  Known as “new learning” or humanism  Humanists studied Latin classics to learn what is revealed about human nature  Alternative to the Bible
  10. 10. Humanism  Emphasized being human, human achievements, interests, and capabilities  How does this impact how Europeans begin to see themselves?  Leads to the development of individualism, the importance of the individual  Humanists viewed Latin of the church as a debased form of the language and ideas
  11. 11. Education  Humanists placed heavy emphasis on education and moral behavior, character development  Their models were taken from the ancient world  Schools and academies were opened throughout Italy  Somewhat ambivalent about the education of women  Baldassare Castiglione’s The Courtier was very influential
  12. 12. Political Thought  Niccolo Machiavelli’s The Prince becomes very influential  Lays the foundation for “modern” politics  Starts with assumptions about human nature and the effects of power  Creates a realistic examination of politics at work
  13. 13. Secular Spirit  Secular thought focuses on the world rather than on the eternal/spiritual  Concepts about life begin to change  Renaissance thinkers see life as an opportunity and not a painful payment on a voyage towards God  Lorenzo Valla argued that sensory pleasures were the highest good (Epicureanism…)  Giovanni Boccacio stressed the material, sensual in society  Popes spend resources on new buildings (St. Peter’s) and patronizing the arts  The artist takes a more prominent role in society
  14. 14. Christian Humanism  Found mostly in northern Europe  Incorporated Italian ideas within the context of their own traditions  Interested in an ethical way of life  Thomas More’s Utopia describes the idealistic society  Erasmus was the leading Christian humanist of his day
  15. 15. Christian Humanism  Desiderius Erasmus  Dutch (1466-1536)  Edited Greek New Testament  Called for reforms in the Church; broke away from Protestantism eventually  Education is the key to moral and intellectual improvement  Adhered to the “philosophy of Christ”
  16. 16. The Printed Word  Moveable metal type allows for widespread transmission of new ideas  Developed in Germany during the mid 15th century  Gutenberg’s Bible, printed in 1456  Effects?  Increased urban literacy  Development of primary schools  New universities open up and also expand market for printed materials
  17. 17. C H A P T E R 1 3 R E N A I S S A N C E 1 3 5 0 - 1 5 5 0 Art and the Artist
  18. 18. Art and Power  In early Renaissance, corporate groups (guilds) sponsor religious art  By the late 15th century, princes, merchants, bankers sponsored art to glorify themselves and their families  Urban palaces become filled with expensive art  What does this say about society?  How is the economics of the day shaping things?  How is this a fundamental change from the mindset of the medieval world?
  19. 19. Subjects and Style  Classical themes, individual portraits, and the development of realism characterize Renaissance art  Artists utilize perspective, observations of nature to portray the world around them  The human body is more naturalistic, a clear break from the styles of the medieval art  Art produced in northern Europe during 14th and 15th centuries was more religious than in Italy  Italy was exploring her classical roots  Florence dominates art in the 15th century  Rome and Venice rise to artistic prominence in 16th century
  20. 20. Patronage and Creativity  Medieval masons and artists were mechanical artisans or laborers  Renaissance artists were valued for their individuality and intellectual contributions  Artists were paid well by their patrons  Artists relished their achievements; the identity of the self is confirmed through these achievements  The concept of the artist as a genius is born  Economics change society; during the Renaissance the mercantile class takes prominent role in society
  21. 21. C H A P T E R 1 3 R E N A I S S A N C E 1 3 5 0 - 1 5 5 0 Social Hierarchies
  22. 22. Race  Ideas about race become closely associated with blood  Concept of race, as it stands today, was formed in the 18th century  Renaissance people did not make distinctions based on skin color  In the 15th century, many black slaves begin to be “imported” into Europe  Slaves served a variety of positions, some of the demand was due to the loss of life during the Plague  15th century Europeans knew very little about Africa and their cultures
  23. 23. Class  The current notion about class was developed during the 19th century  Medieval stratification had to do more with function  Those that can fight, those that can pray, and those that can work  During the Renaissance, the inherited social order becomes more fluid due to increased wealth  Social status also became tied to honor  Shame culture or guilt culture?  Cities contained the most complex and dynamic social hierarchies
  24. 24. Gender  Gender was something that didn’t surface until the women’s movement of the 1970’s  Renaissance thinkers debated the character and nature of women  During the 16th century, debate was over acceptance and role of female rulers  Concepts about men and women and their differences begin to shape actions of society  Proper gender relationships was an illustration of a well-functioning society
  25. 25. C H A P T E R 1 3 R E N A I S S A N C E 1 3 5 0 - 1 5 5 0 Politics and the State in the Renaissance ca. 1450-1521
  26. 26. France  Charles VII (1422-1461)  Created 1st permanent royal army  Set up taxes on salt and land  Allowed increased influence from middle-class men  Asserted his right to appoint bishops (Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges)
  27. 27. France  Louis XI (1461-1483)  Son of Charles VII  Fostered industry from artisans and taxed it  Used the funds to build up his army  Acquired more new territory and placed under direct crown rule
  28. 28. France  Louis XII and Anne of Brittany would be married  Brittany added to French state  Concordat of Bologna gave French kings control over church officials within France
  29. 29. England  Edward IV (1461-1483)  Ended the War of the Roses (civil war between rival baronial houses)  Henry VII (1485-1509)  Ruled largely without Parliament  Turned to his advisers who were men of lower class origins  Center of royal authority became the royal council  Established Court of the Star Chamber  Tried cases involving aristocracy, torture  Tudors won support of influential upper middle class
  30. 30. Spain  Spain was a confederation of kingdoms until 1700  Wedding of Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon centralized things  Stopped violence among nobles  Recruited middle class advisers  Secured right to appoint bishops (in Spain and in New World)
  31. 31. Spain  Anti-Semitism increased during the 14th century  In 1478, Isabella and Ferdinand invited the Inquisition  Search out and punish Jewish converts to Christianity who still practiced Judaism  Formed a racial theory  Conversos were suspect not because of their beliefs but because of who they were racially  1492 Jews are expelled from Spain