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  1. 1. ECOSYSTEMPrepared by:Mr. Raymond R. Diana
  2. 2. Which of the world’s ecosystems contain therichest variety of plant and animal life? The richest variety of plant and animal life—the richest biodiversity—is found near the equator. Indonesia (Biggest Archipelago) and equatorial South America may support the highest biodiversity on land. Coral reefs in the shallow waters of tropical marine environments are also among the richest ecosystems.
  3. 3. Microecosystem which showsecologicalsuccession Hay Infusion of II- Berners (2011-2012)
  4. 4. Changes inenvironmentalconditions throughtime generally resultin the death oforganisms that arenot adapted to those conditions,and they are replaced by organismsthat can tolerate those new conditions.
  5. 5. Ecological succession in a ruralarea and/or an urban area disruption on ecological succession affects the way of life of people in rural and urban communities. Rural and urban planning affects ecological succession. The degree of effects depends on advocacy/support/promotion efforts in sustaining the restoration of natural systems and promotion of a healthy ecology.
  6. 6. Ecological Backlash Everything on Earth is somehow connected toeverything else. What one does affects another, directly or indirectly.
  7. 7. Why is biodiversity essential to thehealth of the environment?Ecosystems that lose biodiversity—therange of organisms present—become more fragile and susceptibleto collapse. This is because nospecies lives independent of otherspecies. All species areinterdependent, connected in a webof life that forms the foundation ofthe ecosystem.
  8. 8. Video footageabout ecological backlash
  9. 9. Assignment: Poster making,collage, scrapbook, videopresentation, andphotodocumentation. Refer toyour laboratory manual.
  10. 10. The Concept of Biodiversity Biodiversity refers to the variety and degree of differences among living things. It includes all microorganisms, plants and animals – from genes and species to the ecosystems that they live in and the valuable functions they perform. It has three levels, namely, – genetic diversity, species diversity and ecosystems diversity. Biodiversity has economic, ecological, social and cultural values. Hence, there is a need to conserve it.
  11. 11. Genetic Diversity No individual members of any population (except identical twins, which develop from a single egg) are exactly alike in their genetic makeup. The greater a population’s genetic diversity, the more likely it is to evolve specific traits that enable it to adapt to new environmental pressures, such as climate change or disease. In contrast, sucha pressures might drive a population with a low degree of genetic diversity to extinction.
  12. 12.  Several nations have enacted laws protecting endangered wildlife. An international treaty known as the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) went into effect in 1975 to outlaw the trade of endangered animals and animal parts.Reference: Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rightsreserved.
  13. 13. Species Diversity Butterflies and moths are native to almost every part of the globe except Antarctica and the oceans. Different biomes, such as forests, grasslands, deserts, and alpine highlands, each support distinctive arrays of butterfly and moth species. Like many groups of animals, lepidopterans reach their greatest diversity in the tropics.
  14. 14. The community has certain attributes, among them dominance and species diversity.Dominance results when one or several species control the environmental conditions that influence associated species.
  15. 15.  Ina forest, for example, the dominant species may be one or more species of trees, such as oak or spruce; in a marine community the dominant organisms frequently are animals such as mussels or oysters. Dominance can influence diversity of species in a community because diversity involves not only the number of species in a community, but also how numbers of individual species are apportioned.
  16. 16. Ecosystems Diversity Humans benefit from these smooth-functioning ecosystems in many ways. Healthy forests, streams, and wetlands contribute to clean air and clean water by trapping fast-moving air and water, enabling impurities to settle out or be converted to harmless compounds by plants or soil. The diversity of organisms, or biodiversity, in an ecosystem provides essential foods, medicines, and other materials. But as human populations increase and their encroachment on natural habitats expands, humans are having detrimental effects on the very ecosystems on which they depend.
  17. 17.  Thesurvival of natural ecosystems around the world is threatened by many human activities: a. bulldozing wetlands and clear- cutting forests—the systematic cutting of all trees in a specific area—to make room for new housing and agricultural land; b. damming rivers to harness the energy for electricity and water for irrigation; and polluting the air, soil, and water.
  18. 18. The Status of Biodiversity in One’s Locality The Philippines is one of therichest countries in the world interms of biodiversity. The countrytoday plays host to severalhabitats and ecosystems thatsupport a wide variety ofspecies.
  19. 19. The Threats and Pressures Affecting Biodiversity Despite the mega-diversitystatus of the Philippines in termsof biodiversity, it is alsoconsidered a mega-diversityhotspot because of the rapidloss of biodiversity occurring inthe country today.
  20. 20. The single greatest threat to global biodiversity is the human destruction of natural habitats.Since the invention of agriculture about 10,000 years ago, the human population has increased from approximately 5 million to a full 6 billion people.
  21. 21.  The conversion of forests, grasslands, and wetlands for agricultural purposes, coupled with the multiplication and growth of urban centers and the building of dams and canals, highways, and railways, has physically altered ecosystems to the point that extinction of species has reached its current alarming pace.
  22. 22. During that time, but especially in the past several centuries, humans have radically transformed the face of planet Earth.
  23. 23. Biodiversity Conservation Asthe scope and significance of biodiversity loss become better understood, positive steps to stem the tide of the sixth extinction have been proposed and, to some extent, adopted. Several nations have enacted laws protecting endangered wildlife.
  24. 24. References: Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Department of Education 2003