MATERIAL HANDLINGMaterial handling is the function of moving the right material to the right place in the right time, in the right amount, in sequence, and in the right condition to minimize production cost.
MATERIAL HANDLINGA material-handling system can be simply defined as an integrated system involving such activities as handling, storing, and controlling of materials. Theword material has very broad meaning, covering all kinds of raw materials, work in process, subassemblies, and finished assemblies.
MATERIAL HANDLING The primary objective of using a material handling system is to ensure that the material in the right amount is safely delivered to the desired destination at the right time and at minimum cost.
MATERIAL HANDLINGThe material handling system is properly designed not only to ensure the minimum cost and compatibility with other manufacturing equipment but also to meet safety concerns. The cost of MH estimates 20-25 of total manufacturing labor cost in the United States
GOALS OF MATERIAL HANDLING The primary goal is to reduce unit costs of production Maintain or improve product quality, reduce damage of materials Promote safety and improve working conditions
GOALS OF MATERIAL HANDLING Promote increased use of facilities Reduce tare weight (dead weight) Control inventory
GOALS OF MATERIAL HANDLING Promote productivity material should flow in a straight line use gravity! It is free power move more material at one time mechanize material handling automate material handling
GOALS OF MATERIAL HANDLING Material handling equipment includes: Transport Equipment: industrial trucks, Automated Guided vehicles (AGVs), monorails, conveyors, cranes and hoists. Storage Systems: bulk storage, rack systems, shelving and bins, drawer storage, automated storage systems. Unitizing Equipment: palletizers Identification and Tracking systems
CONSIDERATIONS IN MATERIAL HANDLING SYSTEM DESIGN 1. Material Characteristics Category MeasuresPhysical state Solid, liquid, or gasSize Volume; length, width, heightWeight Weight per piece, weight per unit volumeShape Long and flat, round, square, etc.Condition Hot, cold, wet, etc.Safety risk and risk of Explosive, flammable, toxic;damage fragile, etc.
2. Flow rateQuantity ofmaterialmoved Conveyors Conveyors High AGV train Manual handling Powered trucks Low Hand trucks Unit load AGV Short Long Move Distance
3. Plant Layout Layout Type Characteristics Typical MH EquipmentFixed – position Large product size, Cranes, hoists, low production rate industrial trucksProcess Variation in product and processing, low Hand trucks, forklift and medium trucks, AGVs production ratesProduct Limited product Conveyors for variety, high product flow, trucks production rate to deliver components to stations.
THE PLANNING PRINCIPLE Large-scale material handling projects usually require a team approach. Material handling planning considers every move, every storage need, and any delay in order to minimize production costs. The plan should reflect the strategic objectives of the organization as well as the more immediate needs.
THE SYSTEMS PRINCIPLE MH and storage activities should be fully integrated to form a coordinated, operational system that spans receiving, inspection, storage, production, assembly, …, shipping, and the handling of returns. Information flow and physical material flow should be integrated and treated as concurrent activities. Methods should be provided for easily identifying materials and products, for determining their location and status within facilities and within the supply chain.
SIMPLIFICATION PRINCIPLE simplify handling by reducing, eliminating, or combining unnecessary movement and/or equipment. Four questions to ask to simplify any job: Can this job be eliminated? If we can’t eliminate, can we combine movements to reduce cost? (unit load concept) If we can’t eliminate or combine, can we rearrange the operations to reduce the travel distance? If we can’t do any of the above, can we simplify?
GRAVITY PRINCIPLEUtilize gravity to move material whenever practical.SPACE UTILIZATION PRINCIPLEThe better we use our building cube, the less space we need to buy or rent.Racks, mezzanines, and overhead conveyors are a few examples that promote this goal.
UNIT LOAD PRINCIPLEUnit loads should be appropriately sized and configured at each stage of the supply chain.The most common unit load is the pallet cardboard pallets plastic pallets wooden pallets steel skids
AUTOMATION PRINCIPLE MH operations should be mechanized and/or automated where feasible to improve operational efficiency, increase responsiveness, improve consistency and predictability, decrease operating costs.
THE STANDARDIZATION PRINCIPLEstandardize handling methods as well as types and sizes of handling equipmenttoo many sizes and brands of equipment results in higher operational cost.A fewer sizes of carton will simplify the storage.
EQUIPMENT SELECTION PRINCIPLEWhy? What? Where? When? How? Who?If we answer these questions about each move, the solution will become evident. THE MAINTENANCE PRINCIPLE Plan for preventive maintenance and scheduled repairs of all handling equipment. Pallets and storage facilities need repair too.
THE DEAD WEIGHT PRINCIPLE Try to reduce the ratio of equipment weight to product weight. Don’t buy equipment that is bigger than necessary. Reduce tare weight and save money.THE CAPACITY PRINCIPLE use handling equipment to help achieve desired production capacity i.e. material handling equipment can help to maximize production equipment utilization.
MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT Industrial trucks include hand trucks such as two-wheeled, four-wheeled, hand lift, and forklift and powered trucks such as forklift, tractor-trailer trains, industrial crane trucks, and side loaders. Conveyors such as belt, chute, roller, wheel, slat, chain, bucket, trolley, tow, screw, vibrating, and pneumatic. Monorails, hoists, and cranes such as bridge, gantry, tower, and stacker.
MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT Automated guided vehicle systems such as unit load carriers, towing, pallet trucks, fork trucks, and assembly line. Automated storage and retrieval systems (AS/RS) such as unit load, mini-load, person-on-board, deep lane, and storage carousel systems.